14. It is not Permissible to take an Oath by anything other than by Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious

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1- عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ عَنْ حَمَّادٍ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ مُسْلِمٍ قَالَ قُلْتُ لأبِي جَعْفَرٍ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَوْلُ اللهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ وَاللَّيْلِ إِذا يَغْشى‏ وَالنَّجْمِ إِذا هَوى‏ وَمَا أَشْبَهَ ذَلِكَ فَقَالَ إِنَّ للهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ أَنْ يُقْسِمَ مِنْ خَلْقِهِ بِمَا شَاءَ وَلَيْسَ لِخَلْقِهِ أَنْ يُقْسِمُوا إِلا بِهِ.


1. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from ibn abu ‘Umayr from Hammad from Muhammad ibn Muslim who has narrated the following: “This is about the meaning of the words of Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious. . . I swear by the night when it becomes dark. . .’ (92:2) and ‘. . . I swear by the star when it descends down’ (52:2) and so on. Abu Ja’far, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious, swears by anything of His creatures as He wants but His creatures can only swear and take oath by Allah.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: حسن 2 - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (4/330)



2- عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ عَنْ حَمَّادٍ عَنِ الْحَلَبِيِّ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ لا أَرَى أَنْ يَحْلِفَ الرَّجُلُ إِلا بِاللهِ فَأَمَّا قَوْلُ الرَّجُلِ لابَ لِشَانِئِكَ فَإِنَّهُ مِنْ قَوْلِ أَهْلِ الْجَاهِلِيَّةِ وَلَوْ حَلَفَ الرَّجُلُ بِهَذَا وَأَشْبَاهِهِ لَتُرِكَ الْحَلْفُ بِاللهِ فَأَمَّا قَوْلُ الرَّجُلِ يَا هَيَاهْ وَيَا هَنَاهْ فَإِنَّمَا ذَلِكَ لِطَلَبِ الاسْمِ وَلا أَرَى بِهِ بَأْساً وَأَمَّا قَوْلُهُ لَعَمْرُ اللهِ وَقَوْلُهُ لا هَاهُ فَإِنَّمَا ذَلِكَ بِاللهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ.


2. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from ibn abu ‘Umayr from Hammad from al-Halabiy who has narrated the following: “Abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘I say that a man must take an oath and swear by Allah only. People’s saying, la’ bal shane ’uka (no, but may your adversary be it) is of the expressions of the people of ignorance. If one takes an oath by such expressions and so on, he has ignored taking an oath by Allah. One’s expression, Ya Hayahu and ya Hanahu is only a pausing and punctuating effort to better articulate one’s idea. However, one’s saying la’umr Allah or Lahahu is swearing by Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: حسن - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (24/330)



3- عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ سَهْلِ بْنِ زِيَادٍ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي نَصْرٍ عَنْ عَبْدِ الْكَرِيمِ عَنْ سَمَاعَةَ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ لا أَرَى لِلرَّجُلِ أَنْ يَحْلِفَ إِلا بِاللهِ وَقَالَ قَوْلُ الرَّجُلِ حِينَ يَقُولُ لابَ لِشَانِئِكَ فَإِنَّمَا هُوَ مِنْ قَوْلِ الْجَاهِلِيَّةِ وَلَوْ حَلَفَ النَّاسُ بِهَذَا وَشِبْهِهِ تُرِكَ أَنْ يُحْلَفَ بِاللهِ.


3. A number of our people have narrated from Sahl ibn Ziyad from ibn abu from ‘Abd al-Karim from Sama‘ah who has narrated the following: “Abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘I say that a man must take an oath and swear by Allah only. People’s saying, la’ bal shane ’uka (no, but may your adversary be it) is of the expressions of the people of ignorance.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف على المشهور - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (24/332)



4- عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ هَارُونَ بْنِ مُسْلِمٍ عَنْ مَسْعَدَةَ بْنِ صَدَقَةَ قَالَ قَالَ أَبُو عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) فِي قَوْلِ اللهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ فَلا أُقْسِمُ بِمَواقِعِ النُّجُومِ قَالَ كَانَ أَهْلُ الْجَاهِلِيَّةِ يَحْلِفُونَ بِهَا فَقَالَ اللهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ فَلا أُقْسِمُ بِمَواقِعِ النُّجُومِ قَالَ عَظُمَ أَمْرُ مَنْ يَحْلِفُ بِهَا قَالَ وَكَانَتِ الْجَاهِلِيَّةُ يُعَظِّمُونَ الْمُحَرَّمَ وَلا يُقْسِمُونَ بِهِ وَلا بِشَهْرِ رَجَبٍ وَلا يَعْرِضُونَ فِيهِمَا لِمَنْ كَانَ فِيهِمَا ذَاهِباً أَوْ جَائِياً وَإِنْ كَانَ قَدْ قَتَلَ أَبَاهُ وَلا لِشَيْ‏ءٍ يَخْرُجُ مِنَ الْحَرَمِ دَابَّةً أَوْ شَاةً أَوْ بَعِيراً أَوْ غَيْرَ ذَلِكَ فَقَالَ اللهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ لِنَبِيِّهِ (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) لا أُقْسِمُ بِهذَا الْبَلَدِ وَأَنْتَ حِلٌّ بِهذَا الْبَلَدِ قَالَ فَبَلَغَ مِنْ جَهْلِهِمْ أَنَّهُمُ اسْتَحَلُّوا قَتْلَ النَّبِيِّ (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) وَعَظَّمُوا أَيَّامَ الشَّهْرِ حَيْثُ يُقْسِمُونَ بِهِ فَيَفُونَ.


4. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from Harun ibn Muslim from Mas’adah ibn Sadaqah who has narrated the following: “This is about the meaning of the words of Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious. ‘I do not swear by the places of the stars.’ (56:75) Abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘People of the community of ignorance swore by the places of stars and Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious, said, “I do not swear by the places of stars.’” He (the Imam) said that He called their swearing as such a grave thing. He (the Imam) has said that people of the time of ignorance held the month of Muharram to be a great thing. They would not swear thereby as well as the month of Rajab and did not disturb in these months those going and coming around even if he may have killed one’s father. They would not expel from al- Haram (the Sacred area) an animal or sheep or camel and so on. Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious, said to His Holy Prophet, O Allah, grant compensation to Muhammad and his family worthy of their services to Your cause, ‘I do not swear by this town and you are living in this town.’ (90:2-3) He (the Imam) said that their ignorance had climaxed to the level of making them to consider the killing of the Holy Prophet, O Allah, grant compensation to Muhammad and his family worthy of their services to Your cause, as lawful. On the contrary they held days of the month with greatness whereby they swore and stood by such oaths.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف على المشهور 2 - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (4/332)



5- عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنْ إِسْمَاعِيلَ بْنِ مَرَّارٍ عَنْ يُونُسَ عَنْ بَعْضِ أَصْحَابِنَا قَالَ سَأَلْتُهُ عَنْ قَوْلِ اللهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ فَلا أُقْسِمُ بِمَواقِعِ النُّجُومِ قَالَ أُعَظِّمُ إِثْمَ مَنْ يَحْلِفُ بِهَا قَالَ وَكَانَ أَهْلُ الْجَاهِلِيَّةِ يُعَظِّمُونَ الْحَرَمَ وَلا يُقْسِمُونَ بِهِ يَسْتَحِلُّونَ حُرْمَةَ اللهِ فِيهِ وَلا يَعْرِضُونَ لِمَنْ كَانَ فِيهِ وَلا يُخْرِجُونَ مِنْهُ دَابَّةً فَقَالَ اللهُ تَبَارَكَ وَتَعَالَى لا أُقْسِمُ بِهذَا الْبَلَدِ وَأَنْتَ حِلٌّ بِهذَا الْبَلَدِ وَوالِدٍ وَما وَلَدَ قَالَ يُعَظِّمُونَ الْبَلَدَ أَنْ يَحْلِفُوا بِهِ وَيَسْتَحِلُّونَ فِيهِ حُرْمَةَ رَسُولِ اللهِ (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه).


5. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from ’Isma‘if ibn Marrar from Yunus from certain persons of our people who has narrated the following: “I once asked him (the Imam), ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about the meaning of the words of Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious, ‘I do not swear by the places of the stars.’ (56:75) He (the Imam) said, ‘It is a great sin on one who swears thereby. The community of ignorance held al-Haram (the sacred area) with greatness. They did not swear thereby. They made lawful to disrespect Allah but they did not disturbed those who were there and did not expel animals from there. Allah, most Blessed, most High, said, ‘I do not swear by this town despite your living in it and by the father and son.’ (90:2-3) He (the Imam) said, ‘They held the town with greatness to the extent that they swore thereby but made it lawful to disrespect the Messenger of Allah, O Allah, grant compensation to Muhammad and his family worthy of their services to Your cause.”’


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مجهول - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (24/334)