17. Chapter on Another Chapter (Related) to the Previous Chapter

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Some additions concerning the different connotations of names (and attributes) used both for Allah, the Creator and the created.




1ـ عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنِ الْمُخْتَارِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ الْمُخْتَارِ الْهَمْدَانِيِّ وَمُحَمَّدُ بْنُ الْحَسَنِ عَنْ عَبْدِ الله بْنِ الْحَسَنِ الْعَلَوِيِّ جَمِيعاً عَنِ الْفَتْحِ بْنِ يَزِيدَ الْجُرْجَانِيِّ عَنْ أَبِي الْحَسَنِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ سَمِعْتُهُ يَقُولُ وَهُوَ اللَّطِيفُ الْخَبِيرُ السَّمِيعُ الْبَصِيرُ الْوَاحِدُ الاحَدُ الصَّمَدُ لَمْ يَلِدْ وَلَمْ يُولَدْ وَلَمْ يَكُنْ لَهُ كُفُواً أَحَدٌ لَوْ كَانَ كَمَا يَقُولُ الْمُشَبِّهَةُ لَمْ يُعْرَفِ الْخَالِقُ مِنَ الْمَخْلُوقِ وَلا الْمُنْشِئُ مِنَ الْمُنْشَإِ لَكِنَّهُ الْمُنْشِئُ فَرْقٌ بَيْنَ مَنْ جَسَّمَهُ وَصَوَّرَهُ وَأَنْشَأَهُ إِذْ كَانَ لا يُشْبِهُهُ شَيْ‏ءٌ وَلا يُشْبِهُ هُوَ شَيْئاً قُلْتُ أَجَلْ جَعَلَنِيَ الله فِدَاكَ لَكِنَّكَ قُلْتَ الاحَدُ الصَّمَدُ وَقُلْتَ لا يُشْبِهُهُ شَيْ‏ءٌ وَالله وَاحِدٌ وَالانْسَانُ وَاحِدٌ أَ لَيْسَ قَدْ تَشَابَهَتِ الْوَحْدَانِيَّةُ قَالَ يَا فَتْحُ أَحَلْتَ ثَبَّتَكَ الله إِنَّمَا التَّشْبِيهُ فِي الْمَعَانِي فَأَمَّا فِي الاسْمَاءِ فَهِيَ وَاحِدَةٌ وَهِيَ دَالَّةٌ عَلَى الْمُسَمَّى وَذَلِكَ أَنَّ الانْسَانَ وَإِنْ قِيلَ وَاحِدٌ فَإِنَّهُ يُخْبَرُ أَنَّهُ جُثَّةٌ وَاحِدَةٌ وَلَيْسَ بِاثْنَيْنِ وَالانْسَانُ نَفْسُهُ لَيْسَ بِوَاحِدٍ لانَّ أَعْضَاءَهُ مُخْتَلِفَةٌ وَأَلْوَانَهُ مُخْتَلِفَةٌ وَمَنْ أَلْوَانُهُ مُخْتَلِفَةٌ غَيْرُ وَاحِدٍ وَهُوَ أَجْزَاءٌ مُجَزَّاةٌ لَيْسَتْ بِسَوَاءٍ دَمُهُ غَيْرُ لَحْمِهِ وَلَحْمُهُ غَيْرُ دَمِهِ وَعَصَبُهُ غَيْرُ عُرُوقِهِ وَشَعْرُهُ غَيْرُ بَشَرِهِ وَسَوَادُهُ غَيْرُ بَيَاضِهِ وَكَذَلِكَ سَائِرُ جَمِيعِ الْخَلْقِ فَالانْسَانُ وَاحِدٌ فِي الاسْمِ وَلا وَاحِدٌ فِي الْمَعْنَى وَالله جَلَّ جَلالُهُ هُوَ وَاحِدٌ لا وَاحِدَ غَيْرُهُ لا اخْتِلافَ فِيهِ وَلا تَفَاوُتَ وَلا زِيَادَةَ وَلا نُقْصَانَ فَأَمَّا الانْسَانُ الْمَخْلُوقُ الْمَصْنُوعُ الْمُؤَلَّفُ مِنْ أَجْزَاءٍ مُخْتَلِفَةٍ وَجَوَاهِرَ شَتَّى غَيْرَ أَنَّهُ بِالاجْتِمَاعِ شَيْ‏ءٌ وَاحِدٌ قُلْتُ جُعِلْتُ فِدَاكَ فَرَّجْتَ عَنِّي فَرَّجَ الله عَنْكَ فَقَوْلَكَ اللَّطِيفُ الْخَبِيرُ فَسِّرْهُ لِي كَمَا فَسَّرْتَ الْوَاحِدَ فَإِنِّي أَعْلَمُ أَنَّ لُطْفَهُ عَلَى خِلافِ لُطْفِ خَلْقِهِ لِلْفَصْلِ غَيْرَ أَنِّي أُحِبُّ أَنْ تَشْرَحَ ذَلِكَ لِي فَقَالَ يَا فَتْحُ إِنَّمَا قُلْنَا اللَّطِيفُ لِلْخَلْقِ اللَّطِيفِ وَلِعِلْمِهِ بِالشَّيْ‏ءِ اللَّطِيفِ أَ وَلا تَرَى وَفَّقَكَ الله وَثَبَّتَكَ إِلَى أَثَرِ صُنْعِهِ فِي النَّبَاتِ اللَّطِيفِ وَغَيْرِ اللَّطِيفِ وَمِنَ الْخَلْقِ اللَّطِيفِ وَمِنَ الْحَيَوَانِ الصِّغَارِ وَمِنَ الْبَعُوضِ وَالْجِرْجِسِ وَمَا هُوَ أَصْغَرُ مِنْهَا مَا لا يَكَادُ تَسْتَبِينُهُ الْعُيُونُ بَلْ لا يَكَادُ يُسْتَبَانُ لِصِغَرِهِ الذَّكَرُ مِنَ الانْثَى وَالْحَدَثُ الْمَوْلُودُ مِنَ الْقَدِيمِ فَلَمَّا رَأَيْنَا صِغَرَ ذَلِكَ فِي لُطْفِهِ وَاهْتِدَاءَهُ لِلسَّفَادِ وَالْهَرَبَ مِنَ الْمَوْتِ وَالْجَمْعَ لِمَا يُصْلِحُهُ وَمَا فِي لُجَجِ الْبِحَارِ وَمَا فِي لِحَاءِ الاشْجَارِ وَالْمَفَاوِزِ وَالْقِفَارِ وَإِفْهَامَ بَعْضِهَا عَنْ بَعْضٍ مَنْطِقَهَا وَمَا يَفْهَمُ بِهِ أَوْلادُهَا عَنْهَا وَنَقْلَهَا الْغِذَاءَ إِلَيْهَا ثُمَّ تَأْلِيفَ أَلْوَانِهَا حُمْرَةٍ مَعَ صُفْرَةٍ وَبَيَاضٍ مَعَ حُمْرَةٍ وَأَنَّهُ مَا لا تَكَادُ عُيُونُنَا تَسْتَبِينُهُ لِدَمَامَةِ خَلْقِهَا لا تَرَاهُ عُيُونُنَا وَلا تَلْمِسُهُ أَيْدِينَا عَلِمْنَا أَنَّ خَالِقَ هَذَا الْخَلْقِ لَطِيفٌ لَطُفَ بِخَلْقِ مَا سَمَّيْنَاهُ بِلا عِلاجٍ وَلا أَدَاةٍ وَلا آلَةٍ وَأَنَّ كُلَّ صَانِعِ شَيْ‏ءٍ فَمِنْ شَيْ‏ءٍ صَنَعَ وَالله الْخَالِقُ اللَّطِيفُ الْجَلِيلُ خَلَقَ وَصَنَعَ لا مِنْ شَيْ‏ءٍ.


1. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from al-Mukhtar ibn Muhammad ibn al-Mukhtar al-Hamadani and Muhammad ibn al-Hassan from ‘Abdallah ibn al-Hassan al-‘Alawi both of them from al-Fath ibn Yazid al-Jurjani from abu al-Hassan (a.s.) al-Thani or al-Thalith who has said the following. “I heard the Imam saying, ‘He (Allah) is the Subtle, All-aware, All-hearing, All-seeing, the One, the Self-sufficient, Who does not have any children, is not any one’s child and there is no one similar to Him. Had Allah been as those believing in similitude (al-Mushabbihah) say there would have been no distinction between the Creator and the created, the inventor and the invented but He is the Inventor. There would have been no distinction between Allah and what He has given body and form to bring into existence. In fact, nothing is similar to Him and He is not similar to anything.” I then said, “Yes, may Allah take my soul in your service, but you just said, The One the Self-sufficient, that no one is similar to Him. Allah is One and a man is one. Are the two not similar in oneness?” The Imam replied, “O Fath, you said something impossible. May Allah grant you steadfastness. Similarity is in meaning. In the case of names they are all the same. The names refer to the nominee. When it is said a man it, at the same time, is a report about one body and not two bodies. In fact, man is not one thing. His parts, colors and the color of his colors that consist of distinct parts, that are not equal. His blood is different from his flesh. His nerves are different from his vines, his hairs are different from his skin. The black things in him are different from the white things therein. The same is true of all other creatures. Human beings are one in name but not in meaning. Allah, Great Whose Majesty is, is only One and no one other than Him is one. There is no difference, imbalance, increase or decrease in Him. Human beings are created, designed, compounded of different parts and various substances. Only when combined becomes one.” I then said, “May Allah take my soul in service for your cause, and grant you happiness, would you explain to me the meaning of your words “Subtle and All-aware? Explain it as you just did with the One? I know that His Subtlety or kindness is different from those of His creatures but I like more clarity.” The Imam said, “O Fath, we said He is Subtle it is because of His knowledge of the delicate creatures, may Allah give you success and steadfastness, so you should consider His creation. Consider His design in delicate and not so delicate plants and other creatures like animals, small and large such as flies and cricket and smaller ones that even eyes can not. Because of their small size no one knows which is male and which is female, which is new born and which is old. We find tremendously delicate things with signs of His Subtlety, in their desire for reproduction, running away from death, collecting what is good for them and what is in the depth of the oceans and on the barks of trees, in the wilderness and desolate places. We find more fastidiousness in such animals and their ability to communicate with each other, and what their offspring understand from them, their transporting food to their young and their colors, red along with yellow, white along with red so fine that our eyes are not able to catch for their very exquisite shape. Our eyes are not able to see them and our hands are not able to touch them. All these show that the Creator of all such marvelous creatures are Subtle Who is kind to all the creatures we mentioned. He has done it without instruments and means. Every designer and manufacturer builds and manufactures some thing from something but Allah does it from nothing.”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مجهول - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (50/ 2)



2ـ عَلِيُّ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ مُرْسَلاً عَنْ أَبِي الْحَسَنِ الرِّضَا (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ قَالَ اعْلَمْ عَلَّمَكَ الله الْخَيْرَ أَنَّ الله تَبَارَكَ وَتَعَالَى قَدِيمٌ وَالْقِدَمُ صِفَتُهُ الَّتِي دَلَّتِ الْعَاقِلَ عَلَى أَنَّهُ لا شَيْ‏ءَ قَبْلَهُ وَلا شَيْ‏ءَ مَعَهُ فِي دَيْمُومِيَّتِهِ فَقَدْ بَانَ لَنَا بِإِقْرَارِ الْعَامَّةِ مُعْجِزَةُ الصِّفَةِ أَنَّهُ لا شَيْ‏ءَ قَبْلَ الله وَلا شَيْ‏ءَ مَعَ الله فِي بَقَائِهِ وَبَطَلَ قَوْلُ مَنْ زَعَمَ أَنَّهُ كَانَ قَبْلَهُ أَوْ كَانَ مَعَهُ شَيْ‏ءٌ وَذَلِكَ أَنَّهُ لَوْ كَانَ مَعَهُ شَيْ‏ءٌ فِي بَقَائِهِ لَمْ يَجُزْ أَنْ يَكُونَ خَالِقاً لَهُ لانَّهُ لَمْ يَزَلْ مَعَهُ فَكَيْفَ يَكُونُ خَالِقاً لِمَنْ لَمْ يَزَلْ مَعَهُ وَلَوْ كَانَ قَبْلَهُ شَيْ‏ءٌ كَانَ الاوَّلَ ذَلِكَ الشَّيْ‏ءُ لا هَذَا وَكَانَ الاوَّلُ أَوْلَى بِأَنْ يَكُونَ خَالِقاً لِلاوَّلِ ثُمَّ وَصَفَ نَفْسَهُ تَبَارَكَ وَتَعَالَى بِأَسْمَاءٍ دَعَا الْخَلْقَ إِذْ خَلَقَهُمْ وَتَعَبَّدَهُمْ وَابْتَلاهُمْ إِلَى أَنْ يَدْعُوهُ بِهَا فَسَمَّى نَفْسَهُ سَمِيعاً بَصِيراً قَادِراً قَائِماً نَاطِقاً ظَاهِراً بَاطِناً لَطِيفاً خَبِيراً قَوِيّاً عَزِيزاً حَكِيماً عَلِيماً وَمَا أَشْبَهَ هَذِهِ الاسْمَاءَ فَلَمَّا رَأَى ذَلِكَ مِنْ أَسْمَائِهِ الْقَالُونَ الْمُكَذِّبُونَ وَقَدْ سَمِعُونَا نُحَدِّثُ عَنِ الله أَنَّهُ لا شَيْ‏ءَ مِثْلُهُ وَلا شَيْ‏ءَ مِنَ الْخَلْقِ فِي حَالِهِ قَالُوا أَخْبِرُونَا إِذَا زَعَمْتُمْ أَنَّهُ لا مِثْلَ لله وَلا شِبْهَ لَهُ كَيْفَ شَارَكْتُمُوهُ فِي أَسْمَائِهِ الْحُسْنَى فَتَسَمَّيْتُمْ بِجَمِيعِهَا فَإِنَّ فِي ذَلِكَ دَلِيلاً عَلَى أَنَّكُمْ مِثْلُهُ فِي حَالاتِهِ كُلِّهَا أَوْ فِي بَعْضِهَا دُونَ بَعْضٍ إِذْ جَمَعْتُمُ الاسْمَاءَ الطَّيِّبَةَ قِيلَ لَهُمْ إِنَّ الله تَبَارَكَ وَتَعَالَى أَلْزَمَ الْعِبَادَ أَسْمَاءً مِنْ أَسْمَائِهِ عَلَى اخْتِلافِ الْمَعَانِي وَذَلِكَ كَمَا يَجْمَعُ الاسْمُ الْوَاحِدُ مَعْنَيَيْنِ مُخْتَلِفَيْنِ وَالدَّلِيلُ عَلَى ذَلِكَ قَوْلُ النَّاسِ الْجَائِزُ عِنْدَهُمُ الشَّائِعُ وَهُوَ الَّذِي خَاطَبَ الله بِهِ الْخَلْقَ فَكَلَّمَهُمْ بِمَا يَعْقِلُونَ لِيَكُونَ عَلَيْهِمْ حُجَّةً فِي تَضْيِيعِ مَا ضَيَّعُوا فَقَدْ يُقَالُ لِلرَّجُلِ كَلْبٌ وَحِمَارٌ وَثَوْرٌ وَسُكَّرَةٌ وَعَلْقَمَةٌ وَأَسَدٌ كُلُّ ذَلِكَ عَلَى خِلافِهِ وَحَالاتِهِ لَمْ تَقَعِ الاسَامِي عَلَى مَعَانِيهَا الَّتِي كَانَتْ بُنِيَتْ عَلَيْهِ لانَّ الانْسَانَ لَيْسَ بِأَسَدٍ وَلا كَلْبٍ فَافْهَمْ ذَلِكَ رَحِمَكَ الله وَإِنَّمَا سُمِّيَ الله تَعَالَى بِالْعِلْمِ بِغَيْرِ عِلْمٍ حَادِثٍ عَلِمَ بِهِ الاشْيَاءَ اسْتَعَانَ بِهِ عَلَى حِفْظِ مَا يُسْتَقْبَلُ مِنْ أَمْرِهِ وَالرَّوِيَّةِ فِيمَا يَخْلُقُ مِنْ خَلْقِهِ وَيُفْسِدُ مَا مَضَى مِمَّا أَفْنَى مِنْ خَلْقِهِ مِمَّا لَوْ لَمْ يَحْضُرْهُ ذَلِكَ الْعِلْمُ وَيَغِيبُهُ كَانَ جَاهِلاً ضَعِيفاً كَمَا أَنَّا لَوْ رَأَيْنَا عُلَمَاءَ الْخَلْقِ إِنَّمَا سُمُّوا بِالْعِلْمِ لِعِلْمٍ حَادِثٍ إِذْ كَانُوا فِيهِ جَهَلَةً وَرُبَّمَا فَارَقَهُمُ الْعِلْمُ بِالاشْيَاءِ فَعَادُوا إِلَى الْجَهْلِ وَإِنَّمَا سُمِّيَ الله عَالِماً لانَّهُ لا يَجْهَلُ شَيْئاً فَقَدْ جَمَعَ الْخَالِقَ وَالْمَخْلُوقَ اسْمُ الْعَالِمِ وَاخْتَلَفَ الْمَعْنَى عَلَى مَا رَأَيْتَ وَسُمِّيَ رَبُّنَا سَمِيعاً لا بِخَرْتٍ فِيهِ يَسْمَعُ بِهِ الصَّوْتَ وَلا يُبْصِرُ بِهِ كَمَا أَنَّ خَرْتَنَا الَّذِي بِهِ نَسْمَعُ لا نَقْوَى بِهِ عَلَى الْبَصَرِ وَلَكِنَّهُ أَخْبَرَ أَنَّهُ لا يَخْفَى عَلَيْهِ شَيْ‏ءٌ مِنَ الاصْوَاتِ لَيْسَ عَلَى حَدِّ مَا سُمِّينَا نَحْنُ فَقَدْ جَمَعْنَا الاسْمَ بِالسَّمْعِ وَاخْتَلَفَ الْمَعْنَى وَهَكَذَا الْبَصَرُ لا بِخَرْتٍ مِنْهُ أَبْصَرَ كَمَا أَنَّا نُبْصِرُ بِخَرْتٍ مِنَّا لا نَنْتَفِعُ بِهِ فِي غَيْرِهِ وَلَكِنَّ الله بَصِيرٌ لا يَحْتَمِلُ شَخْصاً مَنْظُوراً إِلَيْهِ فَقَدْ جَمَعْنَا الاسْمَ وَاخْتَلَفَ الْمَعْنَى وَهُوَ قَائِمٌ لَيْسَ عَلَى مَعْنَى انْتِصَابٍ وَقِيَامٍ عَلَى سَاقٍ فِي كَبَدٍ كَمَا قَامَتِ الاشْيَاءُ وَلَكِنْ قَائِمٌ يُخْبِرُ أَنَّهُ حَافِظٌ كَقَوْلِ الرَّجُلِ الْقَائِمُ بِأَمْرِنَا فُلانٌ وَالله هُوَ الْقَائِمُ عَلَى كُلِّ نَفْسٍ بِمَا كَسَبَتْ وَالْقَائِمُ أَيْضاً فِي كَلامِ النَّاسِ الْبَاقِي وَالْقَائِمُ أَيْضاً يُخْبِرُ عَنِ.


الْكِفَايَةِ كَقَوْلِكَ لِلرَّجُلِ قُمْ بِأَمْرِ بَنِي فُلانٍ أَيِ اكْفِهِمْ وَالْقَائِمُ مِنَّا قَائِمٌ عَلَى سَاقٍ فَقَدْ جَمَعْنَا الاسْمَ وَلَمْ نَجْمَعِ الْمَعْنَى وَأَمَّا اللَّطِيفُ فَلَيْسَ عَلَى قِلَّةٍ وَقَضَافَةٍ وَصِغَرٍ وَلَكِنْ ذَلِكَ عَلَى النَّفَاذِ فِي الاشْيَاءِ وَالامْتِنَاعِ مِنْ أَنْ يُدْرَكَ كَقَوْلِكَ لِلرَّجُلِ لَطُفَ عَنِّي هَذَا الامْرُ وَلَطُفَ فُلانٌ فِي مَذْهَبِهِ وَقَوْلِهِ يُخْبِرُكَ أَنَّهُ غَمَضَ فِيهِ الْعَقْلُ وَفَاتَ الطَّلَبُ وَعَادَ مُتَعَمِّقاً مُتَلَطِّفاً لا يُدْرِكُهُ الْوَهْمُ فَكَذَلِكَ لَطُفَ الله تَبَارَكَ وَتَعَالَى عَنْ أَنْ يُدْرَكَ بِحَدٍّ أَوْ يُحَدَّ بِوَصْفٍ وَاللَّطَافَةُ مِنَّا الصِّغَرُ وَالْقِلَّةُ فَقَدْ جَمَعْنَا الاسْمَ وَاخْتَلَفَ الْمَعْنَى وَأَمَّا الْخَبِيرُ فَالَّذِي لا يَعْزُبُ عَنْهُ شَيْ‏ءٌ وَلا يَفُوتُهُ لَيْسَ لِلتَّجْرِبَةِ وَلا لِلاعْتِبَارِ بِالاشْيَاءِ فَعِنْدَ التَّجْرِبَةِ وَالاعْتِبَارِ عِلْمَانِ وَلَوْ لا هُمَا مَا عُلِمَ لانَّ مَنْ كَانَ كَذَلِكَ كَانَ جَاهِلاً وَالله لَمْ يَزَلْ خَبِيراً بِمَا يَخْلُقُ وَالْخَبِيرُ مِنَ النَّاسِ الْمُسْتَخْبِرُ عَنْ جَهْلٍ الْمُتَعَلِّمُ فَقَدْ جَمَعْنَا الاسْمَ وَاخْتَلَفَ الْمَعْنَى وَأَمَّا الظَّاهِرُ فَلَيْسَ مِنْ أَجْلِ أَنَّهُ عَلا الاشْيَاءَ بِرُكُوبٍ فَوْقَهَا وَقُعُودٍ عَلَيْهَا وَتَسَنُّمٍ لِذُرَاهَا وَلَكِنْ ذَلِكَ لِقَهْرِهِ وَلِغَلَبَتِهِ الاشْيَاءَ وَقُدْرَتِهِ عَلَيْهَا كَقَوْلِ الرَّجُلِ ظَهَرْتُ عَلَى أَعْدَائِي وَأَظْهَرَنِي الله عَلَى خَصْمِي يُخْبِرُ عَنِ الْفَلْجِ وَالْغَلَبَةِ فَهَكَذَا ظُهُورُ الله عَلَى الاشْيَاءِ وَوَجْهٌ آخَرُ أَنَّهُ الظَّاهِرُ لِمَنْ أَرَادَهُ وَلا يَخْفَى عَلَيْهِ شَيْ‏ءٌ وَأَنَّهُ مُدَبِّرٌ لِكُلِّ مَا بَرَأَ فَأَيُّ ظَاهِرٍ أَظْهَرُ وَأَوْضَحُ مِنَ الله تَبَارَكَ وَتَعَالَى لانَّكَ لا تَعْدَمُ صَنْعَتَهُ حَيْثُمَا تَوَجَّهَتْ وَفِيكَ مِنْ آثَارِهِ مَا يُغْنِيكَ وَالظَّاهِرُ مِنَّا الْبَارِزُ بِنَفْسِهِ وَالْمَعْلُومُ بِحَدِّهِ فَقَدْ جَمَعَنَا الاسْمُ وَلَمْ يَجْمَعْنَا الْمَعْنَى وَأَمَّا الْبَاطِنُ فَلَيْسَ عَلَى مَعْنَى الاسْتِبْطَانِ لِلاشْيَاءِ بِأَنْ يَغُورَ فِيهَا وَلَكِنْ ذَلِكَ مِنْهُ عَلَى اسْتِبْطَانِهِ لِلاشْيَاءِ عِلْماً وَحِفْظاً وَتَدْبِيراً كَقَوْلِ الْقَائِلِ أَبْطَنْتُهُ يَعْنِي خَبَّرْتُهُ وَعَلِمْتُ مَكْتُومَ سِرِّهِ وَالْبَاطِنُ مِنَّا الْغَائِبُ فِي الشَّيْ‏ءِ الْمُسْتَتِرُ وَقَدْ جَمَعْنَا الاسْمَ وَاخْتَلَفَ الْمَعْنَى وَأَمَّا الْقَاهِرُ فَلَيْسَ عَلَى مَعْنَى عِلاجٍ وَنَصَبٍ وَاحْتِيَالٍ وَمُدَارَاةٍ وَمَكْرٍ كَمَا يَقْهَرُ الْعِبَادُ بَعْضُهُمْ بَعْضاً وَالْمَقْهُورُ مِنْهُمْ يَعُودُ قَاهِراً وَالْقَاهِرُ يَعُودُ مَقْهُوراً وَلَكِنْ ذَلِكَ مِنَ الله تَبَارَكَ وَتَعَالَى عَلَى أَنَّ جَمِيعَ مَا خَلَقَ مُلَبَّسٌ بِهِ الذُّلُّ لِفَاعِلِهِ وَقِلَّةُ الامْتِنَاعِ لِمَا أَرَادَ بِهِ لَمْ يَخْرُجْ مِنْهُ طَرْفَةَ عَيْنٍ أَنْ يَقُولَ لَهُ كُنْ فَيَكُونُ وَالْقَاهِرُ مِنَّا عَلَى مَا ذَكَرْتُ وَوَصَفْتُ فَقَدْ جَمَعْنَا الاسْمَ وَاخْتَلَفَ الْمَعْنَى وَهَكَذَا جَمِيعُ الاسْمَاءِ وَإِنْ كُنَّا لَمْ نَسْتَجْمِعْهَا كُلَّهَا فَقَدْ يَكْتَفِي الاعْتِبَارُ بِمَا أَلْقَيْنَا إِلَيْكَ وَالله عَوْنُكَ وَعَوْنُنَا فِي إِرْشَادِنَا وَتَوْفِيقِنَا.


2. It is narrated from Ali ibn Muhammad, in a mursal manner, from abu al-Hassan al-Rida (a.s.) who has said the following to one of his followers. “May Allah, bestow up on you knowledge of the good, notice that Allah, the Most Holy, the Most High, is eternal. Eternity is that attribute which guides the wise that there was nothing before Him in eternity nor is there anything with Him eternal. That this attribute is a miraculous one has come to light from the acknowledgement of the ‘Ammah (common people) that there is nothing before Allah, with and after Him. At the same time, it invalidates the belief that there was something before or with Him. Had there been something with Him eternal He would not have been the Creator of that thing. If it was with Him how then He could have been its creator? Had there been something before Him then that thing might have been His creator because of its existing earlier. Allah, the Most Holy, the Exalted, has ascribed certain names to Himself. He told His creatures when He created them, give them the ability to worship Him and made them responsible, to call Him with those names. He called Himself All-hearing, All-seeing, All-powerful, Guarding, Rationalizing, Manifest, Hidden, Subtle, All-aware, Powerful, Majestic, Wise, All-knowing and with such other similar names. When the animosity-mongers, who speak lies heard us mention such names as that there is nothing similar to Him and nothing of the creatures is like Him they began to speak out. “When you (the Imams (a.s.) say that there is nothing like Him and no one is similar to Him then how is it that you also have those beautiful names for yourselves? This is proof that you are similar to Him or in certain conditions and not in other conditions because of having all those beautiful names.” It is said to them that Allah, the Most Holy, the Most High, made it necessary for His servants to have certain names from among His names with differences in their meanings. The difference is because one name may have two different meanings. One example is what people consider permissible and is widely used. This is the way Allah has addressed people. He has spoken to them by means of things that they understand so that they will have no excuse in their misdeeds. A man is sometimes called a dog, a bull, sweet, bitter and a loin. All these are different from him and his conditions. The names were not used in their original meaning because man is not a loin or a dog etc. Note this carefully, may Allah grant you blessings. Allah is called All-knowing. It is other than the created knowledge. With His knowledge of things He knows things and uses it to preserve His future commands and the process of whatever He creates of His creatures, destroys what He destroys of His creatures and without such knowledge He would have been weak and ignorant. We see that people of knowledge among people are called knowledgeable because of the created knowledge, which they did not have at one time. Perhaps such knowledge may go away from them and they become ignorant. Allah is called All-knowing because He is not ignorant of anything. Thus, the Creator and created are both called as having knowledge but the meaning is different as you may have noticed. Our Lord is called All-hearing but it is not through the perforated piece and with sound so He would hear with it but would not see with it, which is the case with us. We do not see with what we hear but Allah has told us that from Him nothing of the sounds is hidden. His hearing is not in the way we are called as hearing people. We are called as hearing but the meaning is different. In the same way is seeing not that He sees through a hole as we do and can not use it for other uses. Allah sees but not by looking to an object. We also are called as seeing but the meaning is different. Allah is called Standing but not in the sense of standing in an upright position on the legs as is the case with the things but that He has said He is preserving as in the saying of a man, “standing for our affairs.” Allah stands over every soul and what it gains. The word standing is also in the usage of people. Words like remaining and standing also mean to suffice as in the words as you may say to a man, “Stand up over the affairs of so and so” which means deal with them in a sufficient manner. We stand on our legs, thus, the name is similar but the meaning is different. The name, Subtle is not in the sense of fastidiousness or being infinitesimal but it is in the rarity and hard to perceive nature of things. As an example it may be said, “It has become very delicate for me and that so and so is very delicate in his manners and dealings.” This means that it is profound for intelligence and difficult to find. It has become bottomless and delicate so much that even imagination is not able to reach it. Allah, the Most Holy, the Most High, is far Subtle to be comprehended through definitions or be combined in an attribute or in the way we are subtle, small and delicate. Names are the same but different in meaning. The name al-Khabir, meaning All-aware, is for One Who knows all things completely but not by means of experience and learning lessons from the past. Experience and learning from mistakes are of the means of learning for people. Without them there would exist no knowledge. One without experience and learning lessons is an ignorant person. Allah is All-aware eternally of what He has created but well aware and expert among people are those who ask questions and learn. Our names are the same but they, again, are different in meaning. The name al-Zahir meaning clear and conspicuous is not because of being over and on top of all things or sitting on them at their peak but it is because of His domination and having power over all things. An example of this is when a person says, “I over came my enemies or that Allah gave me victory over my enemies.” In this there is report of the failure and victory. Also there is Allah’s domination over all things. Another example is that His existence is clear for those who want (to know) Him. Nothing is hidden from Him and that He is the guardian of all that He has curved and fashioned. In such case whose existence can be clearer than Allah, the Most Holy, the Most High? You will not live without His creatures, no matter wherever you may be. Only within your own self there is enough of His creation. His existence by far is clearer than ours. He manifest all by His Own-self and is Known by His own self. We are of the same name but the meaning is different. The name al-Batin, means hidden. This is not in the sense of being inside of things by means of diving or so but is in the sense of His dealing, having knowledge, preserving and regulating the inside of all things. As one may say, “I tried to find the inside to learn and discover the secrets.” Hidden for us is what is unseen and covered. In this case again our names are the same but different in meaning. The name al-Qahir, means subduing. It is not in the sense of plotting, using certain devices and speaking attractive words or cunning means. It is not the way people subdue each other. The victorious among people may become subdued and vice versa. For Allah, the Most Holy, the Most High all the creatures have the garment of weakness on them. Due to the absence of obstacles in what He wills about them, it only takes less than a blinking of the eye to say it Be and it is, comes into existence. Subduing in our case is how I mentioned and explained. Our names are alike but the meaning is different. Thus, is the case for all the names although we have not mentioned all of them. For learning a lesson what we have mentioned for you is sufficient. May Allah be your and our helper in the matters of guidance and success.”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مرسل - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (2/54)