Al-Tawḥīd > the Most Compassionate is Firm on the Empyrean.
Hadith #9

9 - حدثنا محمد بن علي ماجيلويه رحمه الله، عن عمه محمد بن أبي القاسم، عن أحمد ابن أبي عبد الله، عن أبيه، عن محمد بن سنان، عن المفضل بن عمر، عن أبي عبد الله عليه السلام، قال: من زعم أن الله عز وجل من شئ أو في شئ أو على شئ فقد أشرك، ثم قال: من زعم أن الله من شئ فقد جعله محدثا، ومن زعم أنه في شئ فقد زعم أنه محصور (١)، ومن زعم أنه على شئ فقد جعله محمولا. قال مصنف هذا الكتاب: إن المشبهة تتعلق بقوله عز وجل ﴿إن ربكم الله الذي خلق السماوات والأرض في ستة أيام ثم استوى على العرش يغشي الليل النهار يطلبه حثيثا﴾ ولا حجة لها في ذلك لأنه عز وجل عني بقوله: (ثم استوى على العرش) أي ثم نقل إلى فوق السماوات وهو مستول عليه ومالك له، وقوله عز وجل: (ثم) إنما لرفع العرش إلى مكانه الذي هو فيه ونقله للاستواء فلا يجوز أن يكون معنى قوله: (استوى) استولى لأن استيلاء الله تبارك وتعالى على الملك وعلى الأشياء ليس هو بأمر حادث، بل لم يزل مالكا لكل شئ ومستوليا على كل شئ، وإنما ذكر عز وجل الاستواء بعد قوله: (ثم) وهو يعني الرفع مجازا، وهو كقوله: (ولنبلونكم حتى نعلم المجاهدين منكم والصابرين) فذكر (نعلم) مع قوله: (حتى) وهو عز وجل يعني حتى يجاهد المجاهدون ونحن نعلم ذلك لأن حتى لا يقع إلا على فعل حادث، وعلم الله عز وجل بالأشياء لا يكون حادثا، وكذلك ذكر قوله عز وجل: (استوى على العرش) بعد قوله: (ثم) وهو يعني بذلك ثم رفع العرش لاستيلائه عليه، ولم يعن بذلك الجلوس واعتدال البدن لأن الله لا يجوز أن يكون جسما ولا ذا بدن، تعالى الله عن ذلك علوا كبيرا. باب معنى قوله عز وجل: ﴿وكان عرشه على الماء﴾

9. Muhammad ibn `Ali Majilwayh (may Allah have mercy on him) said, on the authority of his paternal uncle Muhammad ibn Abu al-Qasim, on the authority of Ahmad ibn Abu `Abd Allah, on the authority of his father, on the authority of Muhammad ibn Sinan, on the authority of alMufaddal ibn `Umar that Abu `Abd Allah al-Sadiq (AS) said: Whoever claims that Allah, the Mighty and High, is from something, in something, or on something, he has surely committed polytheism. “He (AS) added, “Whoever claims that Allah is from something, he implies that He is created. Whoever claims that Allah is from something, he implies that He is created. Whoever claims that He is in something, he implies that He is limited. And whoever claims that He is on something, He has implied that He is carried.” The Compiler of this book says: The anthropomorphist cling to the Word of the Mighty and High: Surely your Lord is Allah, who created heaves and the earth in six days, then established Himself upon the Empyrean; He throws the veil of night over the day, which pursues it incessantly. There is no proof in that for them, because He, the Mighty and High, meant by this: then established Himself upon the Empyrean, i.e. then He transferred the Empyrean above the heavens, while He was in control over it and is its Master. His Word, the Mighty and High: `then’ refers to raising the Empyrean to the place where it is and transferring it to a steady state. Thus, it is not possible for the word `[istawa]’ to mean `taking possession,’ because Allah, the Blessed and Exalted, taking possession over the sovereignty and all things is not an accidental matter. In fact, He has always been the Master of everything, and in possession of everything. Verily, He, the Mighty and High, has mentioned `to establish’ after using the word `then,’ and that means `to raise’ metaphorically. It is similar to His Word: And most certainly We will try you until We have known those among you who exert themselves hard, and the patient. He has mentioned `We have known’ with His word `until,’ while He, the Mighty and High, means `until the ones who exert exert.’ We know this because `until’ is only used with an accidental action, while the knowledge of Allah, the Mighty and High, about the things is not accidental. Similar is the mention of His Word, the Mighty and High: `established Himself upon the Empyrean’ after His Word: `then.’ He means by that `then He raised the Empyrean for His Possession over it. He does not mean by that `the sitting’ or `proportion of body,’ because it is not possible that Allah could be a body or somatic. Exalted is Allah, the Elevated, and the High, from such things.