10. Judgments must be Issued on the Basis of Testimony and Oath

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1- عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ وَمُحَمَّدُ بْنُ إِسْمَاعِيلَ عَنِ الْفَضْلِ بْنِ شَاذَانَ جَمِيعاً عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ عَنْ سَعْدِ بْنِ هِشَامِ بْنِ الْحَكَمِ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللهِ (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) إِنَّمَا أَقْضِي بَيْنَكُمْ بِالْبَيِّنَاتِ وَالأيْمَانِ وَبَعْضُكُمْ أَلْحَنُ بِحُجَّتِهِ مِنْ بَعْضٍ فَأَيُّمَا رَجُلٍ قَطَعْتُ لَهُ مِنْ مَالِ أَخِيهِ شَيْئاً فَإِنَّمَا قَطَعْتُ لَهُ بِهِ قِطْعَةً مِنَ النَّارِ.


1. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father and Muhammad ibn ’Isma‘il has narrated from al-Fadl ibn Shadhan from all from ibn abu ‘Umayr from Sa‘d ibn Hisham ibn al-Hakam who has narrated the following: “Abu ‘ Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said that the Messenger of Allah, O Allah, grant compensation to Muhammad and his family worthy of their services to Your cause, has said, ‘I must judge among you on the basis of evidence and oath. Certain ones among you make more mistakes in their argument than others. For whomever I cut off (takes away) from the assets of his brother, I only cut off for him thereby a piece of the fire.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مجهول - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (24/279)



2- عَلِيٌّ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنْ بَعْضِ أَصْحَابِهِ عَنْ عَاصِمِ بْنِ حُمَيْدٍ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ قَيْسٍ عَنْ أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ إِنَّ نَبِيّاً مِنَ الأنْبِيَاءِ شَكَا إِلَى رَبِّهِ كَيْفَ أَقْضِي فِي أُمُورٍ لَمْ أُخْبَرْ بِبَيَانِهَا قَالَ فَقَالَ لَهُ رُدَّهُمْ إِلَيَّ وَأَضِفْهُمْ إِلَى اسْمِي يَحْلِفُونَ بِهِ.


2. Ali has narrated from his father from certain persons of his people from ‘Asem ibn Humayd from Muhammad ibn Qays who has narrated the following: “Abu Ja‘far, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said that once one of the prophets complained before his Lord saying, ‘How can I judge in matters about which I am not informed how to deal with/ He said, ‘Leave them for Me and add them to My name by which they must swear and take an oath.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مرسل - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (24/279)



3- مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنِ الْحُسَيْنِ بْنِ سَعِيدٍ عَنْ فَضَالَةَ بْنِ أَيُّوبَ عَنْ أَبَانِ بْنِ عُثْمَانَ عَمَّنْ أَخْبَرَهُ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ فِي كِتَابِ عَلِيٍّ (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) أَنَّ نَبِيّاً مِنَ الأنْبِيَاءِ شَكَا إِلَى رَبِّهِ الْقَضَاءَ فَقَالَ كَيْفَ أَقْضِي بِمَا لَمْ تَرَ عَيْنِي وَلَمْ تَسْمَعْ أُذُنِي فَقَالَ اقْضِ بَيْنَهُمْ بِالْبَيِّنَاتِ وَأَضِفْهُمْ إِلَى اسْمِي يَحْلِفُونَ بِهِ وَقَالَ إِنَّ دَاوُدَ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ يَا رَبِّ أَرِنِي الْحَقَّ كَمَا هُوَ عِنْدَكَ حَتَّى أَقْضِيَ بِهِ فَقَالَ إِنَّكَ لا تُطِيقُ ذَلِكَ فَأَلَحَّ عَلَى رَبِّهِ حَتَّى فَعَلَ فَجَاءَهُ رَجُلٌ يَسْتَعْدِي عَلَى رَجُلٍ فَقَالَ إِنَّ هَذَا أَخَذَ مَالِي فَأَوْحَى اللهُ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ إِلَى دَاوُدَ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) أَنَّ هَذَا الْمُسْتَعْدِيَ قَتَلَ أَبَا هَذَا وَأَخَذَ مَالَهُ فَأَمَرَ دَاوُدُ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) بِالْمُسْتَعْدِي فَقُتِلَ وَأَخَذَ مَالَهُ فَدَفَعَهُ إِلَى الْمُسْتَعْدَى عَلَيْهِ قَالَ فَعَجِبَ النَّاسُ وَتَحَدَّثُوا حَتَّى بَلَغَ دَاوُدَ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) وَدَخَلَ عَلَيْهِ مِنْ ذَلِكَ مَا كَرِهَ فَدَعَا رَبَّهُ أَنْ يَرْفَعَ ذَلِكَ فَفَعَلَ ثُمَّ أَوْحَى اللهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ إِلَيْهِ أَنِ احْكُمْ بَيْنَهُمْ بِالْبَيِّنَاتِ وَأَضِفْهُمْ إِلَى اسْمِي يَحْلِفُونَ بِهِ.


3. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from al-Husayn ibn Sa‘id from ibn Faddal ibn Ayyub from Aban ibn ‘Uthman from those who narrated to him who has narrated the following: “Abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said that it is in the book of Ali, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, that one of the Prophets complained before his Lord about adjudication saying, ‘How can I judge about what my eyes have not seen and my ears have not heard?’ He told him to judge among them by means of evidence and testimony and make them to swear by His name. He (the Imam) then said that Dawud ‘Alayhi al-Salam, once said, ‘O Lord, show me the reality as it is so I can judge accordingly.’ The Lord said, ‘You will not be able to bear it.’ He insisted that the reality be shown to him. A man then came with a complaint against another man for taking his assets. Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious, revealed to Dawud ‘Alayhi al-Salam, that the plaintiff has killed the father of the defendant and has taken his assets. He then issued a judgment that required the plaintiff to be executed and his assets must be given to the defendant. He (the Imam) said, ‘People were confused and they spoke about it until it reached Dawud ‘Alayhi al-Salam. He felt uncomfortable about it so he prayed before the Lord to remove what he had asked for (showing the reality). Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious, then commanded him to judge on the basis of evidence and asking them to swear by His name.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مرسل 2 - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (4/279)



4- وَعَنْهُ عَنِ النَّضْرِ بْنِ سُوَيْدٍ عَنْ هِشَامِ بْنِ سَالِمٍ عَنْ سُلَيْمَانَ بْنِ خَالِدٍ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ فِي كِتَابِ عَلِيٍّ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) أَنَّ نَبِيّاً مِنَ الأنْبِيَاءِ شَكَا إِلَى رَبِّهِ فَقَالَ يَا رَبِّ كَيْفَ أَقْضِي فِيمَا لَمْ أَشْهَدْ وَلَمْ أَرَ قَالَ فَأَوْحَى اللهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ إِلَيْهِ أَنِ احْكُمْ بَيْنَهُمْ بِكِتَابِي وَأَضِفْهُمْ إِلَى اسْمِي فَحَلِّفْهُمْ بِهِ وَقَالَ هَذَا لِمَنْ لَمْ تَقُمْ لَهُ بَيِّنَةٌ.


4. It is narrated from the narrator of the previous Hadith from al-Nadr ibn Suwayd from Hisham ibn Salim from Sulayman ibn Khalid who has narrated the following: “Abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said that it is in the book of Ali, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, that one of the Prophets complained before his Lord saying, ‘O Lord, how can I judge among people what I have not witnessed?’ Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious, then sent him revelation that said, ‘Judge among them by means of my book and making them to swear by My name.’ He (the Imam) said, ‘This is in the case of those who cannot establish evidence and testimony.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: صحيح 2 - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (4/280)