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1ـ عَلِيُّ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ بَعْضِ أَصْحَابِهِ عَنْ آدَمَ بْنِ إِسْحَاقَ عَنْ عَبْدِ الرَّزَّاقِ بْنِ مِهْرَانَ عَنِ الْحُسَيْنِ بْنِ مَيْمُونٍ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ سَالِمٍ عَنْ أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ (عَلَيهِ السَّلام) قَالَ إِنَّ [ أُ ] نَاساً تَكَلَّمُوا فِي هَذَا الْقُرْآنِ بِغَيْرِ عِلْمٍ وَذَلِكَ أَنَّ الله تَبَارَكَ وَتَعَالَى يَقُولُ هُوَ الَّذِي أَنْزَلَ عَلَيْكَ الْكِتابَ مِنْهُ آياتٌ مُحْكَماتٌ هُنَّ أُمُّ الْكِتابِ وَأُخَرُ مُتَشابِهاتٌ فَأَمَّا الَّذِينَ فِي قُلُوبِهِمْ زَيْغٌ فَيَتَّبِعُونَ ما تَشابَهَ مِنْهُ ابْتِغاءَ الْفِتْنَةِ وَابْتِغاءَ تَأْوِيلِهِ وَما يَعْلَمُ تَأْوِيلَهُ إِلا الله الآيَةَ فَالْمَنْسُوخَاتُ مِنَ الْمُتَشَابِهَاتِ وَالْمُحْكَمَاتُ مِنَ النَّاسِخَاتِ إِنَّ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ بَعَثَ نُوحاً إِلَى قَوْمِهِ أَنِ اعْبُدُوا الله وَاتَّقُوهُ وَأَطِيعُونِ ثُمَّ دَعَاهُمْ إِلَى الله وَحْدَهُ وَأَنْ يَعْبُدُوهُ وَلا يُشْرِكُوا بِهِ شَيْئاً ثُمَّ بَعَثَ الأنْبِيَاءَ (عَلَيهِم السَّلام) عَلَى ذَلِكَ إِلَى أَنْ بَلَغُوا مُحَمَّداً (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وآلِه) فَدَعَاهُمْ إِلَى أَنْ يَعْبُدُوا الله وَلا يُشْرِكُوا بِهِ شَيْئاً وَقَالَ شَرَعَ لَكُمْ مِنَ الدِّينِ ما وَصَّى بِهِ نُوحاً وَالَّذِي أَوْحَيْنا إِلَيْكَ وَما وَصَّيْنا بِهِ إِبْراهِيمَ وَمُوسى‏ وَعِيسى‏ أَنْ أَقِيمُوا الدِّينَ وَلا تَتَفَرَّقُوا فِيهِ كَبُرَ عَلَى الْمُشْرِكِينَ ما تَدْعُوهُمْ إِلَيْهِ الله يَجْتَبِي إِلَيْهِ مَنْ يَشاءُ وَيَهْدِي إِلَيْهِ مَنْ يُنِيبُ فَبَعَثَ الأنْبِيَاءَ إِلَى قَوْمِهِمْ بِشَهَادَةِ أَنْ لا إِلَهَ إِلا الله وَالإقْرَارِ بِمَا جَاءَ [ بِهِ ] مِنْ عِنْدِ الله فَمَنْ آمَنَ مُخْلِصاً وَمَاتَ عَلَى ذَلِكَ أَدْخَلَهُ الله الْجَنَّةَ بِذَلِكَ وَذَلِكَ أَنَّ الله لَيْسَ بِظَلامٍ لِلْعَبِيدِ وَذَلِكَ أَنَّ الله لَمْ يَكُنْ يُعَذِّبُ عَبْداً حَتَّى يُغَلِّظَ عَلَيْهِ فِي الْقَتْلِ وَالْمَعَاصِي الَّتِي أَوْجَبَ الله عَلَيْهِ بِهَا النَّارَ لِمَنْ عَمِلَ بِهَا فَلَمَّا اسْتَجَابَ لِكُلِّ نَبِيٍّ مَنِ اسْتَجَابَ لَهُ مِنْ قَوْمِهِ مِنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ جَعَلَ لِكُلِّ نَبِيٍّ مِنْهُمْ شِرْعَةً وَمِنْهَاجاً وَالشِّرْعَةُ وَالْمِنْهَاجُ سَبِيلٌ وَسُنَّةٌ وَقَالَ الله لِمُحَمَّدٍ (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وآلِه) إِنَّا أَوْحَيْنا إِلَيْكَ كَما أَوْحَيْنا إِلى‏ نُوحٍ وَالنَّبِيِّينَ مِنْ بَعْدِهِ وَأَمَرَ كُلَّ نَبِيٍّ بِالأخْذِ بِالسَّبِيلِ وَالسُّنَّةِ وَكَانَ مِنَ السُّنَّةِ وَالسَّبِيلِ الَّتِي أَمَرَ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ بِهَا مُوسَى (عَلَيهِ السَّلام) أَنْ جَعَلَ الله عَلَيْهِمُ السَّبْتَ وَكَانَ مِنْ أَعْظَمِ السَّبْتِ وَلَمْ يَسْتَحِلَّ أَنْ يَفْعَلَ ذَلِكَ مِنْ خَشْيَةِ الله أَدْخَلَهُ الله الْجَنَّةَ وَمَنِ اسْتَخَفَّ بِحَقِّهِ وَاسْتَحَلَّ مَا حَرَّمَ الله عَلَيْهِ مِنَ الْعَمَلِ الَّذِي نَهَاهُ الله عَنْهُ فِيهِ أَدْخَلَهُ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ النَّارَ وَذَلِكَ حَيْثُ اسْتَحَلُّوا الْحِيتَانَ وَاحْتَبَسُوهَا وَأَكَلُوهَا يَوْمَ السَّبْتِ غَضِبَ الله عَلَيْهِمْ مِنْ غَيْرِ أَنْ يَكُونُوا أَشْرَكُوا بِالرَّحْمَنِ وَلا شَكُّوا فِي شَيْ‏ءٍ مِمَّا جَاءَ بِهِ مُوسَى (عَلَيهِ السَّلام) قَالَ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ وَلَقَدْ عَلِمْتُمُ الَّذِينَ اعْتَدَوْا مِنْكُمْ فِي السَّبْتِ فَقُلْنا لَهُمْ كُونُوا قِرَدَةً خاسِئِينَ ثُمَّ بَعَثَ الله عِيسَى (عَلَيهِ السَّلام) بِشَهَادَةِ أَنْ لا إِلَهَ إِلا الله وَالإقْرَارِ بِمَا جَاءَ بِهِ مِنْ عِنْدِ الله وَجَعَلَ لَهُمْ شِرْعَةً وَمِنْهَاجاً فَهَدَمَتِ السَّبْتَ الَّذِي أُمِرُوا بِهِ أَنْ يُعَظِّمُوهُ قَبْلَ ذَلِكَ وَعَامَّةَ مَا كَانُوا عَلَيْهِ مِنَ السَّبِيلِ وَالسُّنَّةِ الَّتِي جَاءَ بِهَا مُوسَى فَمَنْ لَمْ يَتَّبِعْ سَبِيلَ عِيسَى أَدْخَلَهُ الله النَّارَ وَإِنْ كَانَ الَّذِي جَاءَ بِهِ النَّبِيُّونَ جَمِيعاً أَنْ لا يُشْرِكُوا بِالله شَيْئاً ثُمَّ بَعَثَ الله مُحَمَّداً (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وآلِه) وَهُوَ بِمَكَّةَ عَشْرَ سِنِينَ فَلَمْ يَمُتْ بِمَكَّةَ فِي تِلْكَ الْعَشْرِ سِنِينَ أَحَدٌ يَشْهَدُ أَنْ لا إِلَهَ إِلا الله وَأَنَّ مُحَمَّداً (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وآلِه) رَسُولُ الله إِلا أَدْخَلَهُ الله الْجَنَّةَ بِإِقْرَارِهِ وَهُوَ إِيمَانُ التَّصْدِيقِ وَلَمْ يُعَذِّبِ الله. أَحَداً مِمَّنْ مَاتَ وَهُوَ مُتَّبِعٌ لِمُحَمَّدٍ (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وآلِه) عَلَى ذَلِكَ إِلا مَنْ أَشْرَكَ بِالرَّحْمَنِ وَتَصْدِيقُ ذَلِكَ أَنَّ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ أَنْزَلَ عَلَيْهِ فِي سُورَةِ بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ بِمَكَّةَ وَقَضى‏ رَبُّكَ أَلا تَعْبُدُوا إِلا إِيَّاهُ وَبِالْوالِدَيْنِ إِحْساناً إِلَى قَوْلِهِ تَعَالَى إِنَّهُ كانَ بِعِبادِهِ خَبِيراً بَصِيراً أَدَبٌ وَعِظَةٌ وَتَعْلِيمٌ وَنَهْيٌ خَفِيفٌ وَلَمْ يَعِدْ عَلَيْهِ وَلَمْ يَتَوَاعَدْ عَلَى اجْتِرَاحِ شَيْ‏ءٍ مِمَّا نَهَى عَنْهُ وَأَنْزَلَ نَهْياً عَنْ أَشْيَاءَ حَذَّرَ عَلَيْهَا وَلَمْ يُغَلِّظْ فِيهَا وَلَمْ يَتَوَاعَدْ عَلَيْهَا وَقَالَ وَلا تَقْتُلُوا أَوْلادَكُمْ خَشْيَةَ إِمْلاقٍ نَحْنُ نَرْزُقُهُمْ وَإِيَّاكُمْ إِنَّ قَتْلَهُمْ كانَ خِطْأً كَبِيراً وَلا تَقْرَبُوا الزِّنى‏ إِنَّهُ كانَ فاحِشَةً وَساءَ سَبِيلاً وَلا تَقْتُلُوا النَّفْسَ الَّتِي حَرَّمَ الله إِلا بِالْحَقِّ وَمَنْ قُتِلَ مَظْلُوماً فَقَدْ جَعَلْنا لِوَلِيِّهِ سُلْطاناً فَلا يُسْرِفْ فِي الْقَتْلِ إِنَّهُ كانَ مَنْصُوراً وَلا تَقْرَبُوا مالَ الْيَتِيمِ إِلا بِالَّتِي هِيَ أَحْسَنُ حَتَّى يَبْلُغَ أَشُدَّهُ وَأَوْفُوا بِالْعَهْدِ إِنَّ الْعَهْدَ كانَ مَسْؤُلاً وَأَوْفُوا الْكَيْلَ إِذا كِلْتُمْ وَزِنُوا بِالْقِسْطاسِ الْمُسْتَقِيمِ ذلِكَ خَيْرٌ وَأَحْسَنُ تَأْوِيلاً وَلا تَقْفُ ما لَيْسَ لَكَ بِهِ عِلْمٌ إِنَّ السَّمْعَ وَالْبَصَرَ وَالْفُؤادَ كُلُّ أُولئِكَ كانَ عَنْهُ مَسْؤُلاً وَلا تَمْشِ فِي الأرْضِ مَرَحاً إِنَّكَ لَنْ تَخْرِقَ الأرْضَ وَلَنْ تَبْلُغَ الْجِبالَ طُولاً كُلُّ ذلِكَ كانَ سَيِّئُهُ عِنْدَ رَبِّكَ مَكْرُوهاً ذلِكَ مِمَّا أَوْحى‏ إِلَيْكَ رَبُّكَ مِنَ الْحِكْمَةِ وَلا تَجْعَلْ مَعَ الله إِلهاً آخَرَ فَتُلْقى‏ فِي جَهَنَّمَ مَلُوماً مَدْحُوراً وَأَنْزَلَ فِي وَاللَّيْلِ إِذَا يَغْشَى فَأَنْذَرْتُكُمْ ناراً تَلَظَّى لا يَصْلاها إِلا الأشْقَى الَّذِي كَذَّبَ وَتَوَلَّى فَهَذَا مُشْرِكٌ وَأَنْزَلَ فِي إِذَا السَّمَاءُ انْشَقَّتْ وَأَمَّا مَنْ أُوتِيَ كِتابَهُ وَراءَ ظَهْرِهِ فَسَوْفَ يَدْعُوا ثُبُوراً وَيَصْلى‏ سَعِيراً إِنَّهُ كانَ فِي أَهْلِهِ مَسْرُوراً إِنَّهُ ظَنَّ أَنْ لَنْ يَحُورَ بَلى‏ فَهَذَا مُشْرِكٌ وَأَنْزَلَ فِي [ سُورَةِ ] تَبَارَكَ كُلَّما أُلْقِيَ فِيها فَوْجٌ سَأَلَهُمْ خَزَنَتُها أَ لَمْ يَأْتِكُمْ نَذِيرٌ قالُوا بَلى‏ قَدْ جاءَنا نَذِيرٌ فَكَذَّبْنا وَقُلْنا ما نَزَّلَ الله مِنْ شَيْ‏ءٍ فَهَؤُلاءِ مُشْرِكُونَ وَأَنْزَلَ فِي الْوَاقِعَةِ وَأَمَّا إِنْ كانَ مِنَ الْمُكَذِّبِينَ الضَّالِّينَ فَنُزُلٌ مِنْ حَمِيمٍ وَتَصْلِيَةُ جَحِيمٍ فَهَؤُلاءِ مُشْرِكُونَ وَأَنْزَلَ فِي الْحَاقَّةِ وَأَمَّا مَنْ أُوتِيَ كِتابَهُ بِشِمالِهِ فَيَقُولُ يا لَيْتَنِي لَمْ أُوتَ كِتابِيَهْ وَلَمْ أَدْرِ ما حِسابِيَهْ يا لَيْتَها كانَتِ الْقاضِيَةَ ما أَغْنى‏ عَنِّي مالِيَهْ إِلَى قَوْلِهِ إِنَّهُ كانَ لا يُؤْمِنُ بِالله الْعَظِيمِ فَهَذَا مُشْرِكٌ وَأَنْزَلَ فِي طسم. وَبُرِّزَتِ الْجَحِيمُ لِلْغاوِينَ وَقِيلَ لَهُمْ أَيْنَ ما كُنْتُمْ تَعْبُدُونَ مِنْ دُونِ الله هَلْ يَنْصُرُونَكُمْ أَوْ يَنْتَصِرُونَ فَكُبْكِبُوا فِيها هُمْ وَالْغاوُونَ وَجُنُودُ إِبْلِيسَ أَجْمَعُونَ جُنُودُ إِبْلِيسَ ذُرِّيَّتُهُ مِنَ الشَّيَاطِينِ وَقَوْلُهُ وَما أَضَلَّنا إِلا الْمُجْرِمُونَ يَعْنِي الْمُشْرِكِينَ الَّذِينَ اقْتَدَوْا بِهِمْ هَؤُلاءِ فَاتَّبَعُوهُمْ عَلَى شِرْكِهِمْ وَهُمْ قَوْمُ مُحَمَّدٍ (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وآلِه) لَيْسَ فِيهِمْ مِنَ الْيَهُودِ وَالنَّصَارَى أَحَدٌ وَتَصْدِيقُ ذَلِكَ قَوْلُ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ كَذَّبَتْ قَبْلَهُمْ قَوْمُ نُوحٍ كَذَّبَ أَصْحابُ الأيْكَةِ كَذَّبَتْ قَوْمُ لُوطٍ لَيْسَ فِيهِمُ الْيَهُودُ الَّذِينَ قَالُوا عُزَيْرٌ ابْنُ الله وَلا النَّصَارَى الَّذِينَ قَالُوا الْمَسِيحُ ابْنُ الله سَيُدْخِلُ الله الْيَهُودَ وَالنَّصَارَى النَّارَ وَيُدْخِلُ كُلَّ قَوْمٍ بِأَعْمَالِهِمْ وَقَوْلُهُمْ وَما أَضَلَّنا إِلا الْمُجْرِمُونَ إِذْ دَعَوْنَا إِلَى سَبِيلِهِمْ ذَلِكَ قَوْلُ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ فِيهِمْ حِينَ جَمَعَهُمْ إِلَى النَّارِ قالَتْ أُخْراهُمْ لأولاهُمْ رَبَّنا هؤُلاءِ أَضَلُّونا فَ‏آتِهِمْ عَذاباً ضِعْفاً مِنَ النَّارِ وَقَوْلُهُ كُلَّما دَخَلَتْ أُمَّةٌ لَعَنَتْ أُخْتَها حَتَّى إِذَا ادَّارَكُوا فِيها جَمِيعاً بَرِئَ بَعْضُهُمْ مِنْ بَعْضٍ وَلَعَنَ بَعْضُهُمْ بَعْضاً يُرِيدُ بَعْضُهُمْ أَنْ يَحُجَّ بَعْضاً رَجَاءَ الْفَلْجِ فَيُفْلِتُوا مِنْ عَظِيمِ مَا نَزَلَ بِهِمْ وَلَيْسَ بِأَوَانِ بَلْوَى وَلا اخْتِبَارٍ وَلا قَبُولِ مَعْذِرَةٍ وَلاتَ حِينَ نَجَاةٍ وَالآيَاتُ وَأَشْبَاهُهُنَّ مِمَّا نَزَلَ بِهِ بِمَكَّةَ وَلا يُدْخِلُ الله النَّارَ إِلا مُشْرِكاً فَلَمَّا أَذِنَ الله لِمُحَمَّدٍ (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وآلِه) فِي الْخُرُوجِ مِنْ مَكَّةَ إِلَى الْمَدِينَةِ بَنَى الإسْلامَ عَلَى خَمْسٍ شَهَادَةِ أَنْ لا إِلَهَ إِلا الله وَأَنَّ مُحَمَّداً (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وآلِه) عَبْدُهُ وَرَسُولُهُ وَإِقَامِ الصَّلاةِ وَإِيتَاءِ الزَّكَاةِ وَحِجِّ الْبَيْتِ وَصِيَامِ شَهْرِ رَمَضَانَ وَأَنْزَلَ عَلَيْهِ الْحُدُودَ وَقِسْمَةَ الْفَرَائِضِ وَأَخْبَرَهُ بِالْمَعَاصِي الَّتِي أَوْجَبَ الله عَلَيْهَا وَبِهَا النَّارَ لِمَنْ عَمِلَ بِهَا وَأَنْزَلَ فِي بَيَانِ الْقَاتِلِ وَمَنْ يَقْتُلْ مُؤْمِناً مُتَعَمِّداً فَجَزاؤُهُ جَهَنَّمُ خالِداً فِيها وَغَضِبَ الله عَلَيْهِ وَلَعَنَهُ وَأَعَدَّ لَهُ عَذاباً عَظِيماً وَلا يَلْعَنُ الله مُؤْمِناً قَالَ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ إِنَّ الله لَعَنَ الْكافِرِينَ وَأَعَدَّ لَهُمْ سَعِيراً خالِدِينَ فِيها أَبَداً لا يَجِدُونَ وَلِيًّا وَلا نَصِيراً وَكَيْفَ يَكُونُ فِي الْمَشِيئَةِ وَقَدْ أَلْحَقَ بِهِ حِينَ جَزَاهُ جَهَنَّمَ الْغَضَبَ وَاللَّعْنَةَ وَقَدْ بَيَّنَ ذَلِكَ مَنِ الْمَلْعُونُونَ فِي كِتَابِهِ وَأَنْزَلَ فِي مَالِ الْيَتِيمِ مَنْ أَكَلَهُ ظُلْماً إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يَأْكُلُونَ أَمْوالَ الْيَتامى‏ ظُلْماً إِنَّما يَأْكُلُونَ فِي بُطُونِهِمْ ناراً وَسَيَصْلَوْنَ سَعِيراً وَذَلِكَ أَنَّ آكِلَ مَالِ الْيَتِيمِ يَجِي‏ءُ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ وَالنَّارُ تَلْتَهِبُ فِي بَطْنِهِ حَتَّى يَخْرُجَ لَهَبُ النَّارِ مِنْ فِيهِ حَتَّى يَعْرِفَهُ كُلُّ أَهْلِ الْجَمْعِ أَنَّهُ آكِلُ مَالِ الْيَتِيمِ وَأَنْزَلَ فِي الْكَيْلِ وَيْلٌ لِلْمُطَفِّفِينَ وَلَمْ يَجْعَلِ الْوَيْلَ لأحَدٍ حَتَّى يُسَمِّيَهُ كَافِراً قَالَ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ فَوَيْلٌ لِلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا مِنْ مَشْهَدِ يَوْمٍ عَظِيمٍ وَأَنْزَلَ فِي الْعَهْدِ إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يَشْتَرُونَ بِعَهْدِ الله وَأَيْمانِهِمْ ثَمَناً قَلِيلاً أُولئِكَ لا خَلاقَ لَهُمْ فِي الآخِرَةِ وَلا يُكَلِّمُهُمُ الله وَلا يَنْظُرُ إِلَيْهِمْ يَوْمَ الْقِيامَةِ وَلا يُزَكِّيهِمْ وَلَهُمْ عَذابٌ أَلِيمٌ وَالْخَلاقُ النَّصِيبُ فَمَنْ لَمْ يَكُنْ لَهُ نَصِيبٌ فِي الآخِرَةِ فَبِأَيِّ شَيْ‏ءٍ يَدْخُلُ الْجَنَّةَ وَأَنْزَلَ بِالْمَدِينَةِ الزَّانِي لا يَنْكِحُ إِلا زانِيَةً أَوْ مُشْرِكَةً وَالزَّانِيَةُ لا يَنْكِحُها إِلا زانٍ أَوْ مُشْرِكٌ وَحُرِّمَ ذلِكَ عَلَى الْمُؤْمِنِينَ فَلَمْ يُسَمِّ الله الزَّانِيَ مُؤْمِناً وَلا الزَّانِيَةَ مُؤْمِنَةً وَقَالَ رَسُولُ الله (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وآلِه) لَيْسَ يَمْتَرِي فِيهِ أَهْلُ الْعِلْمِ أَنَّهُ قَالَ لا يَزْنِي الزَّانِي حِينَ يَزْنِي وَهُوَ مُؤْمِنٌ وَلا يَسْرِقُ السَّارِقُ حِينَ يَسْرِقُ وَهُوَ مُؤْمِنٌ فَإِنَّهُ إِذَا فَعَلَ ذَلِكَ خُلِعَ عَنْهُ الإيمَانُ كَخَلْعِ الْقَمِيصِ وَنَزَلَ بِالْمَدِينَةِ وَالَّذِينَ يَرْمُونَ الْمُحْصَناتِ ثُمَّ لَمْ يَأْتُوا بِأَرْبَعَةِ شُهَداءَ فَاجْلِدُوهُمْ ثَمانِينَ جَلْدَةً وَلا تَقْبَلُوا لَهُمْ شَهادَةً أَبَداً وَأُولئِكَ هُمُ الْفاسِقُونَ إِلا الَّذِينَ تابُوا مِنْ بَعْدِ ذلِكَ وَأَصْلَحُوا فَإِنَّ الله غَفُورٌ رَحِيمٌ فَبَرَّأَهُ الله مَا كَانَ مُقِيماً عَلَى الْفِرْيَةِ مِنْ أَنْ يُسَمَّى بِالإيمَانِ قَالَ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ أَ فَمَنْ كانَ مُؤْمِناً كَمَنْ كانَ فاسِقاً لا يَسْتَوُونَ وَجَعَلَهُ الله مُنَافِقاً قَالَ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ إِنَّ الْمُنافِقِينَ هُمُ الْفاسِقُونَ وَجَعَلَهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ مِنْ أَوْلِيَاءِ إِبْلِيسَ قَالَ إِلا إِبْلِيسَ كانَ مِنَ الْجِنِّ فَفَسَقَ عَنْ أَمْرِ رَبِّهِ وَجَعَلَهُ مَلْعُوناً فَقَالَ إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يَرْمُونَ الْمُحْصَناتِ الْغافِلاتِ الْمُؤْمِناتِ لُعِنُوا فِي الدُّنْيا وَالآخِرَةِ وَلَهُمْ عَذابٌ عَظِيمٌ يَوْمَ تَشْهَدُ عَلَيْهِمْ أَلْسِنَتُهُمْ وَأَيْدِيهِمْ وَأَرْجُلُهُمْ بِما كانُوا يَعْمَلُونَ وَلَيْسَتْ تَشْهَدُ الْجَوَارِحُ عَلَى مُؤْمِنٍ إِنَّمَا تَشْهَدُ عَلَى مَنْ حَقَّتْ عَلَيْهِ كَلِمَةُ الْعَذَابِ فَأَمَّا الْمُؤْمِنُ فَيُعْطَى كِتَابَهُ بِيَمِينِهِ قَالَ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ فَأَمَّا مَنْ أُوتِيَ كِتابَهُ بِيَمِينِهِ فَأُولئِكَ يَقْرَؤُنَ كِتابَهُمْ وَلا يُظْلَمُونَ فَتِيلاً وَسُورَةُ. النُّورِ أُنْزِلَتْ بَعْدَ سُورَةِ النِّسَاءِ وَتَصْدِيقُ ذَلِكَ أَنَّ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ أَنْزَلَ عَلَيْهِ فِي سُورَةِ النِّسَاءِ وَاللاتِي يَأْتِينَ الْفاحِشَةَ مِنْ نِسائِكُمْ فَاسْتَشْهِدُوا عَلَيْهِنَّ أَرْبَعَةً مِنْكُمْ فَإِنْ شَهِدُوا فَأَمْسِكُوهُنَّ فِي الْبُيُوتِ حَتَّى يَتَوَفَّاهُنَّ الْمَوْتُ أَوْ يَجْعَلَ الله لَهُنَّ سَبِيلاً وَالسَّبِيلُ الَّذِي قَالَ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ سُورَةٌ أَنْزَلْناها وَفَرَضْناها وَأَنْزَلْنا فِيها آياتٍ بَيِّناتٍ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَذَكَّرُونَ الزَّانِيَةُ وَالزَّانِي فَاجْلِدُوا كُلَّ واحِدٍ مِنْهُما مِائَةَ جَلْدَةٍ وَلا تَأْخُذْكُمْ بِهِما رَأْفَةٌ فِي دِينِ الله إِنْ كُنْتُمْ تُؤْمِنُونَ بِالله وَالْيَوْمِ الآخِرِ وَلْيَشْهَدْ عَذابَهُما طائِفَةٌ مِنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ.


1. Ali ibn Muhammad has narrated from certain persons of his people from Adam ibn Ishaq from ‘Abd al-Razzaq from ibn Mihran from al-Husayn ibn Maymun from Muhammad ibn Salim from abu Ja’far (a.s.) who has said the following: “Abu Ja’far (a.s.) has said, ‘Certain people have spoken from this Holy Quran without knowledge. It is because Allah, the Most Holy, the Most High, has said, “It is Allah Who has revealed the Book to you in which certain verses are clear statements (that accept no interpretation), and these are the fundamental ideas of the Book, while other verses may have several possibilities. Those whose hearts are perverse follow the unclear statements in pursuit of their own mischievous goals by interpreting them in a way that will suit their own purpose. No one knows its true interpretations except Allah, and those who have a firm grounding in knowledge say, ‘We believe in it. All its verses are from our Lord.’ No one can grasp this fact except the people of reason.” (3:7) ‘The suspended verses are of the unclear ones and the verses whose meaning can clearly be understood are of the suspending ones. Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Holy, sent Prophet Noah to his people who said to them, “Worship Allah, have fear of Him and obey me” (71:3). He then called them to Allah alone to worship Him only and not to take any partners for Him. Thereafter He sent the prophets until (their coming ended with) Muhammad, recipient of divine supreme covenant. He invited people to worship Allah only and not to take partners for Him. And He said, “He has plainly clarified the religion which is revealed to you and that which Noah, Abraham, Moses, and Jesus were commanded to follow (He has explained it) so that you may remain steadfast and united in your religion. What you call the pagans to is extremely grave for them. Allah attracts (to the religion) whomever He wants and guides to it whoever turns to Him with repentance.” (42:13) ‘He sent the prophets to their people with the testimony that stated, “No one deserves to be worshipped except Allah and that whatever every one (of the prophets) has brought is from Allah.” Those who sincerely accepted the faith and died with what they had accepted, Allah, through this will, admit them in paradise. Allah is not unjust to His servants, and Allah will not punish a servant unless he intensely sins such as committing murder or the sins for which Allah has made it clear that perpetrators thereof go to hell. When the believers of the people of each prophet followed them He gave them a system of laws and guidance. Al-Shari’a is a system, a path and tradition. Allah said to Prophet Muhammad, “(Muhammad), We have sent revelations to you just as were sent to Noah and the prophets who lived after him . . .” (4:163). Allah commanded every prophet to follow the path and the tradition. Of the traditions that Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Holy, commanded Moses to follow was al-Sabbath. Those who observed its greatness and did not violate it out of respect for Allah, Allah admitted them to paradise. Those who violated its sanctity and considered lawful what Allah had made unlawful and prohibited, Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Holy, sent them to hellfire for their making fishing lawful. They captured fish and ate them on Sabbath. Allah showed anger toward them even though they had not taken anyone as partners of the Beneficent or doubted the truth of what Moses had brought. Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Holy, has said, “You certainly knew about those among you who were transgressors on the Sabbath. We commanded them, ‘Become detested apes . . (2:65) Then Allah sent Jesus with the testimony that said, “No one deserves to be worshipped except Allah and all that he (Jesus) had brought was from Allah.’’ He made for them a system of law and a path. He abolished the Sabbath for which they, before, were commanded to pay respect and the ways and traditions that Moses had brought. Whoever did not follow Jesus, Allah sent them to fire, although all that the prophets had said was that no one must be considered as a partner of Allah. Then He sent Prophet Muhammad and for the ten years that he lived in Makka everyone who testified to the fact that “No one deserves to be worshipped except Allah, and that Muhammad is His messenger” Allah admitted him to paradise just because of his affirmation. It was belief and affirmation. Allah did not punish anyone of those who died following Muhammad in that matter except those who took partners for the Beneficent. Evidence of this is what Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Holy, has revealed in Chapter 17 in Makka). “Your Lord has ordained that you must not worship anything other than Him and that you must be kind to your parents ... He is Well-aware and watches over His servants.” (17:30) ‘It (besides belief in Allah) is discipline, advice and education. It (law) is a light prohibition and there is no warning about it and there is no warning against violating what is prohibited. He has revealed prohibitions of certain matters without warning (for issues less serious than disbelief) saying: “Do not kill your children for fear of poverty. We will give sustenance to all of you. To kill them is certainly a great sin. (17:31) “Do not even approach adultery. It is indecent and an evil act. (17:32) “Do not kill a respectable soul without a just cause. If anyone is wrongfully killed, We have given the heirs of that person the right (to demand satisfaction or to forgive). He must not exceed the law in having vengeance; law shall also assist his victim. (17:33) “Do not get close to the property of the orphans (unless it is for a good reason) until they are mature and strong. Keep your promise; you will be questioned about it. (17:34) “While weighing, use proper measurements in the exchange of your property. This is fair and will be better in the end. (17:35) “Do not follow what you do not know; the ears, eyes, and hearts will all be held responsible for their deeds. (17:36) “Do not walk proudly on the earth; your feet cannot tear apart the earth nor are you as tall as the mountains (17:37). All such things are sins and detestable in the sight of your Lord. (17:38) “(Muhammad), these are words of wisdom, which your Lord has revealed to you. Do not consider anything equal to Allah lest you be thrown into hell, despised, and driven away from Allah’s mercy.” (17:39) ‘(About more serious issues) Allah has also said, “By the night when it covers the day. (92:1) I have warned you about the fierce blazing fire (14) in which no one will suffer forever (15) except the wicked ones who have rejected the (Truth) and have turned away from it.” (92:16) ‘This (the wicked) is a pagan and in Chapter 84 Allah has said, “But as for those whose Book of Records will be given behind their backs, (84:10) they will say, ‘Woe to us!’ (11). They will suffer the heat of hellfire (12). They lived among their people joyfully (13) and had thought that they would never be brought back to life again.” (84:14) ‘This (one rejecting the Day of Judgment) is a pagan and in Chapter 67 Allah has said, “Whenever a group is thrown into it (hell), its keepers will ask them, ‘Did no one come to warn you? (67:8) “They will say, ‘Yes, someone did come to warn us, but we rejected him saying, “Allah has revealed nothing. You are in great error.”’ (67:9) ‘These are pagans and in Chapter 56 Allah has said, “If he is of those who have rejected the Truth and have gone astray, (56:92) the dwelling (for him) will be (in) boiling water (93) and the heat of hellfire.” (94) ‘These also are pagans. In Chapter 69 Allah has said, “However, one who will receive the book of the records of his deeds in his left hand will say, ‘I wish that this record was never given to me (69:25) and that I never known what my records contained. (26) Would that death had taken me away for good. (27) My wealth has been of no benefit to me (28) ... he did not believe in Allah, the Great . . .’ (69:33) ‘This also is a pagan, and in Chapter 26 Allah has said, “. . . hell will be left open for the rebellious ones (26:91) who will be asked, ‘What did you worship (26:92) besides Allah? Will the idols help you? Can they help themselves? (26:93). The idol worshippers, the idols, the rebellious ones, (26:94) and the army of Satan will all be thrown headlong into hell.’” (26:95) The army of Satan and his descendents are of the devils (Shayatin) ‘Allah’s words, “Only the sinful ones made us go astray,” (26:99) refers to pagans whom they had followed in their pagan manners and they were of the people of Prophet Muhammad (a.s.) of whom no one was a Jew or a Christian. Evidence of this is the words of Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Holy, in Chapter 38 verse 12, “The people of Noah then rejected our messengers.” “The dwellers of the forest also rejected the Messengers.” (26:176) “The people of Lot rejected the Messengers.” (26:160) ‘Among them there is no one of the Jews who considered ‘Uzayr as the son of Allah or of the Christians who considered Jesus as the son of Allah. Allah will send (such) Jews and Christians to fire as well as those who had acted similarly. It comes from their own word, “Only the sinful ones made us go astray,” (26:99) they invited us to their ways. ‘Evidence of this (more serious sins) is the words of Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Holy, about them on their being brought together in fire, “The last group will accuse the first saying, ‘Lord, they made us go astray. Therefore, double their torment in the Fire . . .’” (7:38) They will condemn and accuse each other. They argue in the hope of winning but there will be no winning, trial or acceptance of excuses and there will be no way to safety. Such verses and similar other ones were revealed in Makka. Allah does not send to fire anyone except the pagans. ‘When Allah granted Muhammad permission to leave Makka for Madina he spoke of Islam having five principles: ‘To testify that no one deserves to be worshipped except Allah, that Muhammad is His servant and His messenger, that performing the prayer, paying al-Zakat (charity), Hajj of the House and fasting in the month of Ramadan are obligatory. That Allah sent to him judicial rules, and the rules for the distribution of inheritance, and informed him of the sins for which Allah has made it obligatory to punish in fire those who commit such sins. About the murder He has revealed, “The punishment for one who purposely slays a believer will be to live in hellfire forever. Allah is angry with him and has condemned him. He has prepared for him a great torment.” (4:93) ‘Allah does not condemn the believers. Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Holy, has said, “Allah has condemned the unbelievers and prepared for them a burning torment (33:64) wherein they will live forever without being able to find any guardian or helper.” (33:65) ‘Committing murder does not come from His wish; His anger and condemnation apply to the murderer by sending him to fire. In the book he (murderer) is condemned. About the properties of the orphans that are consumed unjustly He has said, “Those who wrongfully consume the property of orphans are, in fact, consuming fire in their bellies and they will suffer the blazing fire.” (4: 10) ‘On the Day of Judgment, those who consume such properties unjustly will come when fire will be blazing in their bellies so much so that it will come out of their mouth. All the people in the gathering will learn that they are wrongful consumer of orphan’s properties. ‘About measurement for transactions He has said, “ Wayl , a place in hell, is for those who do not maintain proper measurement.” (83:2) He has not said that Wayl is for any kinds of people other than those whom He has called to be of those who reject the faith. Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Holy, has said, “Wayl ’is for those who reject faith and belief. The unbelievers shall face a woeful condition on the great Day (of Judgment).” (19:37) ‘About the covenant Allah has said: “Those who sell their covenant with Allah and their promises for a small price will have no share in the life hereafter. Allah on the Day of Judgment will not speak to them nor will He look at them nor will He purify them. They will face a painful torment.” (3:77) ‘If someone will have no share on the Day of Judgment then by what means would he enter paradise? ‘The following was revealed in Madina. “No one should marry a (male) fornicator except a (female) fornicator or a pagan woman. No one should marry a (female) fornicator except a (male) fornicator or a pagan man. Such (marriage) is unlawful to the believers.” (24:3) ‘Allah has not called a male or female fornicator a believer. People of knowledge do not doubt what the Messenger of Allah has said to them: “At the time of committing fornication a male or female is not a believer, a thief, male or female is not a believer at the time of committing theft and if one does commit theft one is devoid of belief. It is like a shirt removed from one’s body.” The following verse of the Quran was revealed in Madina: “Those who accuse married women of committing adultery, but are not able to prove their accusation by producing four witness, must be flogged eighty lashes. Never accept their testimony thereafter; they are sinful, (24:4) except that of those who afterwards repent and reform themselves; Allah is All- forgiving and All-merciful.” (24:5) ‘Allah has not called an accuser a believer. Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Holy, has said, “Is a believer equal to an evildoer? They are not equal at all.” (32:18) ‘Allah had made him a hypocrite. As Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Holy, has said, “The hypocrites indeed are evildoers.” (9:67) ‘Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Holy, has made them of the friends of Satan as He has said, . . except lblis. He was a Jinn and he sinned against the command of his Lord. . . .” (18:50) ‘Allah called him ‘condemned’ in his words, “Those who slander the unaware but chaste and believing women (of committing unlawful carnal relations) are condemned in this life and in the life hereafter. They will suffer a great punishment (24:23) on the day when their tongues, hands and feet will testify to what they have done.” (24:24) ‘Parts of the body do not testify against a believer. They testify against those who have become subject to punishment. However, the believers will receive the book of their account in their right hand as Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Holy, has said, “. . . those whose records of deeds are given to their right hands will read the book and the least wrong will not be done to them.” (17:71) ‘Chapter 24 was revealed after Chapter 4. There is evidence for this in what Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Holy, sent down to him (Muhammad) in Chapter 4 as follows: “Agaisnt those of your women who commit fornication, let four (Muslim) witness testify to their act. If there is sufficient testimony, confine them to their homes until they die, or until Allah provides a way for their freedom.” (4:15) ‘The path is what Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Holy, has said, “This is a Chapter which We have revealed to you and made obligatory for you to following its guidance. We have revealed clear verses in it so that perhaps you may take heed. (24:1) “Flog the (female) fornicator and the (male) fornicator with a hundred lashes each. Let there be no reluctance in enforcing the laws of Allah, if you have faith in Allah and the Day of Judgment. Let it take place in the presence of a group of believers.”’” (24:2)


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مجهول - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (7/164)



2ـ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ إِسْمَاعِيلَ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ فُضَيْلٍ عَنْ أَبِي الصَّبَّاحِ الْكِنَانِيِّ عَنْ أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ (عَلَيهِ السَّلام) قَالَ قِيلَ لأمِيرِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ (عَلَيهِ السَّلام) مَنْ شَهِدَ أَنْ لا إِلَهَ إِلا الله وَأَنَّ مُحَمَّداً رَسُولُ الله (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وآلِه) كَانَ مُؤْمِناً قَالَ فَأَيْنَ فَرَائِضُ الله قَالَ وَسَمِعْتُهُ يَقُولُ كَانَ عَلِيٌّ (عَلَيهِ السَّلام) يَقُولُ لَوْ كَانَ الإيمَانُ كَلاماً لَمْ يَنْزِلْ فِيهِ صَوْمٌ وَلا صَلاةٌ وَلا حَلالٌ وَلا حَرَامٌ قَالَ وَقُلْتُ لأبِي جَعْفَرٍ (عَلَيهِ السَّلام) إِنَّ عِنْدَنَا قَوْماً يَقُولُونَ إِذَا شَهِدَ أَنْ لا إِلَهَ إِلا الله وَأَنَّ مُحَمَّداً رَسُولُ الله (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وآلِه) فَهُوَ مُؤْمِنٌ قَالَ فَلِمَ يُضْرَبُونَ الْحُدُودَ وَلِمَ تُقْطَعُ أَيْدِيهِمْ وَمَا خَلَقَ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ خَلْقاً أَكْرَمَ عَلَى الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ مِنَ الْمُؤْمِنِ لأنَّ الْمَلائِكَةَ خُدَّامُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَأَنَّ جِوَارَ الله لِلْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَأَنَّ الْجَنَّةَ لِلْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَأَنَّ الْحُورَ الْعِينَ لِلْمُؤْمِنِينَ ثُمَّ قَالَ فَمَا بَالُ مَنْ جَحَدَ الْفَرَائِضَ كَانَ كَافِراً.


2. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from Muhammad ibn Isma’il from Muhammad ibn Fudayl from abu al-Sabbah al- Kinani from abu la’ far (a.s.) who has said the following: “Amir al-Mu’minin (Ali ibn abu Talib) was asked, ‘Is one who testifies that no one deserves to be worshipped except Allah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, a believer?’ The Imam said, ‘Wherefore, then, are the obligations toward Allah?’ “I (the narrator) heard the Imam saying, ‘Ali (a.s.) would say, “Had belief been just ‘asserted words’ nothing about fasting, prayer, lawful and unlawful matters would have been needed to come down (from heaven).”’ He has said, ‘I reported to abu Ja’far (a.s.) “We know a people who say that upon saying, ‘No one deserves to be worshipped except Allah and Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah,’ one becomes a believer.” The Imam said, ‘Is it then that (there is no need) to apply any judicial rules to them, like the rules about theft? Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Holy, has not created any creature more honorable to Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Holy, than a believer. The angels serve the believers; they are near Allah, that paradise is for the believers; that spouses with large black eyes are for the believers.’ He then said, ‘Do they, who reject the obligations, know that they are unbelievers?”’


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مجهول - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (206/ 7)



3ـ عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ يُونُسَ عَنْ سَلامٍ الْجُعْفِيِّ قَالَ سَأَلْتُ أَبَا عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيهِ السَّلام) عَنِ الإيمَانِ فَقَالَ الإيمَانُ أَنْ يُطَاعَ الله فَلا يُعْصَى.


3. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from Muhammad ibn ‘Isa from Yunus from Salam al-Ju’fly who has said the following: “Once I asked abu ‘Aabd Allah (a.s.) about belief. He said, ‘Belief is whereby Allah is obeyed and (with it) one does not commit sins.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مجهول - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (7/208)