18. Belief Spreads In all Parts of the Body

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1ـ عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنْ بَكْرِ بْنِ صَالِحٍ عَنِ الْقَاسِمِ بْنِ بُرَيْدٍ قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو عَمْرٍو الزُّبَيْرِيُّ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيهِ السَّلام) قَالَ قُلْتُ لَهُ أَيُّهَا الْعَالِمُ أَخْبِرْنِي أَيُّ الأعْمَالِ أَفْضَلُ عِنْدَ الله قَالَ مَا لا يَقْبَلُ الله شَيْئاً إِلا بِهِ قُلْتُ وَمَا هُوَ قَالَ الإيمَانُ بِالله الَّذِي لا إِلَهَ إِلا هُوَ أَعْلَى الأعْمَالِ دَرَجَةً وَأَشْرَفُهَا مَنْزِلَةً وَأَسْنَاهَا حَظّاً قَالَ قُلْتُ أَ لا تُخْبِرُنِي عَنِ الإيمَانِ أَ قَوْلٌ هُوَ وَعَمَلٌ أَمْ قَوْلٌ بِلا عَمَلٍ فَقَالَ الإيمَانُ عَمَلٌ كُلُّهُ وَالْقَوْلُ بَعْضُ ذَلِكَ الْعَمَلِ بِفَرْضٍ مِنَ الله بَيَّنَ فِي كِتَابِهِ وَاضِحٍ نُورُهُ ثَابِتَةٍ حُجَّتُهُ يَشْهَدُ لَهُ بِهِ الْكِتَابُ وَيَدْعُوهُ إِلَيْهِ قَالَ قُلْتُ صِفْهُ لِي جُعِلْتُ فِدَاكَ حَتَّى أَفْهَمَهُ قَالَ الإيمَانُ حَالاتٌ وَدَرَجَاتٌ وَطَبَقَاتٌ وَمَنَازِلُ فَمِنْهُ التَّامُّ الْمُنْتَهَى تَمَامُهُ وَمِنْهُ النَّاقِصُ الْبَيِّنُ نُقْصَانُهُ وَمِنْهُ الرَّاجِحُ الزَّائِدُ رُجْحَانُهُ قُلْتُ إِنَّ الإيمَانَ لَيَتِمُّ وَيَنْقُصُ وَيَزِيدُ قَالَ نَعَمْ قُلْتُ كَيْفَ ذَلِكَ قَالَ لأنَّ الله تَبَارَكَ وَتَعَالَى فَرَضَ الإيمَانَ عَلَى جَوَارِحِ ابْنِ آدَمَ وَقَسَّمَهُ عَلَيْهَا وَفَرَّقَهُ فِيهَا فَلَيْسَ مِنْ جَوَارِحِهِ جَارِحَةٌ إِلا وَقَدْ وُكِّلَتْ مِنَ الإيمَانِ بِغَيْرِ مَا وُكِّلَتْ بِهِ أُخْتُهَا فَمِنْهَا قَلْبُهُ الَّذِي بِهِ يَعْقِلُ وَيَفْقَهُ وَيَفْهَمُ وَهُوَ أَمِيرُ بَدَنِهِ الَّذِي لا تَرِدُ الْجَوَارِحُ وَلا تَصْدُرُ إِلا عَنْ رَأْيِهِ وَأَمْرِهِ وَمِنْهَا عَيْنَاهُ اللَّتَانِ يُبْصِرُ بِهِمَا وَأُذُنَاهُ اللَّتَانِ يَسْمَعُ بِهِمَا وَيَدَاهُ اللَّتَانِ يَبْطِشُ بِهِمَا وَرِجْلاهُ اللَّتَانِ يَمْشِي بِهِمَا وَفَرْجُهُ الَّذِي الْبَاهُ مِنْ قِبَلِهِ وَلِسَانُهُ الَّذِي يَنْطِقُ بِهِ وَرَأْسُهُ الَّذِي فِيهِ وَجْهُهُ فَلَيْسَ مِنْ هَذِهِ جَارِحَةٌ إِلا وَقَدْ وُكِّلَتْ مِنَ الإيمَانِ بِغَيْرِ مَا وُكِّلَتْ بِهِ أُخْتُهَا بِفَرْضٍ مِنَ الله تَبَارَكَ اسْمُهُ يَنْطِقُ بِهِ الْكِتَابُ لَهَا وَيَشْهَدُ بِهِ عَلَيْهَا فَفَرَضَ عَلَى الْقَلْبِ غَيْرَ مَا فَرَضَ عَلَى السَّمْعِ وَفَرَضَ عَلَى السَّمْعِ غَيْرَ مَا فَرَضَ عَلَى الْعَيْنَيْنِ وَفَرَضَ عَلَى الْعَيْنَيْنِ غَيْرَ مَا فَرَضَ عَلَى اللِّسَانِ وَفَرَضَ عَلَى اللِّسَانِ غَيْرَ مَا فَرَضَ عَلَى الْيَدَيْنِ وَفَرَضَ عَلَى الْيَدَيْنِ غَيْرَ مَا فَرَضَ عَلَى الرِّجْلَيْنِ وَفَرَضَ عَلَى الرِّجْلَيْنِ غَيْرَ مَا فَرَضَ عَلَى الْفَرْجِ وَفَرَضَ عَلَى الْفَرْجِ غَيْرَ مَا فَرَضَ عَلَى الْوَجْهِ فَأَمَّا مَا فَرَضَ عَلَى الْقَلْبِ مِنَ الإيمَانِ فَالإقْرَارُ وَالْمَعْرِفَةُ وَالْعَقْدُ وَالرِّضَا وَالتَّسْلِيمُ بِأَنْ لا إِلَهَ إِلا الله وَحْدَهُ لا شَرِيكَ لَهُ إِلَهاً وَاحِداً لَمْ يَتَّخِذْ صَاحِبَةً وَلا وَلَداً وَأَنَّ مُحَمَّداً عَبْدُهُ وَرَسُولُهُ (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وآلِه) وَالإقْرَارُ بِمَا جَاءَ مِنْ عِنْدِ الله مِنْ نَبِيٍّ أَوْ كِتَابٍ فَذَلِكَ مَا فَرَضَ الله عَلَى الْقَلْبِ مِنَ الإقْرَارِ وَالْمَعْرِفَةِ وَهُوَ عَمَلُهُ وَهُوَ قَوْلُ الله. عَزَّ وَجَلَّ إِلا مَنْ أُكْرِهَ وَقَلْبُهُ مُطْمَئِنٌّ بِالإيمانِ وَلكِنْ مَنْ شَرَحَ بِالْكُفْرِ صَدْراً وَقَالَ أَلا بِذِكْرِ الله تَطْمَئِنُّ الْقُلُوبُ وَقَالَ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا بِأَفْوَاهِهِمْ وَلَمْ تُؤْمِنْ قُلُوبُهُمْ وَقَالَ إِنْ تُبْدُوا ما فِي أَنْفُسِكُمْ أَوْ تُخْفُوهُ يُحاسِبْكُمْ بِهِ الله فَيَغْفِرُ لِمَنْ يَشاءُ وَيُعَذِّبُ مَنْ يَشاءُ فَذَلِكَ مَا فَرَضَ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ عَلَى الْقَلْبِ مِنَ الإقْرَارِ وَالْمَعْرِفَةِ وَهُوَ عَمَلُهُ وَهُوَ رَأْسُ الإيمَانِ وَفَرَضَ الله عَلَى اللِّسَانِ الْقَوْلَ وَالتَّعْبِيرَ عَنِ الْقَلْبِ بِمَا عَقَدَ عَلَيْهِ وَأَقَرَّ بِهِ قَالَ الله تَبَارَكَ وَتَعَالَى وَقُولُوا لِلنَّاسِ حُسْناً وَقَالَ وَقُولُوا آمَنَّا بِالَّذِي أُنْزِلَ إِلَيْنا وَأُنْزِلَ إِلَيْكُمْ وَإِلهُنا وَإِلهُكُمْ واحِدٌ وَنَحْنُ لَهُ مُسْلِمُونَ فَهَذَا مَا فَرَضَ الله عَلَى اللِّسَانِ وَهُوَ عَمَلُهُ وَفَرَضَ عَلَى السَّمْعِ أَنْ يَتَنَزَّهَ عَنِ الإسْتِمَاعِ إِلَى مَا حَرَّمَ الله وَأَنْ يُعْرِضَ عَمَّا لا يَحِلُّ لَهُ مِمَّا نَهَى الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ عَنْهُ وَالإصْغَاءِ إِلَى مَا أَسْخَطَ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ فَقَالَ فِي ذَلِكَ وَقَدْ نَزَّلَ عَلَيْكُمْ فِي الْكِتابِ أَنْ إِذا سَمِعْتُمْ آياتِ الله يُكْفَرُ بِها وَيُسْتَهْزَأُ بِها فَلا تَقْعُدُوا مَعَهُمْ حَتَّى يَخُوضُوا فِي حَدِيثٍ غَيْرِهِ ثُمَّ اسْتَثْنَى الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ مَوْضِعَ النِّسْيَانِ فَقَالَ وَإِمَّا يُنْسِيَنَّكَ الشَّيْطانُ فَلا تَقْعُدْ بَعْدَ الذِّكْرى‏ مَعَ الْقَوْمِ الظَّالِمِينَ وَقَالَ فَبَشِّرْ عِبادِ الَّذِينَ يَسْتَمِعُونَ الْقَوْلَ فَيَتَّبِعُونَ أَحْسَنَهُ أُولئِكَ الَّذِينَ هَداهُمُ الله وَأُولئِكَ هُمْ أُولُوا الألْبابِ وَقَالَ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ قَدْ أَفْلَحَ الْمُؤْمِنُونَ الَّذِينَ هُمْ فِي صَلاتِهِمْ خاشِعُونَ وَالَّذِينَ هُمْ عَنِ اللَّغْوِ مُعْرِضُونَ وَالَّذِينَ هُمْ لِلزَّكاةِ فاعِلُونَ وَقَالَ وَإِذا سَمِعُوا اللَّغْوَ أَعْرَضُوا عَنْهُ وَقالُوا لَنا أَعْمالُنا وَلَكُمْ أَعْمالُكُمْ وَقَالَ وَإِذا مَرُّوا بِاللَّغْوِ مَرُّوا كِراماً فَهَذَا مَا فَرَضَ الله عَلَى السَّمْعِ مِنَ الإيمَانِ أَنْ لا يُصْغِيَ إِلَى مَا لا يَحِلُّ لَهُ وَهُوَ عَمَلُهُ وَهُوَ مِنَ الإيمَانِ وَفَرَضَ عَلَى الْبَصَرِ أَنْ لا يَنْظُرَ إِلَى مَا حَرَّمَ الله عَلَيْهِ وَأَنْ يُعْرِضَ عَمَّا نَهَى الله عَنْهُ مِمَّا لا يَحِلُّ لَهُ وَهُوَ عَمَلُهُ وَهُوَ مِنَ الإيمَانِ فَقَالَ تَبَارَكَ وَتَعَالَى قُلْ لِلْمُؤْمِنِينَ يَغُضُّوا مِنْ أَبْصارِهِمْ وَيَحْفَظُوا فُرُوجَهُمْ فَنَهَاهُمْ أَنْ يَنْظُرُوا إِلَى عَوْرَاتِهِمْ وَأَنْ يَنْظُرَ الْمَرْءُ إِلَى فَرْجِ أَخِيهِ وَيَحْفَظَ فَرْجَهُ أَنْ يُنْظَرَ إِلَيْهِ وَقَالَ وَقُلْ لِلْمُؤْمِناتِ يَغْضُضْنَ مِنْ أَبْصارِهِنَّ وَيَحْفَظْنَ فُرُوجَهُنَّ. مِنْ أَنْ تَنْظُرَ إِحْدَاهُنَّ إِلَى فَرْجِ أُخْتِهَا وَتَحْفَظَ فَرْجَهَا مِنْ أَنْ يُنْظَرَ إِلَيْهَا وَقَالَ كُلُّ شَيْ‏ءٍ فِي الْقُرْآنِ مِنْ حِفْظِ الْفَرْجِ فَهُوَ مِنْ الزِّنَا إِلا هَذِهِ الآيَةَ فَإِنَّهَا مِنَ النَّظَرِ ثُمَّ نَظَمَ مَا فَرَضَ عَلَى الْقَلْبِ وَاللِّسَانِ وَالسَّمْعِ وَالْبَصَرِ فِي آيَةٍ أُخْرَى فَقَالَ وَما كُنْتُمْ تَسْتَتِرُونَ أَنْ يَشْهَدَ عَلَيْكُمْ سَمْعُكُمْ وَلا أَبْصارُكُمْ وَلا جُلُودُكُمْ يَعْنِي بِالْجُلُودِ الْفُرُوجَ وَالأفْخَاذَ وَقَالَ وَلا تَقْفُ ما لَيْسَ لَكَ بِهِ عِلْمٌ إِنَّ السَّمْعَ وَالْبَصَرَ وَالْفُؤادَ كُلُّ أُولئِكَ كانَ عَنْهُ مَسْؤُلاً فَهَذَا مَا فَرَضَ الله عَلَى الْعَيْنَيْنِ مِنْ غَضِّ الْبَصَرِ عَمَّا حَرَّمَ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ وَهُوَ عَمَلُهُمَا وَهُوَ مِنَ الإيمَانِ وَفَرَضَ الله عَلَى الْيَدَيْنِ أَنْ لا يَبْطِشَ بِهِمَا إِلَى مَا حَرَّمَ الله وَأَنْ يَبْطِشَ بِهِمَا إِلَى مَا أَمَرَ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ وَفَرَضَ عَلَيْهِمَا مِنَ الصَّدَقَةِ وَصِلَةِ الرَّحِمِ وَالْجِهَادِ فِي سَبِيلِ الله وَالطَّهُورِ لِلصَّلاةِ فَقَالَ يا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا إِذا قُمْتُمْ إِلَى الصَّلاةِ فَاغْسِلُوا وُجُوهَكُمْ وَأَيْدِيَكُمْ إِلَى الْمَرافِقِ وَامْسَحُوا بِرُؤُسِكُمْ وَأَرْجُلَكُمْ إِلَى الْكَعْبَيْنِ وَقَالَ فَإِذا لَقِيتُمُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا فَضَرْبَ الرِّقابِ حَتَّى إِذا أَثْخَنْتُمُوهُمْ فَشُدُّوا الْوَثاقَ فَإِمَّا مَنًّا بَعْدُ وَإِمَّا فِداءً حَتَّى تَضَعَ الْحَرْبُ أَوْزارَها فَهَذَا مَا فَرَضَ الله عَلَى الْيَدَيْنِ لأنَّ الضَّرْبَ مِنْ عِلاجِهِمَا وَفَرَضَ عَلَى الرِّجْلَيْنِ أَنْ لا يَمْشِيَ بِهِمَا إِلَى شَيْ‏ءٍ مِنْ مَعَاصِي الله وَفَرَضَ عَلَيْهِمَا الْمَشْيَ إِلَى مَا يُرْضِي الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ فَقَالَ وَلا تَمْشِ فِي الأرْضِ مَرَحاً إِنَّكَ لَنْ تَخْرِقَ الأرْضَ وَلَنْ تَبْلُغَ الْجِبالَ طُولاً وَقَالَ وَاقْصِدْ فِي مَشْيِكَ وَاغْضُضْ مِنْ صَوْتِكَ إِنَّ أَنْكَرَ الأصْواتِ لَصَوْتُ الْحَمِيرِ وَقَالَ فِيمَا شَهِدَتِ الأيْدِي وَالأرْجُلُ عَلَى أَنْفُسِهِمَا وَعَلَى أَرْبَابِهِمَا مِنْ تَضْيِيعِهِمَا لِمَا أَمَرَ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ بِهِ وَفَرَضَهُ عَلَيْهِمَا الْيَوْمَ نَخْتِمُ عَلى‏ أَفْواهِهِمْ وَتُكَلِّمُنا أَيْدِيهِمْ وَتَشْهَدُ أَرْجُلُهُمْ بِما كانُوا يَكْسِبُونَ فَهَذَا أَيْضاً مِمَّا فَرَضَ الله عَلَى الْيَدَيْنِ وَعَلَى الرِّجْلَيْنِ وَهُوَ عَمَلُهُمَا وَهُوَ مِنَ الإيمَانِ وَفَرَضَ عَلَى الْوَجْهِ السُّجُودَ لَهُ بِاللَّيْلِ وَالنَّهَارِ فِي مَوَاقِيتِ الصَّلاةِ فَقَالَ يا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا ارْكَعُوا وَاسْجُدُوا وَاعْبُدُوا رَبَّكُمْ وَافْعَلُوا الْخَيْرَ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُفْلِحُونَ فَهَذِهِ فَرِيضَةٌ جَامِعَةٌ عَلَى الْوَجْهِ وَالْيَدَيْنِ وَالرِّجْلَيْنِ وَقَالَ فِي مَوْضِعٍ آخَرَ وَأَنَّ الْمَساجِدَ لله فَلا تَدْعُوا مَعَ الله أَحَداً وَقَالَ فِيمَا فَرَضَ عَلَى الْجَوَارِحِ مِنَ الطَّهُورِ وَالصَّلاةِ بِهَا وَذَلِكَ أَنَّ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ لَمَّا صَرَفَ نَبِيَّهُ (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وآلِه) إِلَى الْكَعْبَةِ عَنِ الْبَيْتِ الْمُقَدَّسِ فَأَنْزَلَ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ وَما كانَ الله لِيُضِيعَ إِيمانَكُمْ إِنَّ الله بِالنَّاسِ لَرَؤُفٌ رَحِيمٌ فَسَمَّى الصَّلاةَ إِيمَاناً فَمَنْ لَقِيَ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ حَافِظاً لِجَوَارِحِهِ مُوفِياً كُلُّ جَارِحَةٍ مِنْ جَوَارِحِهِ مَا فَرَضَ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ عَلَيْهَا لَقِيَ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ مُسْتَكْمِلاً لِإِيمَانِهِ وَهُوَ مِنْ أَهْلِ الْجَنَّةِ وَمَنْ خَانَ فِي شَيْ‏ءٍ مِنْهَا أَوْ تَعَدَّى مَا أَمَرَ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ فِيهَا لَقِيَ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ نَاقِصَ الإيمَانِ قُلْتُ قَدْ فَهِمْتُ نُقْصَانَ الإيمَانِ وَتَمَامَهُ فَمِنْ أَيْنَ جَاءَتْ زِيَادَتُهُ فَقَالَ قَوْلُ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ وَإِذا ما أُنْزِلَتْ سُورَةٌ فَمِنْهُمْ مَنْ يَقُولُ أَيُّكُمْ زادَتْهُ هذِهِ إِيماناً فَأَمَّا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا فَزادَتْهُمْ إِيماناً وَهُمْ يَسْتَبْشِرُونَ وَأَمَّا الَّذِينَ فِي قُلُوبِهِمْ مَرَضٌ فَزادَتْهُمْ رِجْساً إِلَى رِجْسِهِمْ وَقَالَ نَحْنُ نَقُصُّ عَلَيْكَ نَبَأَهُمْ بِالْحَقِّ إِنَّهُمْ فِتْيَةٌ آمَنُوا بِرَبِّهِمْ وَزِدْناهُمْ هُدىً وَلَوْ كَانَ كُلُّهُ وَاحِداً لا زِيَادَةَ فِيهِ وَلا نُقْصَانَ لَمْ يَكُنْ لأحَدٍ مِنْهُمْ فَضْلٌ عَلَى الآخَرِ وَلاسْتَوَتِ النِّعَمُ فِيهِ وَلاسْتَوَى النَّاسُ وَبَطَلَ التَّفْضِيلُ وَلَكِنْ بِتَمَامِ الإيمَانِ دَخَلَ الْمُؤْمِنُونَ الْجَنَّةَ وَبِالزِّيَادَةِ فِي الإيمَانِ تَفَاضَلَ الْمُؤْمِنُونَ بِالدَّرَجَاتِ عِنْدَ الله وَبِالنُّقْصَانِ دَخَلَ الْمُفَرِّطُونَ النَّارَ.


1. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from Bakr ibn Salih from al-Qasim ibn Burayd who has said that narrated to us abu ‘Amr al-Zubayri who has said the following: “I said to abu ‘Abd Allah (a.s.) ‘O scholar, tell me which deed is more virtuous before Allah?’ He said, ‘It is the deed without which Allah does not accept any (deed).’ I asked, ‘What is such a thing?’ He said, ‘Belief in Allah besides whom no one deserves to be worshipped. It (belief) is the highest in degree among the deeds, the most valuable among them and the topmost among them in (matters of) reward.’ I then said, ‘Please, tell me then about belief, is it deeds or it is words without deeds?’ “He said, ‘All of belief is deeds and certain parts of such deeds are words. Allah has made it obligatory as is explained in His book. Its light is clear, its evidence well established. The (Holy) book testifies to it for one, and calls one to it.’ I (the narrator) then asked, ‘May Allah keep my soul in service for your cause, explain it to me so I may understand.’ He (the Imam) said, ‘Belief is of degrees, conditions, levels and stages. Of belief there is that which is perfect and complete in perfection. Of belief there is that which is defective and the defect is clear. Of belief there is that which is heavier on the perfection side.’ I then asked, ‘Does belief become perfect, decrease and increase?’ He said, ‘Yes, it does.’ I then asked, ‘How does it happen?’ He said, ‘It is because Allah, the Most Blessed, the Most High, has written belief for each part of the body of the children of Adam and has divided and distributed it among them. There is no part of thier body but that has a guard of belief different from such guard assigned to other parts. Of such part is one’s heart, with which one understands and reasons to comprehend, and it is the commander of his body. It oversees the body and without its opinion no part moves to act. Of the parts of the body are one’s eyes with which one sees and his ears with which one listens. There are one’s hands with which one works, one’s legs with which one walks, one’s sexual organs from which comes carnal desires, one’s tongue with which one speaks and one’s head on which there is one’s face. For each of these parts a different guard of belief is assigned. It is all due to what Allah, Most Blessed is Whose name, has written, to which His Holy book speaks and testifies. ‘For each of these parts a different obligation is written. The obligation of the heart is different from the obligation of the ears. What is made obligatory for the ears is different from the obligation of the eyes and what is made obligatory for the eyes is different from what is made obligatory for the tongue. What is made obligatory for the tongue is different from what is made obligatory for the hands and what is made obligatory for the hands is different from what is made obligatory for the legs. The obligation of the legs is different from the obligations of the sexual organs. What is obligatory for the sexual organs is different from the obligation of the face. ‘What is made obligatory for the heart of belief is affirmation, recognition and the formation of belief, consent and submission to the fact that no one deserves to be worshipped except Allah Who is One and has no partner. He is the One and only. He has not taken any companion and children. That Muhammad is His servant and messenger, he and his family being recipients of Divine supreme covenant, and to affirm that whatever he has brought is from Allah, be it about a prophet or a book. That is what Allah has made obligatory for the heart; the task of affirmation and recognition, which is its deed. This is stated in the words of Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Holy, “. . . but his heart is confident about his faith. However, those whose breasts have become open to disbelief will be subject to the wrath of Allah and will suffer a great torment.” (16: 106) ‘Allah has said, “. . . Remembrance (speaking) of Allah certainly brings comfort to all hearts.” (13:28) ‘Allah has said, “. . . They only say that they believe but, in fact, they have no faith in their hearts. . . .” (5:41) ‘Allah has said, ‘‘Allah will call you to account for all that you may reveal from your souls and all that you may conceal. Allah will forgive or punish whoever He wants. . . .” (2:284) ‘These are what Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Holy, has made obligatory on the hearts of affirmation and recognition, and these are its deeds and this is the head of the belief. ‘On the tongue Allah has made it obligatory to speak and express what the heart has established and has confirmed as Allah, the Most Blessed, the Most High, has said, “ . . . that they should speak righteous words to people . . .” (2:83) ‘Allah has said, “Tell them, we believe in Allah and in what is revealed to us and to you. Our Lord and your Lord are one. We have submitted ourselves to His will.” (29:46) ‘This is what Allah has made obligatory for the tongue and this is its deed. He has made it obligatory for the ears to keep it clean from what is unlawful to listen to, and to keep away from things that Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Holy, has prohibited to listen to attentively; it angers Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Holy. And in this regard He has said, “Allah has told you (believers) in the Book that when you hear people disbelieving and mocking Allah’s revelations, do not sit with them unless they change the subject . . .” (4: 140) ‘Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Holy, then has made an exception for the case of forgetfulness, ‘If Satan causes you to forget this, do not sit with the unjust people when you recall.” ( 6 : 68 ) ‘Allah has also said, “(Muhammad), give the glad news to those of My servants who listen to the words and follow only the best ones. Tell them that they are those whom Allah has guided. They are the people of understanding.” (39:18) ‘Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Holy, has said, “Triumphant indeed are the believers, (23:1) who are submissive to Allah in their prayers, (23:2) who avoid impious talks (23:3) and pay al- Zakat (charity).” (23:4) ‘Allah has said, “When they hear impious words, they ignore them, saying, ‘We shall be responsible for our deeds and you will be responsible for yours. . . (28:55) ‘Allah has said, “. . . when they come across something impious, they pass it by nobly.” (25:72) ‘This is what Allah has made obligatory for the ears in relation to belief; that they must not listen to what is unlawful to listen to, and such matters are of its deeds, which is of belief. He has made it obligatory for the eyes not to look at things He has made unlawful to look at and to stay away from what Allah has prohibited of the things that are not lawful for them. Such things are of their deeds and of belief. ‘Allah, the Most Blessed, the Most High, has said, “(Muhammad), tell the believing men to cast down their eyes and guard their carnal desires.” (24:30) ‘Allah has prohibited looking at the privacy of one’s brother and to keep one’s privacy protected from the onlookers. Allah has said, “. . .Tell the believing woman to cast down their eyes, guard their chastity (private parts).” (24:31) ‘They must find protection against being looked upon and keep away from looking at their sisters (private parts). The Imam said that everywhere in the Holy Quran where protection of private parts is mentioned it is a reference to fornication except this verse which is a reference to looking. ‘Allah has spoken about the obligations of the heart, tongue, ears and eyes in another verse also: “You did not (think to) hide your deeds from your ears, eyes and skin and you felt that Allah would not know all that you had been doing.” (41 :22) ‘Skin is reference to private parts and thighs. Allah has said, “Do not follow what you do not know; the ears, eyes, and hearts will all be held responsible for their deeds.” (17:36) ‘This is what Allah has made obligatory for the eyes; to cast down away from what Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Holy, has prohibited. This is their deed and it is of belief. Allah has made it obligatory for the hands not to move to what He has prohibited, instead move to what Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Holy, has commanded to move to such as charity, good relation with relatives and striving for the cause of Allah and cleansing for prayer. ‘Allah has said, “Believers, when you are about to pray, wash your face and your hands along with the elbows and wipe your head and your feet to the ankles. . . .” (5:6) ‘Allah has said, “If you encounter the unbelievers in a battle, strike-off their heads. Take them as captives when they are defeated. Then you may set them free as a favor to them, with or without a ransom, when the battle is over. . . .” (47:4) ‘This is what Allah has made obligatory for the hands; striking is their task. Allah has made it obligatory for the legs not to walk to what is made unlawful and in disobedience to Allah. He has made it obligatory for them to walk to what makes Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Holy, happy. Allah has said, “Do not walk proudly on the earth; your feet cannot tear apart the earth nor are you as tall as the mountains.” (17:37) “Do not walk around inflated with pride; be moderate in your walking and your talking. The most unpleasant sound is the braying of donkeys.” (31:19) ‘About the testifying of the hands and legs against their ownselves and their master for their disregard of the commands of Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Holy, and the obligation upon them, Allah has said: “. . . this Day, We seal their mouths and their hands will speak to Us and their feet will testify to what they had achieved.” (36:65) ‘This also is what Allah has made obligatory for the hands and the legs and this is their deed and it is of belief. Allah has made it obligatory for the face to prostrate before Him in the days and nights in the times of the prayers. Allah has said, “Believers, worship your Lord, bow down and prostrate yourselves before Him and do virtuous deeds so that perhaps you will have everlasting happiness.” (22:77) ‘This is an obligation that involves the face, hands and legs. In another passage He has said, ‘All the parts of the body to be placed on the ground during prostration belong to Allah. Do not prostrate before anyone other than Him. . . .” (72:18) It was in regards to the obligations upon the parts of the body in the form of purification for prayer that Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Holy, made His prophet to change facing the Holy House in Palestine to facing al-Ka’ba. Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Holy, revealed this: “Allah did not want to make your previous belief (prayers) worthless; Allah is Compassionate and All- Merciful to people.” (2:143) He has called prayer ‘Belief.’ Therefore, whoever meets Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Holy, perfecting his belief is of the people of paradise. Whoever cheats in any of the obligations or violates the commands of Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Holy, will meet Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Holy, with a defective belief.’ “I then asked the Imam, ‘I now understand perfect and defective belief. Where does the increase in belief come from?’ The Imam said, ‘Consider the words of Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Holy, “When a Chapter (of the Quran) is revealed, certain people ask others, ‘Whose belief among you people has received strength from this (revelation)?’ It (the revelation) certainly strengthens the belief of the believers and they consider it to be glad news. (9:124) But to those whose hearts are sick, it adds more filth to their hearts and they die as unbelievers.” (9:125) Allah has said, “. . .We tell you this story for a genuine purpose. They were young people who believed in their Lord and We gave them further guidance.” (18:13) ‘Had belief been the same and without any difference in defects and in perfections no one of them would have had any distinction over the others and the favors would have been equal to all. People had been all equal and excellence would become void. However, with perfection in belief believers enter paradise. By increase in belief the believers excel in degrees before Allah and for the defect in belief the extremists go in fire.’”




2ـ عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ خَالِدٍ عَنْ أَبِيهِ وَمُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عِيسَى جَمِيعاً عَنِ الْبَرْقِيِّ عَنِ النَّضْرِ بْنِ سُوَيْدٍ عَنْ يَحْيَى بْنِ عِمْرَانَ الْحَلَبِيِّ عَنْ عُبَيْدِ الله بْنِ [ الْحَسَنِ عَنِ الْحَسَنِ بْنِ ] هَارُونَ قَالَ قَالَ لِي أَبُو عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيهِ السَّلام) إِنَّ السَّمْعَ وَالْبَصَرَ وَالْفُؤادَ كُلُّ أُولئِكَ كانَ عَنْهُ مَسْؤُلاً قَالَ يُسْأَلُ السَّمْعُ عَمَّا سَمِعَ وَالْبَصَرُ عَمَّا نَظَرَ إِلَيْهِ وَالْفُؤَادُ عَمَّا عَقَدَ عَلَيْهِ.


2. A number of our people have narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Khalid from his father. And Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Isa all have narrated from al-Barqi from al-Nadr ibn Suwayd from Yahya ibn ‘Imran al-Halabi from ‘Ubayd Allah ibn al-Hassan from al- Hassan ibn Harun who has said the following: “Once abu ‘Abd Allah (a.s.) said to me, ‘It is of certainty that the ears, eyes and heart will all be questioned. ’(17:36) He said, ‘The ears will be questioned about what they have heard, the eyes will be questioned about what they have looked upon and the heart will be questioned about what it has established as belief.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مجهول - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (242/ 7)



3ـ أَبُو عَلِيٍّ الأشْعَرِيُّ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَبْدِ الْجَبَّارِ عَنْ صَفْوَانَ أَوْ غَيْرِهِ عَنِ الْعَلاءِ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ مُسْلِمٍ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيهِ السَّلام) قَالَ سَأَلْتُهُ عَنِ الإيمَانِ فَقَالَ شَهَادَةُ أَنْ لا إِلَهَ إِلا الله [ وَأَنَّ مُحَمَّداً رَسُولُ الله ] وَالإقْرَارُ بِمَا جَاءَ مِنْ عِنْدِ الله وَمَا اسْتَقَرَّ فِي الْقُلُوبِ مِنَ التَّصْدِيقِ بِذَلِكَ قَالَ قُلْتُ الشَّهَادَةُ أَ لَيْسَتْ عَمَلاً قَالَ بَلَى قُلْتُ الْعَمَلُ مِنَ الإيمَانِ قَالَ نَعَمْ الإيمَانُ لا يَكُونُ إِلا بِعَمَلٍ وَالْعَمَلُ مِنْهُ وَلا يَثْبُتُ الإيمَانُ إِلا بِعَمَلٍ.


3. Abu Ali al-Ash’ari has narrated from Muhammad ibn ‘Abd al-Jabbar from Safwan or one other than him from al-‘Ala’ from Muhammad ibn Muslim who has said the following: “Once I asked abu ‘Abd Allah (a.s.) about belief. He said, ‘It is to testify that no one deserves to be worshipped except Allah, Muhammad (a.s.) is the Messenger of Allah and to affirm that whatever he (Muhammad) brought is from Allah. That which is established in the hearts through acknowledgement of such facts is belief.’ I then asked, ‘Is it not that the testimony is a deed?’ He said, ‘Yes, it is a deed.’ I then asked, ‘Is the deed of belief?’ He said, ‘Yes, belief does not shape up without deed. The deed is from belief and belief cannot stand firmly without deed. ’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مرسل - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (7/243)



4ـ عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ خَالِدٍ عَنْ عُثْمَانَ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ عَبْدِ الله بْنِ مُسْكَانَ عَنْ بَعْضِ أَصْحَابِهِ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيهِ السَّلام) قَالَ قُلْتُ لَهُ مَا الإسْلامُ فَقَالَ دِينُ الله اسْمُهُ الإسْلامُ وَهُوَ دِينُ الله قَبْلَ أَنْ تَكُونُوا حَيْثُ كُنْتُمْ وَبَعْدَ أَنْ تَكُونُوا فَمَنْ أَقَرَّ بِدِينِ الله فَهُوَ مُسْلِمٌ وَمَنْ عَمِلَ بِمَا أَمَرَ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ بِهِ فَهُوَ مُؤْمِنٌ.


4. A number of our people have narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Khalid from ‘Uthman ibn ‘Isa from ‘Abd Allah ibn Muskan from certain individuals of his people who has said the following: “I asked abu ‘Abd Allah (a.s.) ‘What is Islam?’ He said, ‘It is the name of the religion of Allah. It was the religion of Allah before you were as you are now and after you it will be there. Whoever professes the religion of Allah, is a Muslim. Whoever does what Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Holy, has commanded, is a believer.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مرسل - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (7/244)



5ـ عَنْهُ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ النَّضْرِ بْنِ سُوَيْدٍ عَنْ يَحْيَى بْنِ عِمْرَانَ الْحَلَبِيِّ عَنْ أَيُّوبَ بْنِ الْحُرِّ عَنْ أَبِي بَصِيرٍ قَالَ كُنْتُ عِنْدَ أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ (عَلَيهِ السَّلام) فَقَالَ لَهُ سَلامٌ إِنَّ خَيْثَمَةَ ابْنَ أَبِي خَيْثَمَةَ يُحَدِّثُنَا عَنْكَ أَنَّهُ سَأَلَكَ عَنِ الإسْلامِ فَقُلْتَ لَهُ إِنَّ الإسْلامَ مَنِ اسْتَقْبَلَ قِبْلَتَنَا وَشَهِدَ شَهَادَتَنَا وَنَسَكَ نُسُكَنَا وَوَالَى وَلِيَّنَا وَعَادَى عَدُوَّنَا فَهُوَ مُسْلِمٌ فَقَالَ صَدَقَ خَيْثَمَةُ قُلْتُ وَسَأَلَكَ عَنِ الإيمَانِ فَقُلْتَ الإيمَانُ بِالله وَالتَّصْدِيقُ بِكِتَابِ الله وَأَنْ لا يُعْصَى الله فَقَالَ صَدَقَ خَيْثَمَةُ.


5. From him from his father from al-Nadr ibn Suwayd from Yahya ibn ‘Imran al- Halabi from Ayyub ibn al-Hurr from abu Basir who has said the following: “I was in the presence of abu Ja’far (a.s.) when Salam said, ‘Khaythamah ibn abu Khaythamah narrates to us from you that you were asked about Islam and you said, ‘Islam is this: Whoever faces our Qibla (direction of Makka), testifies to our testiment of belief, practices our practice, is a friend of our friend and an enemy of our enemies, he is a Muslim.’ The Imam said, ‘Khaythamah has told the truth. ’ 1 then said, ‘He had asked you about belief and you said, ‘It is belief in Allah, to acknowledge the book of Allah and not to disobey Allah.’ He said, ‘Khaythamah has told the truth.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: صحيح - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (244/ 7)



6ـ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ عَنْ جَمِيلِ بْنِ دَرَّاجٍ قَالَ سَأَلْتُ أَبَا عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيهِ السَّلام) عَنِ الإيمَانِ فَقَالَ شَهَادَةُ أَنْ لا إِلَهَ إِلا الله وَأَنَّ مُحَمَّداً رَسُولُ الله قَالَ قُلْتُ أَ لَيْسَ هَذَا عَمَلٌ قَالَ بَلَى قُلْتُ فَالْعَمَلُ مِنَ الإيمَانِ قَالَ لا يَثْبُتُ لَهُ الإيمَانُ إِلا بِالْعَمَلِ وَالْعَمَلُ مِنْهُ.


6. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Isa from ibn abu ‘Umayr from Jamil ibn Darraj who has said the following: “I asked abu ‘Abd Allah (a.s.) about belief. He said, ‘It is to testify that no one deserves to be worshipped except Allah and that Muhammad (a.s.) is the Messenger of Allah.’ I asked, ‘Is it not a deed?’ He said, ‘Yes, it is a deed.’ 1 then asked, ‘Is deed of belief?’ He said, ‘One’s belief does not take any root without deed and deed is from belief.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: صحيح - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (7/246)



7ـ بَعْضُ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ الْعَبَّاسِ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ مُيَسِّرٍ عَنْ حَمَّادِ بْنِ عَمْرٍو النَّصِيبِيِّ قَالَ سَأَلَ رَجُلٌ الْعَالِمَ (عَلَيهِ السَّلام) فَقَالَ أَيُّهَا الْعَالِمُ أَخْبِرْنِي أَيُّ الأعْمَالِ أَفْضَلُ عِنْدَ الله قَالَ مَا لا يُقْبَلُ عَمَلٌ إِلا بِهِ فَقَالَ وَمَا ذَلِكَ قَالَ الإيمَانُ بِالله الَّذِي هُوَ أَعْلَى الأعْمَالِ دَرَجَةً وَأَسْنَاهَا حَظّاً وَأَشْرَفُهَا مَنْزِلَةً قُلْتُ أَخْبِرْنِي عَنِ الإيمَانِ أَ قَوْلٌ وَعَمَلٌ أَمْ قَوْلٌ بِلا عَمَلٍ قَالَ الإيمَانُ عَمَلٌ كُلُّهُ وَالْقَوْلُ بَعْضُ ذَلِكَ الْعَمَلِ بِفَرْضٍ مِنَ الله بَيَّنَهُ فِي كِتَابِهِ وَاضِحٍ نُورُهُ ثَابِتَةٍ حُجَّتُهُ يَشْهَدُ بِهِ الْكِتَابُ وَيَدْعُو إِلَيْهِ قُلْتُ صِفْ لِي ذَلِكَ حَتَّى أَفْهَمَهُ فَقَالَ إِنَّ الإيمَانَ حَالاتٌ وَدَرَجَاتٌ وَطَبَقَاتٌ وَمَنَازِلُ فَمِنْهُ التَّامُّ الْمُنْتَهَى تَمَامُهُ وَمِنْهُ النَّاقِصُ الْمُنْتَهَى نُقْصَانُهُ وَمِنْهُ الزَّائِدُ الرَّاجِحُ زِيَادَتُهُ قُلْتُ وَإِنَّ الإيمَانَ لَيَتِمُّ وَيَزِيدُ وَيَنْقُصُ قَالَ نَعَمْ قُلْتُ وَكَيْفَ ذَلِكَ قَالَ إِنَّ الله تَبَارَكَ وَتَعَالَى فَرَضَ الإيمَانَ عَلَى جَوَارِحِ بَنِي آدَمَ وَقَسَّمَهُ عَلَيْهَا وَفَرَّقَهُ عَلَيْهَا فَلَيْسَ مِنْ جَوَارِحِهِمْ جَارِحَةٌ إِلا وَهِيَ مُوَكَّلَةٌ مِنَ الإيمَانِ بِغَيْرِ مَا وُكِّلَتْ بِهِ أُخْتُهَا فَمِنْهَا قَلْبُهُ الَّذِي بِهِ يَعْقِلُ وَيَفْقَهُ وَيَفْهَمُ وَهُوَ أَمِيرُ بَدَنِهِ الَّذِي لا تُورَدُ الْجَوَارِحُ وَلا تَصْدُرُ إِلا عَنْ رَأْيِهِ وَأَمْرِهِ وَمِنْهَا يَدَاهُ اللَّتَانِ يَبْطِشُ بِهِمَا وَرِجْلاهُ اللَّتَانِ يَمْشِي بِهِمَا وَفَرْجُهُ الَّذِي الْبَاهُ مِنْ قِبَلِهِ وَلِسَانُهُ الَّذِي يَنْطِقُ بِهِ الْكِتَابُ وَيَشْهَدُ بِهِ عَلَيْهَا وَعَيْنَاهُ اللَّتَانِ يُبْصِرُ بِهِمَا وَأُذُنَاهُ اللَّتَانِ يَسْمَعُ بِهِمَا وَفَرَضَ عَلَى الْقَلْبِ غَيْرَ مَا فَرَضَ عَلَى اللِّسَانِ وَفَرَضَ عَلَى اللِّسَانِ غَيْرَ مَا فَرَضَ عَلَى الْعَيْنَيْنِ وَفَرَضَ عَلَى الْعَيْنَيْنِ غَيْرَ مَا فَرَضَ عَلَى السَّمْعِ وَفَرَضَ عَلَى السَّمْعِ غَيْرَ مَا فَرَضَ عَلَى الْيَدَيْنِ وَفَرَضَ عَلَى الْيَدَيْنِ غَيْرَ مَا فَرَضَ عَلَى الرِّجْلَيْنِ وَفَرَضَ عَلَى الرِّجْلَيْنِ غَيْرَ مَا فَرَضَ عَلَى الْفَرْجِ وَفَرَضَ عَلَى الْفَرْجِ غَيْرَ مَا فَرَضَ عَلَى الْوَجْهِ فَأَمَّا مَا فَرَضَ عَلَى الْقَلْبِ مِنَ الإيمَانِ فَالإقْرَارُ وَالْمَعْرِفَةُ وَالتَّصْدِيقُ وَالتَّسْلِيمُ وَالْعَقْدُ وَالرِّضَا بِأَنْ لا إِلَهَ إِلا الله وَحْدَهُ لا شَرِيكَ لَهُ أَحَداً صَمَداً لَمْ يَتَّخِذْ صَاحِبَةً وَلا وَلَداً وَأَنَّ مُحَمَّداً (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وآلِه) عَبْدُهُ وَرَسُولُهُ.


7. Certain individuals of our people have narrated from Ali ibn ‘Abbas from Ali ibn Maysir from Hammad ibn al-Nusaybi who has said the following: “A man asked the scholar (a.s.) ‘O scholar, tell me which deed is more virtuous before Allah?’ He said, ‘It is the deed without which Allah does not accept any deed.’ He asked, ‘What is such thing?’ He said, ‘It is belief in Allah (besides Whom no one deserves to be worshipped). It (belief) is the highest in degree among the deeds, the most valuable among them (in virtue) and the topmost among them in reward.’ The man then said, ‘Please, tell me then about belief. Is it deeds or it is words without deeds?’ “The Imam said, ‘All of belief is deeds and parts of such deeds are words. Allah has made it obligatory as is explained in His book. Its light is clear, its evidence well established. The (Holy) book testifies to it for one, and calls one thereto.’ I (the narrator) then asked, ‘Explain it to me so I may understand.’ He (the Imam) said, ‘Belief is of degrees, conditions, levels and stages. Of belief there is that which is perfect and complete in perfection. Of belief there is that which is defective and the defect is clear. Of belief there is that which is heavier on the perfection side.’ The man then asked, ‘Does belief become perfect, decrease and increase?’ He said, ‘Yes, it does.’ The man then asked, ‘How does it happen?’ He said, ‘It is because Allah, the Most Blessed, the Most High, has written belief for each part of the body of the children of Adam and has divided and distributed it among them. There is no part of the parts but that has a guard of belief that is different from such guard as is assigned to other parts. Of such part is one’s heart with which one understands and rationalizes to comprehend, and he is the commander of one’s body. It oversees the body and without its opinion no part moves to act. Of the parts of the body are one’s hands with which one works, one’s legs with which one walks, one’s sexual organs from which come carnal desires, one’s tongue with which one speaks of the book and testfies thereby, one’s eyes with which one sees and one’s ears with which one listens. ‘For each of these parts a different obligation is written. The obligation of the heart is different from the obligation of the tongue. What is made obligatory for the tongue is different from the obligation of the eyes and what is made obligatory for the eyes is different from what is made obligatory for the ears. What is made obligatory for the ears is different from what is made obligatory for the hands and what is made obligatory for the hands is different from what is made obligatory for the legs. The obligation of the legs is different from the obligations of the sexual organs. What is obligatory for the sexual organs is different from the obligation of the face. ‘What is made obligatory for the heart of belief is affirmation, recognition and formation of belief, consent and submission to the fact that no one deserves to be worshipped except Allah Who is One and has no partner. He is the One and only Who deserves to be worshipped. He has not taken any companion and children. Muhammad (a.s.) is His servant and messenger.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف على المشهور - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (7/246)



8ـ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ الْحَسَنِ عَنْ بَعْضِ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنِ الأشْعَثِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ حَفْصِ بْنِ خَارِجَةَ قَالَ سَمِعْتُ أَبَا عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيهِ السَّلام) يَقُولُ وَسَأَلَهُ رَجُلٌ عَنْ قَوْلِ الْمُرْجِئَةِ فِي الْكُفْرِ وَالإيمَانِ وَقَالَ إِنَّهُمْ يَحْتَجُّونَ عَلَيْنَا وَيَقُولُونَ كَمَا أَنَّ الْكَافِرَ عِنْدَنَا هُوَ الْكَافِرُ عِنْدَ الله فَكَذَلِكَ نَجِدُ الْمُؤْمِنَ إِذَا أَقَرَّ بِإِيمَانِهِ أَنَّهُ عِنْدَ الله مُؤْمِنٌ فَقَالَ سُبْحَانَ الله وَكَيْفَ يَسْتَوِي هَذَانِ وَالْكُفْرُ إِقْرَارٌ مِنَ الْعَبْدِ فَلا يُكَلَّفُ بَعْدَ إِقْرَارِهِ بِبَيِّنَةٍ وَالإيمَانُ دَعْوًى لا تَجُوزُ إِلا بِبَيِّنَةٍ وَبَيِّنَتُهُ عَمَلُهُ وَنِيَّتُهُ فَإِذَا اتَّفَقَا فَالْعَبْدُ عِنْدَ الله مُؤْمِنٌ وَالْكُفْرُ مَوْجُودٌ بِكُلِّ جِهَةٍ مِنْ هَذِهِ الْجِهَاتِ الثَّلاثِ مِنْ نِيَّةٍ أَوْ قَوْلٍ أَوْ عَمَلٍ وَالأحْكَامُ تَجْرِي عَلَى الْقَوْلِ وَالْعَمَلِ فَمَا أَكْثَرَ مَنْ يَشْهَدُ لَهُ الْمُؤْمِنُونَ بِالإيمَانِ وَيَجْرِي عَلَيْهِ أَحْكَامُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَهُوَ عِنْدَ الله كَافِرٌ وَقَدْ أَصَابَ مَنْ أَجْرَى عَلَيْهِ أَحْكَامَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ بِظَاهِرِ قَوْلِهِ وَعَمَلِهِ.


8. Muhammad ibn al-Hassan has narrated from certain individuals of our people from al-Ash’ath ibn Muhammad from Muhammad ibn Hafs ibn Kharija who has said the following: “I heard abu ‘Abd Allah (a.s.) saying - when a man asked him about the words of al-Murji’a, a religious sect, about rejection (disbelief) and belief -, ‘They argue against us and say, “Just as to us one who disbelieves is a rejecter of belief, so also is he in the sight of Allah. The same applies to a believer. We find a believer that when he affirms his belief he is a believer in the sight of Allah.” He (a.s.) said, “Glory belongs to Allah. How can these two be equal? Rejection of belief is an affirmation and confession of a servant, and thereafter he is not required to present any witness to prove his case. (On the other hand) belief is a claim, which is not accepted without the testimony of a witness. Witness to prove his case is his deed and intention. If they (deed and intention) agree, a servant is a believer in the sight of Allah. Rejection of belief exists in all the three things; word, deed and intention and rules of law apply to both word and deed. In of favor many persons believers testify to prove them to be believers and the rules of law applicable to believers are applied to them, but in the sight of Allah they are rejecters of belief. In certain conditions one’s applying rules of law, applicable to believers, to such unbelievers is also correct according to the apparent condition of his deed and words.’””


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Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مجهول - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (248/ 7)