Al-Kāfi - Volume 3 > Salah (Prayer) of Children and When Should They Begin Salah (Prayer)
Hadith #1

1ـ عَلِيٌّ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ عَنْ حَمَّادٍ عَنِ الْحَلَبِيِّ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله عَنْ أَبِيهِ (عَلَيْهِ الْسَّلام) قَالَ إِنَّا نَأْمُرُ صِبْيَانَنَا بِالصَّلاَةِ إِذَا كَانُوا بَنِي خَمْسِ سِنِينَ فَمُرُوا صِبْيَانَكُمْ بِالصَّلاَةِ إِذَا كَانُوا بَنِي سَبْعِ سِنِينَ وَنَحْنُ نَأْمُرُ صِبْيَانَنَا بِالصَّوْمِ إِذَا كَانُوا بَنِي سَبْعِ سِنِينَ بِمَا أَطَاقُوا مِنْ صِيَامِ الْيَوْمِ إِنْ كَانَ إِلَى نِصْفِ النَّهَارِ أَوْ أَكْثَرَ مِنْ ذَلِكَ أَوْ أَقَلَّ فَإِذَا غَلَبَهُمُ الْعَطَشُ وَالْغَرَثُ أَفْطَرُوا حَتَّى يَتَعَوَّدُوا الصَّوْمَ وَيُطِيقُوهُ فَمُرُوا صِبْيَانَكُمْ إِذَا كَانُوا بَنِي تِسْعِ سِنِينَ بِالصَّوْمِ مَا اسْتَطَاعُوا مِنْ صِيَامِ الْيَوْمِ فَإِذَا غَلَبَهُمُ الْعَطَشُ أَفْطَرُوا.

1. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from ibn abu ‘Umayr from Hammad from al-Halabiy who has said the following: “Abu ’Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘We instruct our children to perform Salah (prayer) when they are five years old. Instruct your children to perform Salah (prayer) when they are seven years old. We instruct our children to fast when they are seven years old if they can endure fasting even up to midday, or more than this or less. When thirst bothers them and hunger they discontinue the fast. This is to familiarize them with fasting to build their endurance to fast. So instruct your children to fast when they are nine years old and for as much of the day they can fast. When thirst bothers them, then you should allow them to discontinue their fast.’”