11. Attributes of Essence and Attributes of Actions

Back to book

1 - حدثنا محمد بن علي ماجيلويه رحمه الله، قال: حدثنا علي بن إبراهيم بن هاشم، عن محمد بن خالد الطيالسي الخزاز الكوفي، عن صفوان بن يحيى، عن ابن مسكان، عن أبي بصير قال: سمعت أبا عبد الله عليه السلام يقول: لم يزل الله عز وجل ربنا والعلم ذاته ولا معلوم، والسمع ذاته ولا مسموع، والبصر ذاته ولا مبصر، و القدرة ذاته ولا مقدور، فلما أحدث الأشياء وكان المعلوم وقع العلم منه على المعلوم والسمع على المسموع، والبصر على المبصر، والقدرة على المقدور، قال: قلت: فلم يزل الله متكلما؟ قال: إن الكلام صفة محدثة ليست بأزلية، كان الله عز وجل ولا متكلم .


1. Muhammad ibn `Ali Majilwayh (may Allah have mercy on him) said: `Ali ibn Ibrahim ibn Hashim said on the authority Muhammad ibn Khalid al-Tayalisi al-Khazzaz al-Kufi on the authority of Safwan ibn Yahya on the authority of Ibn Muskan on the authority of Abu Basir that Abu `Abd Allah al-Sadiq (AS) said: Even in His Essence, and before anything existed, Allah, our Lord, the High and the Mighty, possessed all knowledge. Even in His Essence, and before a sound could be heard, He was AllHearing. Even in His Essence, when there was nothing to be seen, He was All-Seeing. Even in His Essence, when there was not physical existence, He was Omnipotent. Although they existed prior to creation, it was only creation that these attributes manifested themselves: His Hearing upon the heard, His Seeing upon the seen, and His Omnipotence over the physical world. He says: I asked, “Then, Allah was not a Speaker?” He (AS) replied, “Verily, speech is an accidental [muhdathah] attribute and not sempiternal [azaliyyah]. Allah, the Mighty and High, exited when no speakers existed.”




2 - حدثنا أبي رضي الله عنه، قال: حدثنا سعد بن عبد الله، قال: حدثنا محمد بن عيسى، عن إسماعيل بن سهل، عن حماد بن عيسى، قال: سألت أبا عبد الله عليه السلام فقلت: لم يزل الله يعلم؟ قال: أنى يكون يعلم ولا معلوم، قال: قلت: فلم يزل الله يسمع؟ قال: أنى يكون ذلك ولا مسموع، قال: قلت: فلم يزل يبصر؟ قال: أنى يكون ذلك ولا مبصر، قال: ثم قال: لم يزل الله عليما سميعا بصيرا، ذات علامة سميعة بصيرة.


2. My father (may Allah be pleased with him) said: Sa`d ibn Abd Allah said: Muhammad ibn `Isa said, on the authority of Isma`il ibn Sahl, on the authority of Hammad ibn `Isa that I asked Abu `Abd Allah al-Sadiq (AS): “Does Allah know everything from sempiternity?”He (AS) replied, “What was He to know when there was nothing to be known?” He says, I asked, “Does Allah hear from sempiternity?” He (AS) answered, “Who was He to hear when there was nothing to be heard?” He says, I asked, “Does Allah see from sempiternity?” He (AS) responded, “Who was He to see when there was nothing to be seen?” Then he (AS) said: “Allah has always been AllKnowing, All-Hearing, All-Seeing, sempiternally, and the Possessor of the Knowledge of Hearing and Seeing.”




3 - حدثنا علي بن أحمد بن محمد بن عمران الدقاق رحمه الله، قال: حدثنا محمد بن أبي عبد الله الكوفي، عن محمد بن إسماعيل البرمكي، قال: حدثنا الفضل بن سليمان الكوفي، عن الحسين بن الخالد، قال: سمعت الرضا علي بن موسى عليهما السلام، يقول: لم يزل الله تبارك وتعالى عليما قادرا حيا قديما سميعا بصيرا، فقلت له: يا ابن رسول الله إن قوما يقولون: إنه عز وجل لم يزل عالما بعلم، وقادرا بقدرة، وحيا بحياة، وقديما بقدم، وسميعا بسمع، وبصيرا ببصر فقال عليه السلام: من قال ذلك ودان به فقد اتخذ مع الله آلهة أخرى، وليس من ولايتنا على شئ، ثم قال عليه السلام: لم يزل الله عز وجل عليما قادر حيا قديما سميعا بصيرا لذاته، تعالى عما يقول المشركون والمشبهون علوا كبيرا.


3. `Ali ibn Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn `Imran al-Daqqaq (RA) said: Muhammad ibn Abu `Abd Allah al-Kufi said, on the authority of Muhammad ibn Isma`il al-Barmaki that al-Fadl ibn Sulayman al-Kufi said, on the authority of al-Husayn ibn al-Khalid saying that Al-Rida `Ali ibn Musa (AS) said: “Allah, the Blessed the Exalted, has always been All-Knowing, All-Powerful, Ever-Living [hay], Ever-Lasting [qadim], All-Hearing, and All-Seeing.” I asked him “O son of the Messenger of Allah! There is a group that says: `Allah has always been All-Knowing with Knowledge, All-Powerful with His Might, Ever-Living with His Life, EverLasting with His Past, All-Hearing with His Hearing, and All-Seeing with His Sight.” Thus, he (AS) replied, “Verily, whoever says this and believes in it is a polytheist. He is not under our Guardianship at all.” He then added, “Allah, the Mighty and High, has always been AllKnowing, All-Powerful, Ever-Living, Ever-Lasting, All-Hearing, and all-Seeing by His Essence. Exalted is He, the Elevated, the Great, from what the polytheists and anthropomorphists say.”




4 - حدثنا أحمد بن زياد بن جعفر الهمداني رضي الله عنه، قال: حدثنا علي بن إبراهيم بن هاشم، عن أبيه، عن محمد بن أبي عمير، عن هارون بن عبد الملك، قال: سئل أبو عبد الله عليه السلام عن التوحيد، فقال: هو عز وجل مثبت موجود، لا مبطل ولا معدود، ولا في شئ من صفة المخلوقين، وله عز وجل نعوت وصفات، فالصفات له، وأسماؤها جارية على المخلوقين مثل السميع والبصير والرؤوف والرحيم وأشباه ذلك، والنعوت نعوت الذات لا تليق إلا بالله تبارك وتعالى، والله نور لا ظلام فيه، وحي لا موت له، وعالم لا جهل فيه، وصمد لا مدخل فيه، ربنا نوري الذات حي الذات، عالم الذات، صمدي الذات.


4. Ahmad ibn Ziyad ibn Ja`far al-Hamdani (RA) said: `Ali ibn Ibrahim ibn Hashim said, on the authority of his father, on the authority of Muhammad ibn Abu `Umayr, on the authority of Harun ibn `Abd al-Malik that Abu `Abd Allah al-Sadiq (AS) was asked about Divine Unity; thus, he said: He, the Mighty and High, is undoubtedly Existent. He is not vain or numerable, nor can He be described on the basis of the attributes of creation. He, the Mighty an High, possesses Qualities [nu`ut] and Attributes [sifat]. There are Attributes which apply to Him which can also be applied to the created such a hearing [sami`], seeing [basir], affectionate [ra`ur], merciful [Rahim], and their likes. Whereas the Qualities are qualities of Essence; they do not befit anyone but Allah, the Blessed and Exalted. Allah is Light as there is no darkness in Him. He is Ever-Living as there is no death for Him. He is All-Knowing as there is no ignorance in Him. He is Needless [Samad] as there is no need in Him. Our Lord is Light by Essence, Ever-Living by Essence, All-Knowing by Essence, and Needless by Essence.




5 - حدثنا محمد بن علي ماجيلويه رحمه الله، قال: حدثني عمي محمد بن أبي القاسم، عن أحمد بن أبي عبد الله البرقي، عن أبيه، عن أحمد بن النضر الخزاز، عن عمرو بن شمر، عن جابر، عن أبي جعفر عليه السلام، قال: إن الله تبارك وتعالى كان ولا شئ غيره، نورا لا ظلام فيه وصادقا لا كذب فيه وعالما لا جهل فيه، وحيا لا موت فيه، وكذلك هو اليوم، وكذلك لا يزال أبدا.


5. Muhammad ibn `Ali Majilwayh (RA) said: My paternal uncle Muhammad ibn Abu al-Qasim related to me, on the authority of Ahmad ibn Abu `Abd Allah al Barqi, on the authority of his father, on the authority of Ahmad ibn al-Nadr al-Khazzaz, on the authority of `Amr ibn Shimr, on the authority of Jabir that Abu Ja`far al-Baqir (AS) said: Verily, Allah, the Blessed and Exalted, was there when there was nothing but Him. He was Light as there was no darkness in Him. He was the Truth as there was no falsehood in Him. He was Omniscient as there was no ignorance in Him. He was the EverLiving as there was no death in Him. And that is how He is today, and that is how He will remain forever.




6 - حدثنا محمد بن الحسن بن أحمد بن الوليد رحمه الله، قال: حدثنا محمد بن يحيى العطار، قال: حدثنا الحسين بن الحسن بن أبان، عن محمد بن أورمة، قال: حدثنا يحيى بن يحيى عن عبد الله بن الصامت، عن عبد الأعلى، عن العبد الصالح موسى بن جعفر عليهما السلام، قال: إن الله - لا إله إلا هو - كان حيا بلا كيف ولا أين، ولا كان في شئ، ولا كان على شئ، ولا ابتدع لمكانه مكانا ولا قوي بعد ما كون الأشياء، ولا يشبهه شئ يكون، ولا كان خلوا من القدرة على الملك قبل إنشائه، ولا يكون خلوا من القدرة بعد ذهابه، كان عز وجل إلها حيا بلا حياة حادثة، ملكا قبل أن ينشئ شيئا ومالكا بعد إنشائه، وليس لله حد، ولا يعرف بشئ يشبهه، ولا يهرم للبقاء، ولا يصعق لدعوة شئ ولخوفه تصعق الأشياء كلها، وكان الله حيا بلا حياة حادثة ولا كون موصوف، ولا كيف محدود ولا أين موقوف ولا مكان ساكن بل حي لنفسه، ومالك لم يزل له القدرة، أنشأ ما شاء حين شاء بمشيته و قدرته، كان أولا بلا كيف، ويكون آخرا بلا أين وكل شئ هالك إلا وجهه، له الخلق والأمر تبارك رب العالمين.


6. Muhammad ibn al-Hasan ibn Ahmad ibn al-Walid (RA) said: Muhammad ibn Yahya al-`Attar said: al-Husayn ibn al-Hasan ibn Aban said, on the authority of Muhammad ibn Auramah that Yahya ibn Yahya said on the authority of `Abd Allah ibn al-Samit, on the authority of `Abd al-A`la that Al-`Abd al-Salih Musa ibn Ja`far (AS) said: Verily, Allah, there is no god but He, is Ever-living, but not in terms of quality or place. He is not in thing or on anything. He has not created for His Position any space. He is not strengthened through creation. Nothing that he has created is like Him. He was not powerless over things before their creation, not will He be powerless over them after they have gone. He, the Mighty and High, is the Ever-Living god without accidental existence. He is the Sovereign before creating something and He is its Master after creating it. Allah does not have any limits. He is not recognized by a thing that may be His like. He is not subject to aging. He does not raise His Voice to invoke anything, and with His Fear all things become stunned. Allah is Ever-Living, and not the product of accidental existence or a depicted existence. He neither has a restricted quality, nor a still space, but He is Ever-Living by Himself and the Master who is Eternally Omnipotent. He created what He willed when He willed, with His Will and Power. He is the First without any quality, and the Last without any space. Everything is perishable but He (His face). His is the creation and the command; blessed is the Lord of the worlds.




7 - حدثنا محمد بن موسى بن المتوكل رحمه الله، قال: حدثنا محمد بن يحيى العطار، عن الحسين بن الحسن بن أبان، عن محمد بن أرومة، عن علي بن الحسن بن محمد، عن خالد بن يزيد، عن عبد الأعلى، عن أبي عبد الله عليه السلام قال: اسم الله غير الله، وكل شئ وقع عليه اسم شئ فهو مخلوق ما خلا الله، فأما ما عبرت الألسن عنه أو عملت الأيدي فيه فهو مخلوق والله غاية من غاياه، والمغيى غير الغاية، والغاية موصوفة، وكل موصوف مصنوع، وصانع الأشياء غير موصوف بحد مسمى، لم يتكون فتعرف كينونته بصنع غيره، ولم يتناه إلى غاية إلا كانت غيره، ولا يذل من فهم هذا الحكم أبدا وهو التوحيد الخالص، فاعتقدوه وصدقوه وتفهموه بإذن الله عز وجل ومن زعم أنه يعرف الله بحجاب أو بصورة أو بمثال فهو مشرك لأن الحجاب والمثال والصورة غيره وإنما هو واحد موحد، فكيف يوحد من زعم أنه عرفه بغيره، إنما عرف الله من عرفه بالله فمن لم يعرفه به فليس يعرفه، إنما يعرف غيره، والله خالق الأشياء لا من شئ، يسمى بأسمائه فهو غير أسمائه والأسماء غيره، والموصوف غير الواصف فمن زعم أنه يؤمن بما لا يعرف فهو ضال عن المعرفة، لا يدرك مخلوق شيئا إلا بالله، ولا تدرك معرفة الله إلا بالله، والله خلوا من خلقه، وخلقه خلو منه، إذا أراد الله شيئا كان كما أراد بأمره من غير نطق، لا ملجأ لعباده مما قضى، ولا حجة لهم فيما ارتضى، لم يقدروا على عمل ولا معالجة مما أحدث في أبدانهم المخلوقة إلا بربهم، فمن زعم أنه يقوى على عمل لم يرده الله عز وجل فقد زعم أن إرادته تغلب إرادة الله تبارك الله رب العالمين. قال مصنف هذا الكتاب: معنى ذلك أن من زعم أنه يقوى على عمل لم يرده الله أن يقويه عليه فقد زعم أن إرادته تغلب إرادة الله، تبارك الله رب العالمين.


7. Muhammad ibn Musa ibn al-Mutawakkil (RA) said: Muhammad ibn Yahya al-`Attar said, on the authority of al-Husayn ibn al-Hasan ibn Aban, on the authority of Muhammad ibn Auramah, on the authority of `Ali ibn al-Hasan ibn Muhammad, on the authority of Khalid ibn Yazid, on the authority of `Abd al-A`la, that Abu `Abd Allah al-Sadiq (AS) said: Allah’s name is other than Him. The identifier is always other than the identified. Since very identifier is created, it is other than Allah. Everything which is uttered by tongues or produced by hands is created. Allah is the destination of whoever seeks Him. The aimer is other than the aimed. The aimed is described, and every description is created. The Creator of all Things is not described through the limitations of the named. He is not formed so that His Formation may be known through the creation of others. If He is aimed, what is aimed is other than Him. He is never disregarded by those who understand this conclusion, and that is pure unity. Thus, have faith in Him, accept Him, and try to understand Him with the permission of Allah, the Mighty and High. Whoever claims that he has recognized Allah through a veil, an image or a similarity, is a polytheist because veil, image and similarity are other than Him. Verily, He is One United Being. Therefore, how can one profess to believe in Divine Unity if he claims to have recognized Him by means of other than Him? Only he has recognized Allah who recognizes Him by means of Allah (Himself). Thus, whoever does not recognize Him through Him has not recognized Him, and has certainly recognized other than Him. Allah is the Creator of All Things and is not from a thing. He is named by His Names. Hence, He is other than His Names, and His Names are other than Him. The described is other than the describer. Therefore, whoever claims that he knows what he does not recognize is ignorant. The created do not comprehend anything but by means of Allah, and they do not comprehend the recognition of Allah but by Allah. Allah is free from His Creation, and His Creation is free from Him. If Allah intends something, it is as He intends it by His Command, and without utterance. There is no refuge for His servants from what He decrees. There is no argument for them in what He sanctions. They do not have power over an action or treatment from what He brings forth in their created bodies except by their Lord. Thus, whoever claims that he has strength over an action that Allah, the Mighty and High, does not intend, he has claimed that his intent has overcome the Intent of Allah. Blessed is Allah the lord of the Worlds!




8 - حدثنا محمد بن علي ماجيلويه رضي الله عنه، قال: حدثني عمي محمد بن أبي القاسم، قال: حدثني محمد بن علي الصيرفي الكوفي، قال: حدثني محمد بن سنان، عن أبان بن عثمان الأحمر، قال: قلت للصادق جعفر بن محمد عليهما السلام: أخبرني عن الله تبارك وتعالى لم يزل سميعا بصيرا عليما قادرا؟ قال: نعم، فقلت له: إن رجلا ينتحل موالاتكم أهل البيت يقول: إن الله تبارك وتعالى لم يزل سميعا بسمع وبصيرا ببصر وعليما بعلم وقادرا بقدرة، فغضب عليه السلام، ثم قال: من قال ذلك و دان به فهو مشرك وليس من ولايتنا على شئ، إن الله تبارك وتعالى ذات علامة سميعة بصيرة قادرة.


8. Muhammad ibn `Ali Majilwayh (RA) said: my paternal uncle Muhammad ibn Abu al-Qasim related to me that Muhammad ibn `Ali al-Sayrafi al-Kufi related to me that Muhammad ibn Sinan related to me, on the authority of Aban ibn `Uthman al-Ahmar that I asked al-Sadiq Ja`far ibn Muhammad (AS), “Inform me about Allah, the Blessed and Exalted. Has He sempiternally been All-Hearing, All-Seeing, All-Knowing, and All-Powerful?” He (AS) replied, “Of course.” Hence, I asked him, “There is a man who professes to be a friend of the Household of the Prophet (AS) and says: `Verily, Allah, the Blessed and Exalted, has always been All-Seeing with an ear, All-Hearing with an eye, All-Knowing by Knowledge, and AllPowerful with power.” He (AS) became angry and then said: “Verily, whoever says this and believes in it, is a polytheist and is not under our Guardianship at all. Verily, Allah, the Blessed and Exalted, is the Possessor of the Knowledge of Hearing, Seeing, and Omnipotence.”




9 - حدثنا حمزة بن محمد العلوي رحمه الله، قال: أخبرنا علي بن إبراهيم، عن محمد بن عيسى بن عبيد، عن حماد، عن حريز، عن محمد بن مسلم، عن أبي جعفر عليه السلام أنه قال: من صفة القديم أنه واحد، أحد، صمد، أحدي المعنى، وليس بمعان كثيرة مختلفة، قال: قلت: جعلت فداك يزعم قوم من أهل العراق أنه يسمع بغير الذي يبصر، ويبصر بغير الذي يسمع، قال: فقال: كذبوا وألحدوا و شبهوا، تعالى الله عن ذلك، إنه سميع بصير، يسمع بما يبصر، ويبصر بما يسمع، قال: قلت: يزعمون أنه بصير على ما يعقلونه، قال: فقال: تعالى الله إنما يعقل ما كان بصفة المخلوقين، وليس الله كذلك .


9. Hamzah ibn Muhammad al-`Alawi (RA) said: `Ali ibn Ibrahim reported to us, on the authority of Muhammad ibn `Isa ibn `Ubayd, on the authority of Hammad, on the authority of Hariz, on the authority of Muhammad ibn Muslim, that Abu Ja`far al-Baqir (AS) said: “Among the attributes of the Being without beginning [qadim] are that He is One, Unique, Needless, Unique in meaning, and not subject to multiple meanings.” He says: I asked him, “May I be your ransom! A group of Iraqis claim that He hears with something other than what He sees, and He sees with something other than what He hears from.” Thus, he (AS) replied, “They have lied, apostatized, and anthropomorphized. Exalted is Allah from that! Verily, He is All-Hearing, and All-Seeing. He hears with what He sees, and He sees with what He hears.” He says: I asked, “They claim that He is All-Seeing as they see.” Thus, he (AS) replied, “Exalted is Allah! Verily, Allah cannot be understood by means of human qualities.”




10 - حدثنا محمد بن موسى بن المتوكل رحمه الله، قال: حدثنا علي بن إبراهيم عن أبيه، عن العباس بن عمرو، عن هشام بن الحكم، قال في حديث الزنديق الذي سأل أبا عبد الله عليه السلام أنه قال له: أتقول: إنه سميع بصير؟ فقال أبو عبد الله عليه السلام: هو سميع بصير، سميع بغير جارحة، وبصير بغير آلة، بل يسمع بنفسه ويبصر بنفسه، وليس قولي: إنه يسمع بنفسه أنه شئ والنفس شئ آخر، ولكني أردت عبارة عن نفسي إذ كنت مسؤولا، وإفهاما لك إذ كنت سائلا، فأقول: يسمع بكله، لا أن كله له بعض، ولكني أردت إفهامك والتعبير عن نفسي، وليس مرجعي في ذلك إلا إلى أنه السميع البصير العالم الخبير بلا اختلاف الذات ولا اختلاف المعنى.


10. Muhammad ibn Musa ibn al-Mutawakkil (RA) said: `Ali ibn Ibrahim said, on the authority of his father, on the authority of al-`Abbas ibn `Amr, on the authority of Hisham ibn al-Hakam that An atheist asked Abu `Abd Allah al-Sadiq (AS), “Do you say that He is All-Hearing, All-Seeing?” Thus, Abu `Abd Allah (AS) replied, He is All-Hearing, and All-Seeing. He is All-Hearing and AllSeeing, but without the use of visual or auditory organs. Rather, He hears by Himself, and He sees by Himself. My statement is not that He hears by Himself in the sense that His Hearing is one thing, and His Self is another. Rather, my goal is to respond to what I was asked using terminology that can be readily understood. Hence, when I say that He hears by means of His Entire Essence, I say so to stress that He is not composed of parts. MY goal is to make you understand. My only other recourse would be to say that He is All-Hearing, All-Seeing, AllKnowing, and All-Aware without any conflict between essence and concept.




11 - حدثنا أحمد بن محمد بن يحيى العطار رحمه الله، عن أبيه، عن أحمد بن محمد، عن الحسين بن سعيد، عن القاسم بن محمد، عن عبد الصمد بن بشير، عن فضيل ابن سكرة، قال: قلت لأبي جعفر عليه السلام: جعلت فداك إن رأيت أن تعلمني هل كان الله جل ذكره يعلم قبل أن يخلق الخلق أنه وحده؟ فقد اختلف مواليك، فقال بعضهم: قد كان يعلم تبارك وتعالى أنه وحده قبل أن يخلق شيئا من خلقه، و قال بعضهم، إنما معنى يعلم يفعل، فهو اليوم يعلم أنه لا غيره قبل فعل الأشياء، وقالوا: إن أثبتنا أنه لم يزل عالما بأنه لا غيره فقد أثبتنا معه غيره في أزليته، فإن رأيت يا سيدي أن تعلمني ما لا أعدوه إلى غيره، فكتب عليه السلام : ما زال الله تعالى عالما تبارك وتعالى ذكره.


11. Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Yahya al-`Attar (RA) said, on the authority of his father, on the authority of Ahmad ibn Muhammad, on the authority of al-Husayn ibn Sa`id, on the authority of alQasim ibn Muhammad, on the authority of `Abd al-Samad ibn Bashir, on the authority of Fudayl ibn Sukkarah that I asked Abu Ja`far al-Baqir (AS): May I be taken as your ransom! I hope that you can tech me. Prior to creation, did Allah, may His Remembrance be Exalted, know that He was One? Your followers have a dispute regarding this issue. Some of them say: “The Blessed and Exalted surely knew that He was alone before He created anything from His Creation/” While others say: “Verily, the meaning of knowing is doing. Therefore, He knows today that there was no one other than Him before He created the thngs.” And they say: “If we prove that He has always known that ere was none but Him, then we have proved that there was other than Him in sempiternity [azaliyyah]. If you could be so kind, O my Master, to teach me whether the truth is other than this. Thus, he (AS) wrote: “Allah, the Exalted, has always been All-Knowing, Blessed and Exalted be His Remembrance.”




12 - أبي رحمه الله قال: حدثنا محمد بن يحيى العطار، عن محمد بن الحسين بن أبي الخطاب، عن ابن أبي عمير، عن هشام بن سالم، عن محمد بن مسلم، عن أبي - جعفر عليه السلام، قال: سمعته يقول: كان الله ولا شئ غيره، ولم يزل عالما بما كون. فعلمه به قبل كونه كعلمه به بعد ما كونه.


12. My father (RA) said: Muhammad ibn Yahya al-`Attar said, on the authority of Muhammad ibn alHusayn ibn Abu al-Khattab, on the authority of Ibn Abu `Umayr, on the authority of Hisham ibn Salim, on the authority of Muhammad ibn Muslim that I heard Abu Ja`far al-Baqir (AS) say: “Allah was there when there was nothing other than Him. He has always been All-Knowing of what He has created. Therefore, His Knowledge of thins before their being is exactly the same as His Knowledge of things after their creation.”




13 - حدثنا أحمد بن محمد بن يحيى العطار رضي الله عنه، قال: حدثنا سعد ابن عبد الله، عن أيوب بن نوح أنه كتب إلى أبي الحسن عليه السلام يسأله عن الله عز وجل أكان يعلم الأشياء قبل أن خلق الأشياء وكونها، أو لم يعلم ذلك حتى خلقها وأراد خلقها وتكوينها، فعلم ما خلق عندما خلق وما كون عندما كون؟ فوقع عليه السلام بخطه: لم يزل الله عالما بالأشياء قبل أن يخلق الأشياء كعلمه بالأشياء بعد ما خلق الأشياء.


13. Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Yahya (RA) said: Sa`d ibn `Abd Allah said, on the authority of Ayyub ibn Nuh that I wrote to Abu al-Hasan al-Naqi (AS) asking him about Allah, the Mighty and High: “Did He have knowledge of things before He created them or did He know them only after He created them?” He (AS) wrote in his own handwriting: “Allah’s knowledge of things was the same before He created them and after He created them.”




14 - حدثنا محمد بن الحسن بن أحمد بن الوليد رحمه الله، قال: حدثنا محمد بن الحسن الصفار، وسعد بن عبد الله جميعا، عن أحمد بن محمد بن عيسى، عن أبيه، والحسين ابن سعيد، ومحمد بن خالد البرقي، عن ابن أبي عمير، عن هشام بن سالم، قال: دخلت على أبي عبد الله عليه السلام فقال لي: أتنعت الله؟ فقلت: نعم، قال: هات، فقلت: هو السميع البصير، قال: هذه صفة يشترك فيها المخلوقون قلت: فكيف تنعته؟ فقال: هو نور لا ظلمة فيه، وحياة لا موت فيه، وعلم لا جهل فيه، وحق لا باطل فيه. فخرجت من عنده وأنا أعلم الناس بالتوحيد.


14. Muhammad ibn al-Hasan ibn Ahmad ibn al-Walid (RA) said: Muhammad ibn al-Hasan al-Saffar and Sa`d ibn `Abd Allah both said, on the authority of Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn `Isa, on the authority of his father and al-Husayn ibn Sa`d and Muhammad ibn Khalid al-Barqi, on the authority of Ibn Abu `Umayr, on the authority of Hisham ibn Salim that I entered into the presence of Abu `Abd Allah al-Sadiq (AS) so he asked me: “Can you describe Allah?” Hence, I replied, “Yes.” He (AS) said: “Give me your description.” So, I answered, “He is the All-Hearing and the All-Seeing.” He (AS) explained, “There are attributes which equally apply to the created.” I asked, “Then how do you describe Him?” Thus, he (AS) said: “He is Light as there is no darkness in Him. He is Ever-Living as there is no death in Him. He is the Omniscient as there is no ignorance in Him, and He is the Truth as there is no false in Him.” Then I left from his presence and I was the most learned of people with regard to Divine Unity.




15 - حدثنا محمد بن الحسن بن أحمد بن الوليد رضي الله عنه، قال: حدثنا الحسين بن أبان، عن الحسين بن سعيد، عن النضر بن سويد، عن عاصم بن حميد عن أبي عبد الله عليه السلام قال: قلت له: لم يزل الله مريدا؟ فقال: إن المريد لا يكون إلا لمراد معه: بل لم يزل عالما قادرا ثم أراد .


15. Muhammad ibn al-Hasan ibn Ahmad ibn al-Walid (RA) said: al-Husayn ibn Aban said, on the authority of al-Husayn ibn Sa`d, on the authority of al-Nadr ibn Suwayd, on the authority of `Asin ibn Humayd, that Abu `Abd Allah al-Sadiq (AS) saying that I asked him: “Has Allah always existed?” Thus, he (AS) replied, “Verily, the Willer can only exist if He has a Will. In fact, He has always been All-Knowing, All-Powerful, then He intended.”




16 - حدثنا علي بن أحمد بن محمد بن عمران الدقاق رحمه الله قال: حدثنا محمد بن أبي عبد الله الكوفي، عن محمد بن إسماعيل البرمكي، عن الحسين بن الحسن، عن بكر بن صالح، عن علي بن أسباط، عن الحسن بن الجهم، عن بكير بن أعين، قال: قلت لأبي عبد الله عليه السلام: علم الله ومشيته هما مختلفان أم متفقان؟ فقال: العلم ليس هو المشية، ألا ترى أنك تقول: سأفعل كذا إن شاء الله، ولا تقول سأفعل كذا إن علم الله، فقولك إن شاء الله دليل على أنه لم يشأ، فإذا شاء كان الذي شاء كما شاء، وعلم الله سابق للمشية.


16. `Ali ibn Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn `Imran al-Daqqaq (RA) said: Muhammad ibn Abu `Abd Allah al-Kufi said, on the authority of Muhammad ibn Isma`il al-Barmaki, on the authority of al-Husayn ibn al-Hasan, on the authority of Bakr ibn Salih, on the authority of `Ali ibn Asbat, on the authority of alHasan ibn al-Jahm, on the authority of Bukayr ibn A`yun that I asked Abu `Abd Allah al-Sadiq (AS): “Are the Knowledge and Will of Allah separate or united?” Thus, he (AS) replied, The Knowledge of Allah is not the same as the Will of Allah. Do you not say that you will do something `Allah willing’, yet you do not say that you will do something `Allah knowing.’ Therefore, your statement `Allah willing’ is a proof that He did not will it, If He had willed, it would have been as He had willed. Allah’s Knowledge is prior to Allah’s Will.




17 - حدثنا الحسين بن أحمد بن إدريس رضي الله عنه، عن أبيه، عن محمد بن عبد الجبار، عن صفوان بن يحيى، قال: قلت لأبي الحسن عليه السلام: أخبرني عن الإرادة من الله ومن المخلوق، قال: فقال: الإرادة من المخلوق الضمير وما يبدو له بعد ذلك من الفعل، وأما من الله عز وجل فإرادته إحداثه لا غير ذلك لأنه لا يروي، ولا يهم، ولا يتفكر، وهذه الصفات منفية عنه، وهي من صفات الخلق، فإرادة الله هي الفعل لا غير ذلك يقول له: كن فيكون، بلا لفظ ولا نطق بلسان ولا همة ولا تفكر، ولا كيف لذلك كما أنه بلا كيف .


17.Al-Husayn ibn Ahmad ibn Idris (RA) said, on the authority of his father, on the authority of Muhammad ibn `Abd al-Jabbar, on the authority of Safwan ibn Yahya that I enquired from Abu al-Hasan al-Kazim (AS): “Inform me about the Will. Is it a part of Allah or is it of the Creation? Hence, he (AS) answered, The will is part of the created conscience, and it manifest itself in action. As for Will of Allah, the Mighty and High, then it is His Making [ihdath] and none other than that because He does not reflect, does not imagine, and does not think. These attributes cannot be applied to Him as they are attributes of creation. Thus, Allah’s Will is action and nothing else. He says to it: “Be and it is,” without a word or speech expressed by tongue, by imagination or by thought. His Will is expressed without form in the same way that He is without form.




18 - أبي رحمه الله قال: حدثنا سعد بن عبد الله، عن أحمد بن محمد بن خالد، عن أبيه، عن ابن أبي عمير، عن ابن أذينة، عن محمد بن مسلم، عن أبي عبد الله عليه السلام قال: المشية محدثة.


18. My father (RA) said: Sa`d ibn `Abd Allah said, on the authority of Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Khalid, on the authority of is father, on the authority of Ibn Abu `Umayr, on the authority of Ibn Udhaynah, on the authority of Muhammad ibn Muslim that Abu `Abd Allah al-Sadiq (AS) said: “The will is accidental [muhdathah].”




19 - أبي رحمه الله، قال: حدثنا علي بن إبراهيم، عن أبيه، عن ابن أبي - عمير، عن عمر بن أذينة، عن أبي عبد الله عليه السلام قال: خلق الله المشية بنفسها، ثم خلق الأشياء بالمشية . قال محمد بن علي مؤلف هذا الكتاب رضي الله عنه: إذا وصفنا الله تبارك و تعالى بصفات الذات فإنما ننفي عنه بكل صفة منها ضدها، فمتى قلنا: إنه حي نفينا عنه ضد الحياة وهو الموت، ومتى قلنا: إنه عليم نفينا عنه ضد العلم وهو الجهل، ومتى قلنا: إنه سميع نفينا عنه ضد السمع وهو الصمم، ومتى قلنا: بصير نفينا عنه ضد البصر وهو العمى، ومتى قلنا: عزيز نفينا عنه ضد العزة وهو الذلة، ومتى قلنا: حكيم نفينا عنه ضد الحكمة وهو الخطأ، ومتى قلنا: غني نفينا عنه ضد الغنى وهو الفقر، ومتى قلنا: عدل نفينا عنه الجور والظلم ومتى قلنا: حليم نفينا عنه العجلة، ومتى قلنا: قادر نفينا عنه العجز، ولو لم نفعل ذلك أثبتنا معه أشياء لم تزل معه، ومتى قلنا: لم يزل حيا عليما سميعا بصيرا عزيزا حكيما غينا ملكا حليما عدلا كريما، فلما جعلنا معنى كل صفة من هذه الصفات التي هي صفات ذاته نفي ضدها أثبتنا أن الله لم يزل واحدا لا شئ معه وليست الإرادة والمشية والرضا والغضب وما يشبه ذلك من صفات الأفعال بمثابة صفات الذات، لأنه لا يجوز أن يقال: لم يزل الله مريدا شائيا كما يجوز أن يقال: لم يزل الله قادرا عالما. باب تفسير قول الله عز وجل (كل شئ هالك إلا وجهه)


19. My father (may Allah have mercy on him) said: `Ali ibn Ibrahim said, on the authority of his father, on the authority of Ibn Abu `Umayr, on the authority of `Umar ibn Udhaynah, that Abu `Abd Allah al-Sadiq (AS) said: “Allah created the Will itself, then created everything by means of the Will.” The Compiler of this book (RA) says: If we attribute Allah, the Blessed and Exalted, with Attributes of Essence, then each one of these attributes negates its opposite. Thus, when we say: He is Ever-Living, we have negated from Him the opposite of life, which is death. When we say: He is all-Knowing; we have negated from Him the opposite of knowledge, which is ignorance. When we say: He is AllHearing; we negate from Him the opposite of hearing, which is deafness. When we say: He is AllSeeing; we negate from Him the opposite of seeing, which is blindness. When we say: He is the Honorable; we negate from Him the opposite of honor, which is dishonor. When we say: He is the All-Wise; we negate from Him the opposite of wisdom, which is error. When we say: He is the Self-Sufficient; we negate from Him the opposite of self-sufficiency, which is neediness. When we say: He is Just; we negate from Him oppression and tyranny. When we say: He is the Forbearing; we negate from Him impatience. When we say: He is the Omnipotent; we negate from Him incapability. If we did not do that we would have proved Him with things that have always been with Him. When we say “He has always been Ever-Living, All-Knowing, All-Hearing, All-Seeing, Honorable, All-Wise, Self-Sufficient, Sovereign, Forbearing, Just, and Generous [karim]” we have used these Attributes of Essence in order to negate their opposites. We have proved that Allah has always been the One and Only. The Intent, the Will, the Pleasure, the Wrath or any of the other Attributes of Action are of the same intensity as the Attributes of Essence because it is not permissible to say: Allah has always been the Intender and the Willer, like it is permissible to say: Allah has always been Omnipotent and All-Knowing.