9. Adjudication Disciplines

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1- عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ الْحَسَنِ بْنِ مَحْبُوبٍ عَنْ عَمْرِو بْنِ أَبِي الْمِقْدَامِ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنْ سَلَمَةَ بْنِ كُهَيْلٍ قَالَ سَمِعْتُ عَلِيّاً (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) يَقُولُ لِشُرَيْحٍ انْظُرْ إِلَى أَهْلِ الْمَعْكِ وَالْمَطْلِ وَدَفْعِ حُقُوقِ النَّاسِ مِنْ أَهْلِ الْمَقْدُرَةِ وَالْيَسَارِ مِمَّنْ يُدْلِي بِأَمْوَالِ الْمُسْلِمِينَ إِلَى الْحُكَّامِ فَخُذْ لِلنَّاسِ بِحُقُوقِهِمْ مِنْهُمْ وَبِعْ فِيهَا الْعَقَارَ وَالدِّيَارَ فَإِنِّي سَمِعْتُ رَسُولَ اللهِ (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) يَقُولُ مَطْلُ الْمُسْلِمِ الْمُوسِرِ ظُلْمٌ لِلْمُسْلِمِ وَمَنْ لَمْ يَكُنْ لَهُ عَقَارٌ وَلا دَارٌ وَلا مَالٌ فَلا سَبِيلَ عَلَيْهِ وَاعْلَمْ أَنَّهُ لا يَحْمِلُ النَّاسَ عَلَى الْحَقِّ إِلا مَنْ وَرَّعَهُمْ عَنِ الْبَاطِلِ ثُمَّ وَاسِ بَيْنَ الْمُسْلِمِينَ بِوَجْهِكَ وَمَنْطِقِكَ وَمَجْلِسِكَ حَتَّى لا يَطْمَعَ قَرِيبُكَ فِي حَيْفِكَ وَلا يَيْأَسَ عَدُوُّكَ مِنْ عَدْلِكَ وَرُدَّ الْيَمِينَ عَلَى الْمُدَّعِي مَعَ بَيِّنَةٍ فَإِنَّ ذَلِكَ أَجْلَى لِلْعَمَى وَأَثْبَتُ فِي الْقَضَاءِ وَاعْلَمْ أَنَّ الْمُسْلِمِينَ عُدُولٌ بَعْضُهُمْ عَلَى بَعْضٍ إِلا مَجْلُوداً فِي حَدٍّ لَمْ يَتُبْ مِنْهُ أَوْ مَعْرُوفٌ بِشَهَادَةِ زُورٍ أَوْ ظَنِينٌ وَإِيَّاكَ وَالتَّضَجُّرَ وَالتَّأَذِّيَ فِي مَجْلِسِ الْقَضَاءِ الَّذِي أَوْجَبَ اللهُ فِيهِ الأجْرَ وَيُحْسِنُ فِيهِ الذُّخْرَ لِمَنْ قَضَى بِالْحَقِّ وَاعْلَمْ أَنَّ الصُّلْحَ جَائِزٌ بَيْنَ الْمُسْلِمِينَ إِلا صُلْحاً حَرَّمَ حَلالا أَوْ أَحَلَّ حَرَاماً وَاجْعَلْ لِمَنِ ادَّعَى شُهُوداً غُيَّباً أَمَداً بَيْنَهُمَا فَإِنْ أَحْضَرَهُمْ أَخَذْتَ لَهُ بِحَقِّهِ وَإِنْ لَمْ يُحْضِرْهُمْ أَوْجَبْتَ عَلَيْهِ الْقَضِيَّةَ فَإِيَّاكَ أَنْ تُنَفِّذَ فِيهِ قَضِيَّةً فِي قِصَاصٍ أَوْ حَدٍّ مِنْ حُدُودِ اللهِ أَوْ حَقٍّ مِنْ حُقُوقِ الْمُسْلِمِينَ حَتَّى تَعْرِضَ ذَلِكَ عَلَيَّ إِنْ شَاءَ اللهُ وَلا تَقْعُدَنَّ فِي مَجْلِسِ الْقَضَاءِ حَتَّى تَطْعَمَ.


1. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from ibn Mahbub from ‘Amr ibn abu af-Miqdam from his father Safmah ibn Kuhayf who has narrated the following: “I heard ’ Amir al-Mu’minin, Ali, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, saying to Shurayh, ’Keep an eye on those who delay payment of debts on them and on the procrastinators and on defending the rights of people against the capable and the affluent ones who throw the wealth of the Muslims to the ruling parties. Take the rights of people from them and sell for this purpose real properties and buildings; I heard the Messenger of Allah, O Allah, grant compensation to Muhammad and his family worthy of their services to Your cause, saying, “The procrastination of an affluent Muslim is injustice to the Muslim.” Those who do not own real properties and homes or other assets, there is no way against them. You must take notice that people cannot be made to do the right thing except by stopping them from falsehood. Be comforting for the Muslims by the appearance of your face, words and sitting manners so that people with nearness to you cannot expect you to be unjust and your adversary loses hope of your justice. Make a plaintiff to take an oath along with testimony; it clears up the blindness and confusion and solidifies the judgment. You must take notice that Muslims are all just people toward each other except those whipped for penalty who have not repented, those well- known for presenting false testimony and a doubting pessimist. You must always stay away from censuring and hurting people in an adjudicating session, for conducting of which Allah has made the recompense obligatory with good rewards for those who render the right judgment. You must keep in mind that arranging a settlement is permissible among the Muslims, except a settlement that makes the lawful as unlawful and the unlawful as lawful. You must set a time limit for those who claim to have absent witnesses. If they present such witnesses then restore their rights; but if they did not present such witnesses, then you must issue judgment against them. You must never issue a judgment in equitable retaliation or a penalty of the penalties, which Allah has sanctioned for the rights of the Muslims without first showing it to me, by the will of Allah. Do not sit (to eat) in the adjudicating session until you complete eating.”’


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (4/275)



2- عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ النَّوْفَلِيِّ عَنِ السَّكُونِيِّ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللهِ (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) مَنِ ابْتُلِيَ بِالْقَضَاءِ فَلا يَقْضِي وَهُوَ غَضْبَانُ.


2. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from al-Nawfaliy from al-Sakuniy who has narrated the following: “Abu ‘ Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said that the Messenger of Allah, O Allah, grant compensation to Muhammad and his family worthy of their services to Your cause, has said, ‘One whose task is adjudication he must not take his seat to adjudicate when angry.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف على المشهور - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (4/277)



3- وَبِهَذَا الإسْنَادِ قَالَ قَالَ أَمِيرُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) مَنِ ابْتُلِيَ بِالْقَضَاءِ فَلْيُوَاسِ بَيْنَهُمْ فِي الإشَارَةِ وَفِي النَّظَرِ وَفِي الْمَجْلِسِ.


3. Through the same chain of narrators as that of the previous Hadith, the following is narrated: “’Amir al-Mu’minin, Ali, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘One who has the task of adjudication must comfort people by means of his gestures, look and seating positions.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف على المشهور - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (4/277)



4- وَبِهَذَا الإسْنَادِ أَنَّ رَجُلا نَزَلَ بِأَمِيرِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) فَمَكَثَ عِنْدَهُ أَيَّاماً ثُمَّ تَقَدَّمَ إِلَيْهِ فِي خُصُومَةٍ لَمْ يَذْكُرْهَا لأمِيرِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) فَقَالَ لَهُ أَخَصْمٌ أَنْتَ قَالَ نَعَمْ قَالَ تَحَوَّلْ عَنَّا إِنَّ رَسُولَ اللهِ (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) نَهَى أَنْ يُضَافَ الْخَصْمُ إِلا وَمَعَهُ خَصْمُهُ.


4. Through the same chain of narrators as that of the previous Hadith, the following is narrated: “A man once became a guest of ’Amir al-Mu’minin, Ali, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, and stayed with him for several days. He then presented a case before him (the Imam) for adjudication, which he had not mentioned to him (the Imam) before. He (the Imam) asked, ‘Are you the plaintiff?’ The man replied, ‘Yes, I am the plaintiff.’ He (the Imam) said, ‘You must move in another place for lodging; the Messenger of Allah, O Allah, grant compensation to Muhammad and his family worthy of their services to Your cause, has prohibited entertaining a plaintiff as a guest without the presence of the defendant.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف على المشهور - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (24/278)



5- عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ رَفَعَهُ قَالَ قَالَ أَمِيرُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) لِشُرَيْحٍ لا تُسَارَّ أَحَداً فِي مَجْلِسِكَ وَإِنْ غَضِبْتَ فَقُمْ فَلا تَقْضِيَنَّ فَأَنْتَ غَضْبَانُ قَالَ وَقَالَ أَبُو عَبْدِ اللهِ (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) لِسَانُ الْقَاضِي وَرَاءَ قَلْبِهِ فَإِنْ كَانَ لَهُ قَالَ وَإِنْ كَانَ عَلَيْهِ أَمْسَكَ.


5. A number of our people have narrated from Ahmad ibn abu ‘Abd Allah in a marfu‘ manner who has narrated the following: “’Amir al-Mu’minin, Ali, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, once said to Shurayh, ’You must not please anyone in your adjudicating session, and if you become angry, you must stand up and must not issue a judgment when you are angry.’ Abu ’Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said that the Messenger of Allah, O Allah, grant compensation to Muhammad and his family worthy of their services to Your cause, has said, ‘The tongue of a judge is behind his heart. If it is for him, he speaks; and if it is against him, he remains quiet.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مرفوع - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (24/278)



6- مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنِ الْحَجَّالِ عَنْ دَاوُدَ بْنِ أَبِي يَزِيدَ عَمَّنْ سَمِعَهُ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ إِذَا كَانَ الْحَاكِمُ يَقُولُ لِمَنْ عَنْ يَمِينِهِ وَلِمَنْ عَنْ يَسَارِهِ مَا تَرَى مَا تَقُولُ فَعَلَى ذَلِكَ لَعْنَةُ اللهِ وَالْمَلائِكَةِ وَالنَّاسِ أَجْمَعِينَ أَلا يَقُومُ مِنْ مَجْلِسِهِ وَتُجْلِسُهُمْ مَكَانَهُ.


6. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from al-Hajjal from Dawud ibn abu Yazid from the one who had heard from him (the Imam) who has narrated the following: “Abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘If a judge, to those on his right or left side, says, “What do you think, what do you say?” He is condemned by Allah, the angels and all people. Why must he not move away and make them sit in his place?”’


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مرسل - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (4/278)