15. Belief Is Inclusive of Islam but Islam Is Not Inclusive of Belief

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1ـ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنِ الْحَسَنِ بْنِ مَحْبُوبٍ عَنْ جَمِيلِ بْنِ صَالِحٍ عَنْ سَمَاعَةَ قَالَ قُلْتُ لأبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيهِ السَّلام) أَخْبِرْنِي عَنِ الإسْلامِ وَالإيمَانِ أَ هُمَا مُخْتَلِفَانِ فَقَالَ إِنَّ الإيمَانَ يُشَارِكُ الإسْلامَ وَالإسْلامَ لا يُشَارِكُ الإيمَانَ فَقُلْتُ فَصِفْهُمَا لِي فَقَالَ الإسْلامُ شَهَادَةُ أَنْ لا إِلَهَ إِلا الله وَالتَّصْدِيقُ بِرَسُولِ الله (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وآلِه) بِهِ حُقِنَتِ الدِّمَاءُ وَعَلَيْهِ جَرَتِ الْمَنَاكِحُ وَالْمَوَارِيثُ وَعَلَى ظَاهِرِهِ جَمَاعَةُ النَّاسِ وَالإيمَانُ الْهُدَى وَمَا يَثْبُتُ فِي الْقُلُوبِ مِنْ صِفَةِ الإسْلامِ وَمَا ظَهَرَ مِنَ الْعَمَلِ بِهِ وَالإيمَانُ أَرْفَعُ مِنَ الإسْلامِ بِدَرَجَةٍ إِنَّ الإيمَانَ يُشَارِكُ الإسْلامَ فِي الظَّاهِرِ وَالإسْلامَ لا يُشَارِكُ الإيمَانَ فِي الْبَاطِنِ وَإِنِ اجْتَمَعَا فِي الْقَوْلِ وَالصِّفَةِ.


1. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated Ahmad ibn Muhammad from al-Hassan ibn Mahbub from Jamil ibn Salih from Sama’a who has said the following: “I requested abu ‘Abd Allah (a.s.) ‘Teach me about Islam and belief. Are they different?’ He said, ‘Belief is inclusive of Islam but Islam is not inclusive of belief.’ I then asked, ‘Please describe them to me.’ He said, ‘Islam is to testify that no one deserves to be worshipped except Allah and to affirm the truthfulness of the Messenger of Allah. With it lives are protected, marriages and inheritance become lawful and a group of people acknowledge this much. Belief is guidance and that which forms in the heart of the qualities of Islam and that which takes form from its practice. Belief is a degree higher than Islam. Belief is inclusive of Islam in appearance but Islam is not inclusive of belief esoterically even though they may both apply to words and in description.’”


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Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: موثق - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (7/151)



2ـ عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ يُونُسَ بْنِ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ عَنْ مُوسَى بْنِ بَكْرٍ عَنْ فُضَيْلِ بْنِ يَسَارٍ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيهِ السَّلام) قَالَ الإيمَانُ يُشَارِكُ الإسْلامَ وَالإسْلامُ لا يُشَارِكُ الإيمَانَ.


2. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from Muhammad ibn ‘Isa from Yunus ibn ‘Abd al- Rahman from Musa ibn Bakr from Fudayl ibn Yasar from abu ‘Abd Allah (a.s.) who has said the following: “Belief is inclusive of Islam but Islam is not inclusive of belief.”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف كالموثق - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (7/153)



3ـ عَلِيٌّ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ عَنْ جَمِيلِ بْنِ دَرَّاجٍ عَنْ فُضَيْلِ بْنِ يَسَارٍ قَالَ سَمِعْتُ أَبَا عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيهِ السَّلام) يَقُولُ إِنَّ الإيمَانَ يُشَارِكُ الإسْلامَ وَلا يُشَارِكُهُ الإسْلامُ إِنَّ الإيمَانَ مَا وَقَرَ فِي الْقُلُوبِ وَالإسْلامَ مَا عَلَيْهِ الْمَنَاكِحُ وَالْمَوَارِيثُ وَحَقْنُ الدِّمَاءِ وَالإيمَانَ يَشْرَكُ الإسْلامَ وَالإسْلامَ لا يَشْرَكُ الإيمَانَ‏.


3. Ali has narrated from his father from ibn abu ‘Umayr from Jamil ibn Darraj from Fudayl ibnYasar who has said the following: “I heard abu ‘Abd Allah (a.s.) saying, ‘Belief is inclusive of Islam but Islam is not inclusive of it. Belief is what sits in the heart and Islam is that which legalizes marriages and inheritance and protects lives. Belief is inclusive of Islam but Islam is not inclusive of belief.’”


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Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: حسن كالصحيح - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (153/ 7)



4ـ عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ خَالِدٍ عَنِ الْحَسَنِ بْنِ مَحْبُوبٍ عَنْ أَبِي الصَّبَّاحِ الْكِنَانِيِّ قَالَ قُلْتُ لأبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيهِ السَّلام) أَيُّهُمَا أَفْضَلُ الإيمَانُ أَوِ الإسْلامُ فَإِنَّ مَنْ قِبَلَنَا يَقُولُونَ إِنَّ الإسْلامَ أَفْضَلُ مِنَ الإيمَانِ فَقَالَ الإيمَانُ أَرْفَعُ مِنَ الإسْلامِ قُلْتُ فَأَوْجِدْنِي ذَلِكَ قَالَ مَا تَقُولُ فِيمَنْ أَحْدَثَ فِي الْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ مُتَعَمِّداً قَالَ قُلْتُ يُضْرَبُ ضَرْباً شَدِيداً قَالَ أَصَبْتَ قَالَ فَمَا تَقُولُ فِيمَنْ أَحْدَثَ فِي الْكَعْبَةِ مُتَعَمِّداً قُلْتُ يُقْتَلُ قَالَ أَصَبْتَ أَ لا تَرَى أَنَّ الْكَعْبَةَ أَفْضَلُ مِنَ الْمَسْجِدِ وَأَنَّ الْكَعْبَةَ تَشْرَكُ الْمَسْجِدَ وَالْمَسْجِدُ لا يَشْرَكُ الْكَعْبَةَ وَكَذَلِكَ الإيمَانُ يَشْرَكُ الإسْلامَ وَالإسْلامُ لا يَشْرَكُ الإيمَانَ.


4. A number of our people have narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Khalid from al-Hassan ibn Mahbub from abu al- Sabah al-Kinani who has said the following: “I asked abu ‘Abd Allah (a.s.) ‘Which is better, belief or Islam? Certain people say Islam is better than belief.’ The Imam said, ‘Belief is higher than Islam.’ I then said, ‘Help me understand it.’ He said, ‘What do you say if one commits, purposely, an act of heresy in Masjid al-Haram (Sacred Mosque)?’ I said, ‘He should be made to suffer severe pains.’ The Imam responded, ‘You said the right thing. What if one commits such a thing, purposely, inside the Ka’ba?’ I said, ‘He must be put to death.’ The Imam responded, ‘You said the right thing again. Do you note that Ka’ba is better than the Sacred Mosque? The Ka’ba is inclusive of the Mosque (in excellence) but the Mosque is not inclusive of the Ka’ba in this respect. In the same way belief is inclusive of Islam but Islam is not inclusive of belief.’”


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Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: صحيح - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (153/ 7)



5ـ عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ سَهْلِ بْنِ زِيَادٍ وَمُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ جَمِيعاً عَنِ ابْنِ مَحْبُوبٍ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ رِئَابٍ عَنْ حُمْرَانَ بْنِ أَعْيَنَ عَنْ أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ (عَلَيهِ السَّلام) قَالَ سَمِعْتُهُ يَقُولُ الإيمَانُ مَا اسْتَقَرَّ فِي الْقَلْبِ وَأَفْضَى بِهِ إِلَى الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ وَصَدَّقَهُ الْعَمَلُ بِالطَّاعَةِ لله وَالتَّسْلِيمِ لأمْرِهِ وَالإسْلامُ مَا ظَهَرَ مِنْ قَوْلٍ أَوْ فِعْلٍ وَهُوَ الَّذِي عَلَيْهِ جَمَاعَةُ النَّاسِ مِنَ الْفِرَقِ كُلِّهَا وَبِهِ حُقِنَتِ الدِّمَاءُ وَعَلَيْهِ جَرَتِ الْمَوَارِيثُ وَجَازَ النِّكَاحُ وَاجْتَمَعُوا عَلَى الصَّلاةِ وَالزَّكَاةِ وَالصَّوْمِ وَالْحَجِّ فَخَرَجُوا بِذَلِكَ مِنَ الْكُفْرِ وَأُضِيفُوا إِلَى الإيمَانِ وَالإسْلامُ لا يَشْرَكُ الإيمَانَ وَالإيمَانُ يَشْرَكُ الإسْلامَ وَهُمَا فِي الْقَوْلِ وَالْفِعْلِ يَجْتَمِعَانِ كَمَا صَارَتِ الْكَعْبَةُ فِي الْمَسْجِدِ وَالْمَسْجِدُ لَيْسَ فِي الْكَعْبَةِ وَكَذَلِكَ الإيمَانُ يَشْرَكُ الإسْلامَ وَالإسْلامُ لا يَشْرَكُ الإيمَانَ وَقَدْ قَالَ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ قالَتِ الأعْرابُ آمَنَّا قُلْ لَمْ تُؤْمِنُوا وَلكِنْ قُولُوا أَسْلَمْنا وَلَمَّا يَدْخُلِ الإيمانُ فِي قُلُوبِكُمْ فَقَوْلُ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ أَصْدَقُ الْقَوْلِ قُلْتُ فَهَلْ لِلْمُؤْمِنِ فَضْلٌ عَلَى الْمُسْلِمِ فِي شَيْ‏ءٍ مِنَ الْفَضَائِلِ وَالأحْكَامِ وَالْحُدُودِ وَغَيْرِ ذَلِكَ فَقَالَ لا هُمَا يَجْرِيَانِ فِي ذَلِكَ مَجْرَى وَاحِدٍ وَلَكِنْ لِلْمُؤْمِنِ فَضْلٌ عَلَى الْمُسْلِمِ فِي أَعْمَالِهِمَا وَمَا يَتَقَرَّبَانِ بِهِ إِلَى الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ قُلْتُ أَ لَيْسَ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ يَقُولُ مَنْ جاءَ بِالْحَسَنَةِ فَلَهُ عَشْرُ أَمْثالِها وَزَعَمْتَ أَنَّهُمْ مُجْتَمِعُونَ عَلَى الصَّلاةِ وَالزَّكَاةِ وَالصَّوْمِ وَالْحَجِّ مَعَ الْمُؤْمِنِ قَالَ أَ لَيْسَ قَدْ قَالَ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ فَيُضاعِفَهُ لَهُ أَضْعافاً كَثِيرَةً فَالْمُؤْمِنُونَ هُمُ الَّذِينَ يُضَاعِفُ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ لَهُمْ حَسَنَاتِهِمْ لِكُلِّ حَسَنَةٍ سَبْعُونَ ضِعْفاً فَهَذَا فَضْلُ الْمُؤْمِنِ وَيَزِيدُهُ الله فِي حَسَنَاتِهِ عَلَى قَدْرِ صِحَّةِ إِيمَانِهِ أَضْعَافاً كَثِيرَةً وَيَفْعَلُ الله بِالْمُؤْمِنِينَ مَا يَشَاءُ مِنَ الْخَيْرِ قُلْتُ أَ رَأَيْتَ مَنْ دَخَلَ فِي الإسْلامِ أَ لَيْسَ هُوَ دَاخِلاً فِي الإيمَانِ فَقَالَ لا وَلَكِنَّهُ قَدْ أُضِيفَ إِلَى الإيمَانِ وَخَرَجَ مِنَ الْكُفْرِ وَسَأَضْرِبُ لَكَ مَثَلاً تَعْقِلُ بِهِ فَضْلَ الإيمَانِ عَلَى الإسْلامِ أَ رَأَيْتَ لَوْ بَصُرْتَ رَجُلاً فِي الْمَسْجِدِ أَ كُنْتَ تَشْهَدُ أَنَّكَ رَأَيْتَهُ فِي الْكَعْبَةِ قُلْتُ لا يَجُوزُ لِي ذَلِكَ قَالَ فَلَوْ بَصُرْتَ رَجُلاً فِي الْكَعْبَةِ أَ كُنْتَ شَاهِداً أَنَّهُ قَدْ دَخَلَ الْمَسْجِدَ الْحَرَامَ قُلْتُ نَعَمْ قَالَ وَكَيْفَ ذَلِكَ قُلْتُ إِنَّهُ لا يَصِلُ إِلَى دُخُولِ الْكَعْبَةِ حَتَّى يَدْخُلَ الْمَسْجِدَ فَقَالَ قَدْ أَصَبْتَ وَأَحْسَنْتَ ثُمَّ قَالَ كَذَلِكَ الإيمَانُ وَالإسْلامُ.


5. A number of our people have narrated from Sahl ibn Ziyad and Muhammad ibn Yahya from Ahmad ibn Muhammad all of them from ibn Mahbub from Ali ibn Ri’ab from Humran ibn A’yun who has said the following: “I heard from Abu Ja’far (a.s.) saying, ‘Belief is what settles down in the heart and takes it to Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Holy. One’s deeds testify to (its existence), (deeds) that come in the form of obedience to Allah and submission to His command. Islam is what appears through one’s words or deeds and that is what a group of people of all the sects live by. Through Islam lives are protected, inheritance is settled thereby, marriages become lawful and they have the prayer, al-Zakat (charity), the fasting and al-Hajj in common. This takes them out of rejection of belief and they are ascribed to belief. Islam is not inclusive of belief while belief is inclusive of Islam, but words and deeds are common among them. Just as the case of Holy Ka’ba is in the Sacred Mosque but the Sacred Mosque is not in the Holy Ka’ba so is belief that is inclusive of Islam but Islam is not inclusive of belief. Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Holy, has said, “The Arabs have said, ‘We have established belief.’ Say, “You have not established belief but say, ‘We have accepted Islam.’ Belief has not yet entered your hearts.”” (49:14) Therefore, the words of Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Holy, are the most truthful ones.’ 1 then said, ‘Does a believer have any distinction over a Muslim in terms of excellence, rules and judicial matters and so forth?’ He said, ‘No, they both in this matter walk the same path. However, a believer has distinction over a Muslim in the form of deeds through which he seeks nearness to Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Holy.’ I said, ‘Does Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Holy, not say, “Whoever does a good deed for him the reward will be tenfold. . . .” (6:160) You just stated that they both accept the obligations of the prayer, al-Zakat (charity), the fasting and al-Hajj.’ He (the Imam) said, ‘Has Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Holy, not said, “. . . He will add to his reward many additions.” (2:245) Believers are the ones to whose good deeds Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Holy, increases seventy times. Thus is the distinction of the believer. Allah increases to his (believer’s) good deeds, proportionate to the degree of the correctness of his belief, many additions. Allah does good to the believer as He wishes.’ I said, ‘Is it not that whoever enters in Islam has entered belief?’ He said, ‘No, but he is ascribed to belief and has come out of rejection, and I will give you an example that will help understand the distinction of belief over Islam. Consider, if you see a person in the Sacred Mosque, do you testify that you have seen him in the Holy Ka’ba?’ I said, ‘No, that is not permissible for me.’ He said, ‘If you see a person in the Holy Ka’ba will you testify that he has entered the Sacred Mosque?’ I said, ‘Yes, I will do so.’ He asked, ‘Why do you do so?’ I said, ‘He cannot reach the Holy Ka’aba without entering first the Sacred Mosque.’ He said, ‘You said the right thing and you did well.’ He then said, ‘Thus, are Islam and belief.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: حسن - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (154/ 7)