16. Another Chapter on the Same Issue That Islam Is Before Belief

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1ـ عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنِ الْعَبَّاسِ بْنِ مَعْرُوفٍ عَنْ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنِ أَبِي نَجْرَانَ عَنْ حَمَّادِ بْنِ عُثْمَانَ عَنْ عَبْدِ الرَّحِيمِ الْقَصِيرِ قَالَ كَتَبْتُ مَعَ عَبْدِ الْمَلِكِ بْنِ أَعْيَنَ إِلَى أَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيهِ السَّلام) أَسْأَلُهُ عَنِ الإيمَانِ مَا هُوَ فَكَتَبَ إِلَيَّ مَعَ عَبْدِ الْمَلِكِ بْنِ أَعْيَنَ سَأَلْتَ رَحِمَكَ الله عَنِ الإيمَانِ وَالإيمَانُ هُوَ الإقْرَارُ بِاللِّسَانِ وَعَقْدٌ فِي الْقَلْبِ وَعَمَلٌ بِالأرْكَانِ وَالإيمَانُ بَعْضُهُ مِنْ بَعْضٍ وَهُوَ دَارٌ وَكَذَلِكَ الإسْلامُ دَارٌ وَالْكُفْرُ دَارٌ فَقَدْ يَكُونُ الْعَبْدُ مُسْلِماً قَبْلَ أَنْ يَكُونَ مُؤْمِناً وَلا يَكُونُ مُؤْمِناً حَتَّى يَكُونَ مُسْلِماً فَالإسْلامُ قَبْلَ الإيمَانِ وَهُوَ يُشَارِكُ الإيمَانَ فَإِذَا أَتَى الْعَبْدُ كَبِيرَةً مِنْ كَبَائِرِ الْمَعَاصِي أَوْ صَغِيرَةً مِنْ صَغَائِرِ الْمَعَاصِي الَّتِي نَهَى الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ عَنْهَا كَانَ خَارِجاً مِنَ الإيمَانِ سَاقِطاً عَنْهُ اسْمُ الإيمَانِ وَثَابِتاً عَلَيْهِ اسْمُ الإسْلامِ فَإِنْ تَابَ وَاسْتَغْفَرَ عَادَ إِلَى دَارِ الإيمَانِ وَلا يُخْرِجُهُ إِلَى الْكُفْرِ إِلا الْجُحُودُ وَالإسْتِحْلالُ أَنْ يَقُولَ لِلْحَلالِ هَذَا حَرَامٌ وَلِلْحَرَامِ هَذَا حَلالٌ وَدَانَ بِذَلِكَ فَعِنْدَهَا يَكُونُ خَارِجاً مِنَ الإسْلامِ وَالإيمَانِ دَاخِلاً فِي الْكُفْرِ وَكَانَ بِمَنْزِلَةِ مَنْ دَخَلَ الْحَرَمَ ثُمَّ دَخَلَ الْكَعْبَةَ وَأَحْدَثَ فِي الْكَعْبَةِ حَدَثاً فَأُخْرِجَ عَنِ الْكَعْبَةِ وَعَنِ الْحَرَمِ فَضُرِبَتْ عُنُقُهُ وَصَارَ إِلَى النَّارِ.


1. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from ‘Abbas ibn al-Ma’ruf from ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn abu Najaran from Hammad ibn ‘Uthman from ‘Abd al-Rahim al-Qusayr who has said the following: “Abd al-Malik ibn A’yan and I wrote to abu ‘Abd Allah (a.s.) asking him, ‘What is belief?’ He then wrote to us. ‘You, may Allah grant you favors, have asked about belief. Belief is affirmation, with the tongue, that is established in the heart and by the deeds of the body. Beliefs are from each other. Belief is a house. So also, Islam is a house. Rejection (of Islam) is a house. Sometimes a servant (of Allah) is a Muslim before he becomes a believer but he cannot become a believer before becoming a Muslim. Therefore, Islam is before belief and it shares belief. Whenever a servant (of Allah) commits one of the major sins or one of the minor sins that Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Holy, has prohibited he is out of belief and belief falls off of him but the name ‘Muslim’ still applies to him. When he repents and asks forgiveness he returns to the house of belief. Nothing takes him out to rejection but rejection of what is lawful, such as saying to what is lawful, ‘It is unlawful’ or saying lawful to what is unlawful and living thereby (such attitude) as a religion. In such a case one is out of Islam and belief and is in rejection. It is like one’s entering the Sacred Mosque then the Holy Ka’ba wherein he invents an act of heresy. He then is taken out of the Holy Ka’ba and the Sacred precinct and is decapitated and that turns him to hell (for his act of defiant and treachery).”’


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مجهول - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (159/ 7)



2ـ عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ عُثْمَانَ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ سَمَاعَةَ بْنِ مِهْرَانَ قَالَ سَأَلْتُهُ عَنِ الإيمَانِ وَالإسْلامِ قُلْتُ لَهُ أَ فَرْقٌ بَيْنَ الإسْلامِ وَالإيمَانِ قَالَ فَأَضْرِبُ لَكَ مَثَلَهُ قَالَ قُلْتُ أَوْرِدْ ذَلِكَ قَالَ مَثَلُ الإيمَانِ وَالإسْلامِ مَثَلُ الْكَعْبَةِ الْحَرَامِ مِنَ الْحَرَمِ قَدْ يَكُونُ فِي الْحَرَمِ وَلا يَكُونُ فِي الْكَعْبَةِ وَلا يَكُونُ فِي الْكَعْبَةِ حَتَّى يَكُونَ فِي الْحَرَمِ وَقَدْ يَكُونُ مُسْلِماً وَلا يَكُونُ مُؤْمِناً وَلا يَكُونُ مُؤْمِناً حَتَّى يَكُونَ مُسْلِماً قَالَ قُلْتُ فَيُخْرِجُ مِنَ الإيمَانِ شَيْ‏ءٌ قَالَ نَعَمْ قُلْتُ فَيُصَيِّرُهُ إِلَى مَا ذَا قَالَ إِلَى الإسْلامِ أَوِ الْكُفْرِ وَقَالَ لَوْ أَنَّ رَجُلاً دَخَلَ الْكَعْبَةَ فَأَفْلَتَ مِنْهُ بَوْلُهُ أُخْرِجَ مِنَ الْكَعْبَةِ وَلَمْ يُخْرَجْ مِنَ الْحَرَمِ فَغَسَلَ ثَوْبَهُ وَتَطَهَّرَ ثُمَّ لَمْ يُمْنَعْ أَنْ يَدْخُلَ الْكَعْبَةَ وَلَوْ أَنَّ رَجُلاً دَخَلَ الْكَعْبَةَ فَبَالَ فِيهَا مُعَانِداً أُخْرِجَ مِنَ الْكَعْبَةِ وَمِنَ الْحَرَمِ وَضُرِبَتْ عُنُقُهُ.


2. A number of our people have narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from ‘Uthman ibn ‘Isa from Sama’a ibn Mihran who has said the following: “I asked the Imam about belief and Islam, inquiring, ‘Is there a difference between Islam and belief?’ The Imam said, ‘I can give an example.’ I said, ‘Please do so.’ He said, ‘The case of belief and Islam is like the Holy Ka’ba and the Sacred precinct. One may have entered the Sacred precinct but not the Holy Ka’ba. One cannot enter the Holy Ka’ba before entering the Sacred precinct. One may become a Muslim but he may not yet be a believer. However, one cannot become a believer before becoming a Muslim.’ I (the narrator) then asked, ‘Can one go out of belief to anything?’ He said, ‘Yes.’ I asked, ‘What then does one become?’ He said, ‘One may go out to Islam or rejection (disbelief).’ He then said, ‘If a man enters the Holy Ka’ba and his urine comes out he is taken out of the Holy Ka’ba but he will not be taken out of the Sacred precinct. He washes his cloth and purifies and then he is not stopped from entering the Holy Ka’ba. However, if a man enters the Holy Ka’ba and urinates therein out of animosity he is taken out of the Holy Ka’ba and the Sacred Mosque and is decapitated.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: موثق - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (7/163)