41. He, the Mighty and High, in not Recognized, Except by Himself.

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1 - حدثنا علي بن أحمد بن محمد بن عمران الدقاق رحمه الله، قال: حدثنا محمد بن يعقوب الكليني، قال: حدثنا محمد بن إسماعيل، عن الفضل بن شاذان، عن صفوان بن يحيى، عن منصور بن حازم، قال: قلت لأبي عبد الله عليه السلام: إني ناظرت قومك فقلت لهم، إن الله أجل وأكرم من أن يعرف بخلقه، بل العباد يعرفون بالله فقال: رحمك الله.


1. `Ali ibn Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn `Imran al-Daqqaq (may Allah have mercy on him) said: Muhammad ibn Ya`qub al-Kulayni said: Muhammad ibn Isma`il said, on the authority of alFadl ibn Shadhan, on the authority of Safwan ibn Yahya, on the authority of Mansur ibn Hazim that I said to Abu `Abd Allah al-Sadiq (AS): “Verily, I debated with a group of people and said to them, `Verily, Allah is far above being recognized through His Creation. In fact, the servants are those who are recognized through Allah.” He replied, “May Allah have mercy on you!”




2 - حدثنا محمد بن الحسن بن أحمد بن الوليد رحمه الله، قال: حدثنا محمد بن الحسن الصفار، عن أحمد بن محمد بن خالد، عن بعض أصحابنا، عن علي بن عقبة بن قيس ابن سمعان بن أبي ربيحة مولى رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله رفعه، قال: سئل أمير المؤمنين عليه السلام بم عرفت ربك؟ فقال: بما عرفني نفسه، قيل: وكيف عرفك نفسه؟ فقال: لا تشبهه صورة، ولا يحس بالحواس، ولا يقاس بالناس، قريب في بعده، بعيد في قربه، فوق كل شئ ولا يقال: شئ فوقه، أمام كل شئ ولا يقال: له أمام، داخل في الأشياء لا كشئ في شئ داخل، وخارج من الأشياء لا كشئ من شئ خارج، سبحان من هو هكذا ولا هكذا غيره، ولكل شئ ومبتدء.


2. Muhammad ibn al-Hasan ibn Ahmad ibn al-Walid (RA) said: Muhammad ibn al-Hasan alSaffar said, on the authority of Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Khalid, on the authority of some of our scholars, on the authority of `Ali ibn `Uqbah ibn Qays ibn Sam`an ibn Abu Rabihah, the freed slave of the Messenger of Allah (SA), who hurried the transmission that The Commander of the Faithful was questioned, “With what do you recognize your Lord?” He (AS) answered, “With what He introduced Himself.” It was said: “How did He introduce Himself to you?” He (AS) replied, No image resembles Him. He is neither perceived by the senses, nor compared with the people. He is Near in His Farness, and Far in His Nearness. He is Above all Things. It cannot be said that “something is above Him,” as He is in front of everything. It cannot be said that “He has a front,” since He is Inside Everything, but without being contained. He is Outside of Everything, but without being absent from anything. Glory be Him! There is nothing like unto Him. He is the Originator of All Things.




3 - حدثني أبي رحمه الله، قال: حدثنا سعد بن عبد الله، عن أحمد بن محمد بن عيسى، عن محمد بن أبي عمير، عن محمد بن حمران عن الفضل بن السكن، عن أبي - عبد الله عليه السلام قال: قال أمير المؤمنين عليه السلام: اعرفوا الله بالله والرسول بالرسالة وأولي الأمر بالمعروف والعدل والاحسان .


3. My father (RA) related to me that Sa`d ibn `Abd Allah said, on the authority of Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn `Isa, on the authority of Muhammad ibn Abu `Umayr, on the authority of Muhammad ibn Humran, on the authority of al-Fadl ibn al-Sakan, on the authority of Abu `Abd Allah AS) that The Commander of the Faithful said: “Recognize Allah through Allah, the Messenger through the message, and the ones vested with authority [ulu al-amr] through their beneficence, justice, and good deeds.”




4 - حدثنا أبو الحسين محمد بن إبراهيم بن إسحاق الفارسي، قال: حدثنا أحمد بن محمد أبو سعيد النسوي، قال: حدثنا أبو نصر أحمد بن محمد بن عبد الله الصغدي بمرو قال: حدثنا محمد بن يعقوب بن الحكم العسكري وأخوه معاذ بن يعقوب قالا: حدثنا محمد بن سنان الحنظلي، قال: حدثنا عبد الله بن عاصم، قال: حدثنا عبد الرحمن بن قيس، عن أبي هاشم الرماني، عن زاذان، عن سلمان الفارسي في حديث طويل يذكر فيه قدوم الجاثليق المدينة مع مائة من النصارى وما سأل عنه أبا بكر فلم يجبه ثم أرشد إلى أمير المؤمنين علي بن أبي طالب عليه السلام فسأله عن مسائل فأجابه عنها، وكان فيما سأله أن قال له: أخبرني عرفت الله بمحمد أم عرفت محمدا بالله عز وجل؟ فقال علي بن أبي طالب عليه السلام: ما عرفت الله بمحمد صلى الله عليه وآله، و لكن عرفت محمدا بالله عز وجل حين خلقه وأحدث فيه الحدود من طول، وعرض، فعرفت أنه مدبر مصنوع باستدلال وإلهام منه وإرادة كما ألهم الملائكة طاعته و عرفهم نفسه بلا شبه ولا كيف . والحديث طويل أخذنا منه موضع الحاجة، وقد أخرجته بتمامه في آخر أجزاء كتاب النبوة.


4. Abu al-Husayn Muhammad ibn Ibrahim ibn Ishaq al-Farisi said: Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Abu Sa`id al-Nisawi said: Abu Nasr Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn `Abd Allah al-Sughdi said in Marw that Muhammad ibn Ya`qub ibn al-Hakam al-`Askari and his brother Mu`adh ibn Ya`qub both said: Muhammad ibn Sinan al-Hanzali said: `Abd Allah ibn `Asim said: `Abd al-Rahman ibn Qays said, on the authority of Abu Hashim al-Rummani, on the authority of Zadhan that Salman the Persian related the following detailed tradition concerning the coming of the Catholicos to Median with one hundred Christians and asking Abu Bakr questions. He could not answer so he guided them to the Commander of the Faithful `Ali ibn Abu Talib (AS). Therefore, he asked `Ali (AS) some questions; thus, he answered them all. Among the questions the Catholicos asked him was: “Tell me. Did you recognize Allah through Muhammad or di you recognize Muhammad through Allah, the Mighty and High?” `Ali ibn Abu Talib (AS) replied, I did not recognize Allah through Muhammad (SA), but I recognized Muhammad through Allah, the Mighty and High, when He created him and made in him the size of the length and breadth. Hence I recognized that He was the Planner of the Produced through reasoning, and inspiration, the same way He inspired His Angels to recognize and obey Him without any compeer and quality. The Compiler of this book says: The tradition is long. We have extracted from it the required passage. I have transmitted all of it in the end of the book Al-Nubuwwah.




5 - حدثنا علي بن أحمد بن محمد بن عمران الدقاق رحمه الله، قال: سمعت محمد بن يعقوب يقول: معنى قوله (اعرفوا الله بالله) يعني: أن الله عز وجل خلق الأشخاص والألوان والجواهر، فالأعيان الأبدان، والجواهر الأرواح، وهو عز وجل لا يشبه جسما ولا روحا، وليس لأحد في خلق الروح الحساس الدراك أثر ولا سبب، هو المتفرد بخلق الأرواح والأجسام، فمن نفي عنه الشبهين: شبه الأبدان وشبه الأرواح فقد عرف الله بالله، ومن شبهه بالروح أو البدن أو النور فلم يعرف الله بالله.


5. `Ali ibn Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn `Imran al-Daqqaq (RA) said: Muhammad ibn Ya`qub said: The meaning of” “recognize Allah through Allah” is that Allah, the Mighty and High, created persons, colors, and substances. Therefore, the essences are bodies and the substances are spirits. He, the Mighty and High, resembles neither body nor spirit. Nobody has any effect or cause in creation of a sensitive, perceiving spirit. He is Matchless in the creation of spirits, and bodies. Therefore, whoever negates from Him the two likenesses – the likeness of bodies and the likeness of spirits – recognizes Allah through Allah. And whoever views Him as a body, a spirit or a light, has not recognized Allah through Allah.




6 - حدثنا أحمد بن زياد بن جعفر الهمداني رحمه الله، قال: حدثنا علي بن إبراهيم بن هاشم، عن أبيه، عن محمد بن سنان، عن زياد بن المنذر، عن أبي جعفر محمد بن علي الباقر، عن أبيه، عن جده عليهم السلام أنه قال: إن رجلا قام إلى أمير المؤمنين عليه السلام فقال: يا أمير المؤمنين بماذا عرفت ربك؟ قال: بفسخ العزم و نقض الهم، لما هممت فحيل بيني وبين همي، وعزمت فخالف القضاء عزمي علمت أن المدبر غيري، قال: فبماذا شكرت نعماءه؟ قال: نظرت إلى بلاء قد صرفه عني وأبلى به غيري فعلمت أنه قد أنعم علي فشكرته، قال: فلما ذا أحببت لقاءه، قال: لما رأيته قد أختار لي دين ملائكته ورسله وأنبيائه علمت أن الذي أكرمني بهذا ليس ينساني فأحببت لقاءه.


6. Ahmad ibn Ziyad ibn Ja`far al-Hamdani (RA) said: `Ali ibn Ibrahim ibn Hashim said, on the authority of is father, on the authority of Muhammad ibn Sinan, on the authority of Ziyad ibn alMundhar, on the authority of Abu Ja`far Muhammad ibn `Ali al-Baqir (AS), on the authority of his father, on the authority of his grandfather (AS) that Verily, a man stood before the Commander of the Faithful (AS) and asked, “O Commander of the Faithful! With what did you recognize your Lord?” He replied, “Through abolishment of decision and invalidation of ambition. When I had an ambition, something obstructed my ambition. And when I mad a decision, the Divine Decree opposed my decision. Hence, I came to know that the Planner was other than me.” He asked, “Then with what did you thank Him?” He (AS) answered, “I looked at a tribulation, which He took away from me, and with which he afflicted someone else. Hence, I learned that He had bless me, and so I thanked Him.” The man, asked, “Why do you desire to meet Him?” Imam (AS) replied, “When I saw him choosing the religion of His angels, Messengers and Prophets (AS), I learned that He had honored me with this, and did not forget me. Hence, I desire to meet Him.”




7 - حدثنا أحمد بن محمد بن عبد الرحمن المروزي المقري، قال: حدثنا أبو عمرو محمد بن جعفر المقري، قال: حدثنا محمد بن الحسن الموصلي ببغداد قال: حدثنا محمد بن عاصم الطريفي، قال: حدثنا عياش بن يزيد بن الحسن بن علي الكحال مولى زيد بن علي قال: حدثني أبي، قال: حدثني موسى بن جعفر عليهما السلام، قال: قال قوم للصادق عليه السلام: ندعو فلا يستجاب لنا، قال: لأنكم تدعون من لا تعرفونه.


7. Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Abd al-Rahman al-Marwazi al-Muqri said: Abu `Amr Muhammad ibn Ja`far al-Muqri said: Muhammad ibn al-Hasan al-Musili said in Baghdad that Muhammad ibn `Asim al-Tarifi said: `Ayyash ibn Yazid ibn al-Hasanibn `Ali al-Kahhal freed salve of Zayd ibn `Ali said: my father related to me that Musa ibn Ja`far (AS) related to me that a group of people said to al-Sadiq (AS), “We pray but our prayers are not granted.” He (AS) responded, “If that is the case, it is because you pray to One whom you do not truly recognize.”




8 - حدثنا الحسين بن أحمد بن إدريس رحمه الله، قال: حدثنا أبي قال: حدثنا إبراهيم بن هاشم، عن محمد بن أبي عمير، عن هشام بن سالم، قال: سئل أبو عبد الله عليه السلام فقيل له: بما عرفت ربك؟ قال: بفسخ العزم ونقض الهم عزمت ففسخ عزمي، وهممت فنقض همي.


8. Al-Husayn ibn Ahmad ibn Idris (RA) said: my father said: Ibrahim ibn Hashim said, on the authority of Muhammad ibn Abu `Umayr, on the authority of Hisham ibn Salim that Abu `Abd Allah al-Sadiq (AS) was asked, “How did you recognize your Lord?’ He (AS) replied, “Through abolishment of decision and invalidation of ambition. My decision was abolished, and when I had an ambition it was invalidated.”




9 - حدثنا الحسين بن إبراهيم بن أحمد بن هشام المؤدب رضي الله عنه، قال: حدثنا محمد بن أبي عبد الله الكوفي، قال: حدثنا محمد بن إسماعيل البرمكي قال: حدثنا محمد بن عبد الرحمن الخزاز الكوفي، قال: حدثنا سليمان بن جعفر قال: حدثنا علي بن الحكم، قال: حدثنا هشام بن سالم، قال: حضرت محمد بن النعمان الأحول فقام إليه رجل فقال له: بم عرفت ربك؟ قال بتوفيقه وإرشاده وتعريفه وهدايته، قال: فخرجت من عنده، فلقيت هشام بن الحكم فقلت له: ما أقول لمن يسألني فيقول لي بم عرفت ربك؟ فقال: إن سأل سائل فقال: بم عرفت ربك؟ قلت: عرفت الله جل جلاله بنفسي (١) لأنها أقرب الأشياء إلي، وذلك أني أجدها أبعاضا مجتمعة وأجزاء مؤتلفة، ظاهرة التركيب، متبينة الصنعة، مبينة على ضروب من التخطيط والتصوير، زائدة من بعد نقصان، وناقصة من بعد زيادة، قد أنشأ لها حواس مختلفة، وجوارح متباينة - من بصر وسمع وشام وذائق ولا مس - مجبولة على الضعف والنقص والمهانة، لا تدرك واحدة منها مدرك صاحبتها ولا تقوى على ذلك، عاجزة عند اجتلاب المنافع إليها، ودفع المضار عنها، و استحال في العقول وجود تأليف لا مؤلف له، وثبات صورة لا مصور لها، فعلمت أن لها خالقا خلقها، ومصورا صورها، مخالفا لها على جميع جهاتها (٢) قال الله عز وجل ﴿وفي أنفسكم أفلا تبصرون﴾ .


9. Al-Husayn ibn Ibrahim ibn Ahmad ibn Hisham al-Mu`addab (RA) said: Muhammad ibn Abu `Abd Allah al-Kufi said: Muhammad ibn Isma`il al-Barmaki said: Muhammad ibn `Abd alRahman al-Khazzaz al-Kufi said: Sulayman ibn Ja`far said: `Ali ibn al-Hakam said: Hisham ibn Salim said I was in the presence of Muhammad ibn al-Mu`man al-Ahwal, when a man stood up before him, and asked him, “How did you recognize your Lord?” He replied, “By means of His Direction, His Instruction, His Introduction, and His Guidance.” He says: I left his presence, and met with Hisham ibn al-Hakam, so I asked him, “What should I say to someone who asks me: how did you recognize your Lord?” Hisham relied, “If someone asked me: what did you recognize your Lord with? I would say: I recognized Allah, High be His Glory, though my own body as that is the thing which is the closest to me. Verily, my body is composed of assembled parts and formed of components which were created, the subject of intelligent design, and engineering. My body increases after decrease, and is reduced after enlargement. My body has different senses, like sight, hearing, smell, taste, and touch, as well as different limbs. My body was created in weakness, deficiency and contempt. None of the sense can perceive the function of the other, nor do they have strength over others. They are incapable of attracting benefits to themselves and preventing harm to themselves. Wisdom dictates that it is impossible for something to be compiled without a compiler, and that it is impossible for an image to be made without an artist. Thus, I learned that my body has a Creator, and that my image was made by an Artist, Who is contrary to them from all dimensions. Allah, the Mighty and High, has said: And in your own souls (too); will you not then see.




10 - حدثنا علي بن أحمد بن محمد بن عمران الدقاق رحمه الله، قال: حدثنا محمد بن جعفر أبو الحسين الأسدي، قال: حدثنا الحسين بن المأمون القرشي عن عمر بن عبد العزيز، عن هشام بن الحكم، قال: قال لي أبو شاكر الديصاني: إن لي مسألة تستأذن لي على صاحبك، فإني قد سألت عنها جماعة من العلماء فما أجابوني بجواب مشبع، فقلت: هل لك أن تخبرني بها فلعل عندي جوابا ترتضيه فقال: إني أحب أن ألقى بها أبا عبد الله عليه السلام، فاستأذنت له فدخل فقال له: أتأذن لي في السؤال؟ فقال له: سل عما بدا لك، فقال له: ما الدليل على أن لك صانعا؟ فقال: وجدت نفسي لا تخلو من إحدى جهتين: إما أن أكون صنعتها أنا أو صنعها غيري، فإن كنت صنعتها أنا فلا أخلو من أحد معنيين: إما أن أكون صنعتها و كانت موجودة، أو صنعتها وكانت معدومة، فإن كنت صنعتها وكانت موجودة فقد استغنت بوجودها عن صنعتها، وإن كانت معدومة فإنك تعلم أن المعدوم لا يحدث شيئا فقد ثبت المعنى الثالث أن لي صانعا وهو الله رب العالمين فقام وما أحار جوابا. قال مصنف هذا الكتاب: القول الصواب في هذا الباب هو أن يقال: عرفنا الله بالله لأنا إن عرفناه بعقولنا فهو عز وجل واهبها، وإن عرفناه عز وجل بأنبيائه ورسله وحججه عليهم السلام فهو عز وجل باعثهم ومرسلهم ومتخذهم حججا، وإن عرفناه بأنفسنا فهو عز وجل محدثها، فبه عرفناه، وقد قال الصادق عليه السلام: (لولا الله ما عرفنا ولولا نحن ما عرف الله) ومعناه لولا الحجج ما عرف الله حق معرفته، ولولا الله ما عرف الحجج، وقد سمعت بعض أهل الكلام يقول: لو أن رجلا ولد في فلاة من الأرض ولم ير أحدا يهديه ويرشده حتى كبر وعقل ونظر إلى السماء والأرض لدله ذلك على أن لهما صانعا ومحدثا، فقلت: إن هذا شئ لم يكن، و هو إخبار بما لم يكن أن لو كان كيف كان يكون، ولو كان ذلك لكان لا يكون ذلك الرجل إلا حجة الله تعالى ذكره على نفسه، كما في الأنبياء عليهم السلام منهم من بعث إلى نفسه، ومنهم من بعث إلى أهله وولده، ومنهم من بعث إلى أهل محلته، ومنهم من بعث إلى أهل بلده، ومنهم من بعث إلى الناس كافة، وأما استدلال إبراهيم الخليل عليه السلام بنظره إلى الزهرة ثم إلى القمر ثم إلى الشمس، وقوله لما أفلت: (يا قوم إني برئ مما تشركون) فإنه عليه السلام كان نبيا ملهما مبعوثا مرسلا وكان جميعا قوله بإلهام الله عز وجل إياه، وذلك قوله عز وجل: ﴿وتلك حجتنا آتيناها إبراهيم على قومه﴾ (١) وليس كل أحد كإبراهيم عليه السلام، ولو استغنى في معرفة التوحيد بالنظر عن تعليم الله عز وجل وتعريفه لما أنزل الله عز وجل ما أنزل من قوله: ﴿فاعلم أنه لا إله إلا الله﴾ (٢) ومن قوله: (قل هو الله أحد - إلى آخرها) ومن قوله: ﴿بديع السماوات والأرض أنى يكون له ولد ولم تكن له صاحبة - إلى قوله - وهو اللطيف الخبير﴾ وآخر الحشر، وغيرها من آيات التوحيد . باب إثبات حدوث العالم


10. `Ali ibn Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn `Imran al-Daqqaq (RA) said: Muhammad ibn Ja`far Abu al-Husayn al-Asadi said: al-Husayn ibn al-Ma`mun al-Qarashi said, on the authority of `Umr ibn `Abd al-`Aziz, on the authority of Hisham ibn al-Hakam that Abu Shakir al-Daysani said to me: “Verily, I have a query; I want you to take permission for me from your companion. For I have certainly asked about it from many scholars. They have not been able to answer me with a satisfactory answer.” So I said: “Would you like to tell me the query. Perhaps I have an answer that would please you.” He replied, “I would certainly like to meet Abu `Abd Allah (AS) with this query.” So I obtained the permission for him and he entered his presence and asked him (AS), “Do you permit me to ask a question?” The Imam (AS) replied, “Ask what has come to you.” He asked, “How can you prove that you have a Creator?” Consequently, he (AS) responded, I found myself not free from one of two possibilities: either I have crated myself, or someone else has created me. If I have created myself, then I am not free from one of the two meanings: either I created myself while I was already existent, or I created myself while I was on nonexistent. Hence, if I created myself, and I already exited, then I was self-sufficient of giving existence to myself. And if I was nonexistent, then you know that the nonexistent cannot bring about a thing. Therefore, the third meaning is proved that I have a Creator and that is Allah, the Lord of the Universe. Al-Daysani got up and did not negate the answer. The Compiler of this book says: The correct statement in this chapter is to say: we have recognized Allah through Allah, because if we recognized Him through our intellects then He, the Mighty and High, is the Bestower of our intellects. And if we recognized Him, the Mighty and High, through His Prophets, Messengers and Proofs (AS) then He, the Mighty and High, is the One that delegates them, sends them, and the One who has taken them as His Proofs. If we have recognized Him though ourselves then He, the Mighty and High, is the One who brought us about. Thus, through Him we have recognized Him. Al-Sadiq (AS) has said: “If Allah did not exist then we (Imams) would not have been known, and if we were not there, then Allah would not be recognized.” The meaning of that is that if the Proofs did not exist, then Allah would not be recognized the way He deserves to be recognized, and if Allah did not exist, then the Proofs would not have been known. I have heard some theologians say: “Even if a person were born in a desert on earth and even if he found nobody to guide him until he becomes big, contemplating the heaves and the earth would be sufficient to guide him to the fact that there is One Creator who brought them about.” I would respond: Verily, this is something that has not happened, and it relates the news of something that has not happened. If it has happened, how could it be? If such a thing ever took place, then that man must have been a Proof of Allah, may His Remembrance of Himself be Exalted, or a Prophet (AS). Allah sent different type of Prophets. Some were individual Prophets, who were individually guided. Some were sent to their families, and children. Some were sent to the people in their region. Some were sent to the people in their city. And some were sent to all of humanity. As for the reasoning of Ibrahim (AS), the Friend of Allah, when he looked at Venus, the Moon, and the Sun, when they set he said: O people! Verily, I am free from the partners you ascribe to Allah. He (AS) was a Prophet who had inspiration, was delegate and sent by Allah. All of his words were through the inspiration of Allah, the Mighty and High. As we see in the Word of the Mighty and High: This is Our argument which We gave to Abraham rebutting his people. People are not all like Ibrahim (AS). If it were sufficient to simply think about Allah without the guidance and Direction of Allah, the Mighty and High, then why did Allah, the Mighty and High, reveal what He revealed of His Word: So know that there is no god but Allah, and His Word: Say: He Allah is One, and His Word: Wonderful Originator of heavens and the earth! How could He have a son when He has no consort and He is the Knower of subtleties, the Aware. Also the last verse of the chapter “The Banishment,” and other verses about Divine Unity.