58. Privilege and Adversity

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1 - حدثنا علي بن أحمد بن محمد بن عمران الدقاق رحمه الله قال: حدثنا محمد بن يعقوب، قال: حدثنا علي بن محمد رفعه عن شعيب العقرقوفي، عن أبي بصير، قال: كنت بين يدي أبي عبد الله عليه السلام جالسا وقد سأله سائل فقال: جعلت فداك يا ابن رسول الله من أين لحق الشقاء أهل المعصية حتى حكم لهم في علمه بالعذاب على عملهم، فقال أبو عبد الله عليه السلام: أيها السائل علم الله عز وجل ألا يقوم أحد من خلقه بحقه، فلما علم بذلك وهب لأهل محبته القوة على معرفته ووضع عنهم ثقل العمل بحقيقة ما هم أهله ووهب لأهل المعصية القوة على معصيتهم لسبق علمه فيهم ولم يمنعهم إطاقة القبول منه لأن علمه أولى بحقيقة التصديق، فوافقوا ما سبق لهم في علمه، وإن قدروا أن يأتوا خلالا تنجيهم عن معصيته وهو معنى شاء ما شاء، وهو سر .


1. `Ali ibn Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn `Imran al-Daqqaq said: Muhammad ibn Ya`qub said: `Ali ibn Muhammad said who eliminated the source of the report, on the authority of Shu`ayb al`Aqarqufi, on the authority of Abu Baisr that I was sitting before Abu `Abd Allah al-Sadiq (AS) and a questioner asked him, “May I be your ransom, O son of the Messenger of Allah (SA)! How does adversity reach the sinners so that He punished them for their actions out of His Knowledge? Abu `Abd Allah (AS) replied, O questioner, Allah, the Mighty and High, knows that no one from His Creation can truly rise. When He knows this, He bestowed His lovers the strength for His recognition and took away from them the weightiness of the action with the reality of what they deserve. He gave the disobedient the strength through which they disobey. Due to His prior Knowledge, He did not prohibit them from accepting Him because His Knowledge is better about the reality of confirmation. They act in accord with His Prior Knowledge, despite the fact they ar able to desist from His disobedience. This is the meaning of `He wills what He wills’, and it is a secret.




2 - حدثنا محمد بن الحسن بن أحمد بن الوليد رحمه الله، قال: حدثنا محمد بن الحسن الصفار، قال: حدثنا محمد بن الحسين بن أبي الخطاب، عن علي بن أسباط، عن علي بن أبي حمزة، عن أبي بصير، عن أبي عبد الله عليه السلام في قول الله عز وجل: ﴿قالوا ربنا غلبت علينا شقوتنا﴾ (١) قال: بأعمالهم شقوا.


2. Muhammad ibn al-Hasan ibn Ahmad ibn al-Walid (RA) said: Muhammad ibn al-Hasan alSaffar said: Muhammad ibn al-Husayn ibn Abu al-Khattab said, on the authority of `Ali ibn Asbat, on the authority of `Ali ibn Abu Hamzah, on the authority of Abu Basir that Abu `Abd Allah (A)S about the Word of Allah, the Mighty and High: They shall say: O our Lord! Our adversity overcame us. He (AS) said: “They faced adversity as a result of their actions.”




3 - حدثنا الشريف أبو علي محمد بن أحمد بن محمد بن عبد الله بن الحسن بن الحسين بن علي بن الحسين بن علي بن أبي طالب عليهم السلام قال: حدثنا علي بن محمد ابن قتيبة النيسابوري، عن الفضل بن شاذان، عن محمد بن أبي عمير، قال: سألت أبا الحسن موسى بن جعفر عليهما السلام عن معنى قول رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله: (الشقي من شقي في بطن أمه والسعيد من سعد في بطن أمه) فقال: الشقي من علم الله وهو في بطن أمه أنه سيعمل أعمال الأشقياء (٢) والسعيد من علم الله وهو في بطن أمه أنه سيعمل أعمال السعداء، قلت له: فما معنى قوله صلى الله عليه وآله: (اعملوا فكل ميسر لما خلق الله)؟ فقال: إن الله عز وجل خلق الجن والإنس ليعبدوه ولم يخلقهم ليعصوه، وذلك قوله عز وجل: ﴿وما خلقت الجن والإنس إلا ليعبدون﴾ فيسر كلا لما خلق له، فالويل لمن استحب العمى على الهدى.


3. Al-Sharif Abu `Ali Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn `Abd Allah ibn al-Hasan ibn al-Husayn ibn `Ali ibn al-Husayn ibn `Ali ibn Abu Talib (AS) said: `Ali ibn Muhammad ibn Qutaybah al-Naysaburi said, on the authority of al-Fadl ibn Shadhan, on the authority of Muhammad ibn Abu `Umayr that I asked Abu al-Hasan Musa ibn Ja`far (AS) about the meaning of the Word of the Messenger of Allah (SA): “The adverse is one who had been adverse in the womb of his mother, and the privileged in one who had been privileged in womb of his mother.” So he (AS) replied, The adverse person is he who Allah knows from the womb of his mother that he will perform the deeds of the adverse. And the privileged person is the one who Allah knows from the womb of his mother that he will perform the deeds of the privileged. I asked him, ,”Then what is the meaning of his (SA) Word: `All of you act! Everything has been made easy when created.’” He replied, Verily, Allah, the Mighty and High, created the jinn and the human beings to serve Him and not to disobey Him. Hence, the Word of the Mighty and High: And I have not created the jinn and the men except that they should serve Me. Therefore, He made everything easy when He created it. Woe to him who preferred blindness over guidance.




4 - أبي رحمه الله قال: حدثنا سعد بن عبد الله، عن أحمد بن محمد بن خالد، عن أبيه، عن النضر بن سويد، عن يحيى بن عمران الحلبي، عن معلى أبي عثمان عن علي بن حنظلة، عن أبي عبد الله عليه السلام أنه قال: يسلك بالسعيد طريق الأشقياء حتى يقول الناس: ما أشبهه بهم بل هو منهم ثم يتداركه السعادة، وقد يسلك بالشقي طريق السعداء حتى يقول الناس: ما أشبهه بهم بل هو منهم ثم يتداركه الشقاء. إن من علمه الله تعالى سعيدا وإن لم يبق من الدنيا إلا فواق ناقة ختم له بالسعادة.


4. My father (RA) said: Sa`d ibn `Abd Allah said, on the authority of Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Khalid, on the authority of his father, on the authority of al-Nadr ibn Suwayd, on the authority of Yahya ibn `Imran al-Halabi, on the authority of Mu`alla Abu `Uthman, on the authority of `Ali ibn Hanzalah that Abu `Abd Allah al-Sadiq (AS) said: The privileged will enter the path of the adverse until the people say: `He is so similar to them that he must be one of them.’ Then the privilege reaches him. And sometimes the adverse enters the path of the privileged until the people says: `He is so similar to them that he must be one of them.’ Then adversity reaches him. Verily, whoever Allah, the Exalted, knows to be privileged, He will bring his life to an end with privilege, even if the only time that remains tin the world is the hiccup of a she-camel.




5 - حدثنا محمد بن الحسن بن أحمد بن الوليد رحمه الله، قال: حدثنا محمد بن الحسن الصفار، عن يعقوب بن يزيد، عن صفوان بن يحيى، عن منصور بن حازم، عن أبي عبد الله عليه السلام، قال: إن الله عز وجل خلق السعاة والشقاوة قبل أن يخلق خلقه فمن علمه الله سعيدا لم يبغضه أبدا، وإن عمل شرا أبغض عمله ولم يبغضه، وإن كان علمه شقيا لم يحبه أبدا، وإن عمل صالحا أحب عمله وأبغضه لما يصير إليه، فإذا أحب الله شيئا لم يبغضه أبدا، وإذا أبغض شيئا لم يحبه أبدا.


5. Muhammad ibn al-Hasan ibn Ahmad ibn al-Walid (RA) said: Muhammad ibn al-Hasan alSaffar said, on the authority of Ya`qub ibn Yazid, on the authority of Safwan ibn Yahya, on the authority of Mansur ibn Hazim that: Abu `Abd Allah al-Sadiq (AS) said: Verily, Allah, the Mighty and High, created privileged and adversity before He created His Creation. So whoever Allah knows to be privileged, Allah is never displeased with Him at any time. Even if he does an evil deed, Allah is displeased with the act, but not with him. If He knows someone to be adverse, Allah is displeased with Him at all times. Even if he does a good deed, Allah is please with the act, but displeased with him for what he will become. Thus, if Allah is pleased with something, then He never displeased with it; and if He is displeased with something, He is never pleased with it.


Grading:

Shaykh Hadi al-Najafi: صحيحة الإسناد - Mawsu'at Ahadith Ahlulbayt (5/397)



6 - حدثنا محمد بن الحسن بن أحمد بن الوليد رحمه الله، قال: حدثنا محمد بن الحسن الصفار، وسعد بن عبد الله جميعا، قالا: حدثنا أيوب بن نوح، عن محمد بن أبي عمير، عن هشام بن سالم، عن أبي عبد الله عليه السلام في قول الله عز وجل: ﴿واعلموا أن الله يحول بين المرء وقلبه﴾ قال: يحول بينه وبين أن يعلم أن الباطل حق وقد قيل: إن الله تبارك وتعالى يحول بين المرء وقلبه بالموت وقال أبو عبد الله عليه السلام: إن الله تبارك وتعالى ينقل العبد من الشقاء إلى السعادة ولا ينقله من السعادة إلى الشقاء. باب نفي الجبر والتفويض


6. Muhammad ibn al-Hasan ibn Ahmad ibn al-Walid (RA) said: Muhammad ibn al-Hasan alSaffar and Sa`d ibn `Abd Allah both said: Ayyub ibn Nuh said, on the authority of Muhammad ibn Abu `Umayr, on the authority of Hisham ibn Salim that Abu `Abd Allah al-Sadiq (AS) was asked to interpret the Word of Allah, the Mighty and High: And know that Allah intervenes between man and his heart. He (AS) said: “He intervenes between man and the belief that falsehood is the righteous.” It is also said: “Verily, Allah, the Blessed and Exalted, intervenes between man and his heart through death.” Abu `Abd Allah (AS) said: “Verily, Allah, the Blessed and Exalted, brings people from adversity to privilege, but does not bring people for privilege to adversity.”