18. Chapter on the Interpretation of al-Samad, Self-sufficient

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1ـ عَلِيُّ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ وَمُحَمَّدُ بْنُ الْحَسَنِ عَنْ سَهْلِ بْنِ زِيَادٍ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ الْوَلِيدِ وَلَقَبُهُ شَبَابٌ الصَّيْرَفِيُّ عَنْ دَاوُدَ بْنِ الْقَاسِمِ الْجَعْفَرِيِّ قَالَ قُلْتُ لابِي جَعْفَرٍ الثَّانِي (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) جُعِلْتُ فِدَاكَ مَا الصَّمَدُ قَالَ السَّيِّدُ الْمَصْمُودُ إِلَيْهِ فِي الْقَلِيلِ وَالْكَثِيرِ.


1. Ali ibn Muhammad and Muhammad ibn al-Hassan has narrated from Sahl ibn Ziyad from Muhammad ibn al-Walid, whose title was Shabab al-Sayrafi from Dawud ibn al-Qasim al-Ja‘fari who has said the following. “I asked Imam abu Ja‘far al-Thani (the 2nd (a.s.), ‘May Allah take my soul in your service, what is the meaning of the word al-Samad?’” The Imam replied, al-Samad means the Lord to Who one turns for help, big or small.”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف على المشهور - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (2/60)



2ـ عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ يُونُسَ بْنِ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ عَنِ الْحَسَنِ بْنِ السَّرِيِّ عَنْ جَابِرِ بْنِ يَزِيدَ الْجُعْفِيِّ قَالَ سَأَلْتُ أَبَا جَعْفَرٍ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) عَنْ شَيْ‏ءٍ مِنَ التَّوْحِيدِ فَقَالَ إِنَّ الله تَبَارَكَتْ أَسْمَاؤُهُ الَّتِي يُدْعَا بِهَا وَتَعَالَى فِي عُلُوِّ كُنْهِهِ وَاحِدٌ تَوَحَّدَ بِالتَّوْحِيدِ فِي تَوَحُّدِهِ ثُمَّ أَجْرَاهُ عَلَى خَلْقِهِ فَهُوَ وَاحِدٌ صَمَدٌ قُدُّوسٌ يَعْبُدُهُ كُلُّ شَيْ‏ءٍ وَيَصْمُدُ إِلَيْهِ كُلُّ شَيْ‏ءٍ وَوَسِعَ كُلَّ شَيْ‏ءٍ عِلْماً.


فَهَذَا هُوَ الْمَعْنَى الصَّحِيحُ فِي تَأْوِيلِ الصَّمَدِ لا مَا ذَهَبَ إِلَيْهِ الْمُشَبِّهَةُ أَنَّ تَأْوِيلَ الصَّمَدِ الْمُصْمَتُ الَّذِي لا جَوْفَ لَهُ لانَّ ذَلِكَ لا يَكُونُ إِلا مِنْ صِفَةِ الْجِسْمِ وَالله جَلَّ ذِكْرُهُ مُتَعَالٍ عَنْ ذَلِكَ هُوَ أَعْظَمُ وَأَجَلُّ مِنْ أَنْ تَقَعَ الاوْهَامُ عَلَى صِفَتِهِ أَوْ تُدْرِكَ كُنْهَ عَظَمَتِهِ وَلَوْ كَانَ تَأْوِيلُ الصَّمَدِ فِي صِفَةِ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ الْمُصْمَتَ لَكَانَ مُخَالِفاً لِقَوْلِهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ لَيْسَ كَمِثْلِهِ شَيْ‏ءٌ لانَّ ذَلِكَ مِنْ صِفَةِ الاجْسَامِ الْمُصْمَتَةِ الَّتِي لا أَجْوَافَ لَهَا مِثْلِ الْحَجَرِ وَالْحَدِيدِ وَسَائِرِ الاشْيَاءِ الْمُصْمَتَةِ الَّتِي لا أَجْوَافَ لَهَا تَعَالَى الله عَنْ ذَلِكَ عُلُوّاً كَبِيراً فَأَمَّا مَا جَاءَ فِي الاخْبَارِ مِنْ ذَلِكَ فَالْعَالِمُ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) أَعْلَمُ بِمَا قَالَ وَهَذَا الَّذِي.


قَالَ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) إِنَّ الصَّمَدَ هُوَ السَّيِّدُ الْمَصْمُودُ إِلَيْهِ.


هُوَ مَعْنًى صَحِيحٌ مُوَافِقٌ لِقَوْلِ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ لَيْسَ كَمِثْلِهِ شَيْ‏ءٌ وَالْمَصْمُودُ إِلَيْهِ الْمَقْصُودُ فِي اللُّغَةِ قَالَ أَبُو طَالِبٍ فِي بَعْضِ مَا كَانَ يَمْدَحُ بِهِ النَّبِيَّ (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) مِنْ شِعْرِهِ.


وَبِالْجَمْرَةِ الْقُصْوَى إِذَا صَمَدُوا لَهَا يَؤُمُّونَ قَذْفاً رَأْسَهَا بِالْجَنَادِلِ‏.


يَعْنِي قَصَدُوا نَحْوَهَا يَرْمُونَهَا بِالْجَنَادِلِ يَعْنِي الْحَصَى الصِّغَارَ الَّتِي تُسَمَّى بِالْجِمَارِ وَقَالَ بَعْضُ شُعَرَاءِ الْجَاهِلِيَّةِ شِعْراً.


مَا كُنْتُ أَحْسَبُ أَنَّ بَيْتاً ظَاهِراً لله فِي أَكْنَافِ مَكَّةَ يُصْمَدُ.


يَعْنِي يُقْصَدُ وَقَالَ ابْنُ الزِّبْرِقَانِ.


وَلا رَهِيبَةَ إِلا سَيِّدٌ صَمَدٌ.


وَقَالَ شَدَّادُ بْنُ مُعَاوِيَةَ فِي حُذَيْفَةَ بْنِ بَدْرٍ.


عَلَوْتُهُ بِحُسَامٍ ثُمَّ قُلْتُ لَهُ خُذْهَا حُذَيْفُ فَأَنْتَ السَّيِّدُ الصَّمَدُ.


وَمِثْلُ هَذَا كَثِيرٌ وَالله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ هُوَ السَّيِّدُ الصَّمَدُ الَّذِي جَمِيعُ الْخَلْقِ مِنَ الْجِنِّ وَالانْسِ إِلَيْهِ يَصْمُدُونَ فِي الْحَوَائِجِ وَإِلَيْهِ يَلْجَئُونَ عِنْدَ الشَّدَائِدِ وَمِنْهُ يَرْجُونَ الرَّخَاءَ وَدَوَامَ النَّعْمَاءِ لِيَدْفَعَ عَنْهُمُ الشَّدَائِدَ.


2. A group of our people has narrated from Ahmad ibn abu ‘Abdallah from Muhammad ibn ‘Isa from Yunus ibn ‘Abd al-Rahman from al-Hassan ibn al-Sari from Jabir ibn Yazid al-Ju‘fi who has said the following. “I asked Imam abu Ja‘far (a.s.) a few things about the Oneness of Allah. The Imam replied, “Allah, Holy are Whose names, with which He is mentioned is Exalted and Most High in His Own-self. He is One. In Oneness He is the One and only in Oneness. He then made His creatures to know Him as the only One. He is One, Self-sufficient and the Holy. All things worship Him and He has the knowledge of all things.” Al-Kulayni has said that this is the correct meaning of al-Samad but not what al-Mushabbihah (people who consider Allah similar to certain things) believe. Al-Samad literally means solid as opposed to hallow which applies only to physical objects. Allah, the Most High, is far above such attributes. Had such attribute applied to Allah, the Most High, it would have contradicted with Allah’s statement that says, “There is nothing similar to Him.” In the Ahadith of the scholar, the Imam (a.s.) al-Samad refers to a master whom people consider a recourse or stronghold and such meaning is close to Allah’s words, “There is nothing similar to Him.” (42:11) An example of such usage is what abu Talib had expressed in praise of the holy Prophet (s.a.) during his performing Hajj in throwing pebbles onto the pillars of stones that symbolically stand for Satan. He has used the word al-Samad to mean aiming. An other example is found in the expression of ibn Zabarqan, “Mr Rahibah is but a master and a (al-Samad) recourse.” One more example can be found in the expression of Shaddad ibn Mu‘awiyah about Kudhayfah ibn Badr, “Hold it O Hudhayfa, you are a master, ( al-Samad) recourse.” There are many such examples in normal usage. Allah, the Majestic, the Most High, the Master and the Recourse to Who all man and Jinn turn for help in their difficulties and from Him they expect relief.


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مجهول كالصحيح - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (2/61)