8. The Undesirability of Taking a case before the Unjust Judges

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1- مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنِ الْحَسَنِ بْنِ مَحْبُوبٍ عَنْ عَبْدِ اللهِ بْنِ سِنَانٍ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ أَيُّمَا مُؤْمِنٍ قَدَّمَ مُؤْمِناً فِي خُصُومَةٍ إِلَى قَاضٍ أَوْ سُلْطَانٍ جَائِرٍ فَقَضَى عَلَيْهِ بِغَيْرِ حُكْمِ اللهِ فَقَدْ شَرِكَهُ فِي الإثْمِ.


1. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from al-Hassan ibn Mahbub from ‘Abd Allah ibn Sinan who has narrated the following: “Abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘Any believing person who takes another believing person before a judge or Sultan of injustice who then judges by means of something other than what Allah has sent, he becomes his (judge’s) partner in the sin.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: صحيح 2 - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (4/272)



2- مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ الْحُسَيْنِ عَنْ يَزِيدَ بْنِ إِسْحَاقَ عَنْ هَارُونَ بْنِ حَمْزَةَ الْغَنَوِيِّ عَنْ حَرِيزٍ عَنْ أَبِي بَصِيرٍ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ أَيُّمَا رَجُلٍ كَانَ بَيْنَهُ وَبَيْنَ أَخٍ لَهُ مُمَارَاةٌ فِي حَقٍّ فَدَعَاهُ إِلَى رَجُلٍ مِنْ إِخْوَانِهِ لِيَحْكُمَ بَيْنَهُ وَبَيْنَهُ فَأَبَى إِلا أَنْ يُرَافِعَهُ إِلَى هَؤُلاءِ كَانَ بِمَنْزِلَةِ الَّذِينَ قَالَ اللهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ أَلَمْ تَرَ إِلَى الَّذِينَ يَزْعُمُونَ أَنَّهُمْ آمَنُوا بِما أُنْزِلَ إِلَيْكَ وَما أُنْزِلَ مِنْ قَبْلِكَ يُرِيدُونَ أَنْ يَتَحاكَمُوا إِلَى الطَّاغُوتِ وَقَدْ أُمِرُوا أَنْ يَكْفُرُوا بِهِ الآيَةَ.


2. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Muhammad ibn al-Husayn from Yazid ibn Ishaq from Harun ibn Hamzah al-Ghanawiy from Hariz from abu Basir who has narrated the following: “Abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘If anyone may have a dispute with his brother about a certain right, he then calls him before one of his brothers to judge for them but he refuses. He takes him before these ones, he will be like the one about whom Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious, has said, “. . . have you considered those who think they have believed in what Allah has sent before you, they like to seek judgment before the transgressors when they are commanded to reject the transgressors, the devil.” (4:60)’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: صحيح على الظاه ر - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (24/272)



3- مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنِ الْحُسَيْنِ بْنِ سَعِيدٍ عَنْ عَبْدِ اللهِ بْنِ بَحْرٍ عَنْ عَبْدِ اللهِ بْنِ مُسْكَانَ عَنْ أَبِي بَصِيرٍ قَالَ قُلْتُ لأبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَوْلُ اللهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ فِي كِتَابِهِ وَلا تَأْكُلُوا أَمْوالَكُمْ بَيْنَكُمْ بِالْباطِلِ وَتُدْلُوا بِها إِلَى الْحُكَّامِ فَقَالَ يَا أَبَا بَصِيرٍ إِنَّ اللهَ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ قَدْ عَلِمَ أَنَّ فِي الأمَّةِ حُكَّاماً يَجُورُونَ أَمَا إِنَّهُ لَمْ يَعْنِ حُكَّامَ أَهْلِ الْعَدْلِ وَلَكِنَّهُ عَنَى حُكَّامَ أَهْلِ الْجَوْرِ يَا أَبَا مُحَمَّدٍ إِنَّهُ لَوْ كَانَ لَكَ عَلَى رَجُلٍ حَقٌّ فَدَعَوْتَهُ إِلَى حُكَّامِ أَهْلِ الْعَدْلِ فَأَبَى عَلَيْكَ إِلا أَنْ يُرَافِعَكَ إِلَى حُكَّامِ أَهْلِ الْجَوْرِ لِيَقْضُوا لَهُ لَكَانَ مِمَّنْ حَاكَمَ إِلَى الطَّاغُوتِ وَهُوَ قَوْلُ اللهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ أَلَمْ تَرَ إِلَى الَّذِينَ يَزْعُمُونَ أَنَّهُمْ آمَنُوا بِما أُنْزِلَ إِلَيْكَ وَما أُنْزِلَ مِنْ قَبْلِكَ يُرِيدُونَ أَنْ يَتَحاكَمُوا إِلَى الطَّاغُوتِ.


3. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from al-Husayn ibn Sa‘id from ‘Abd Allah ibn Bahr from ‘Abd Allah ibn Muskan from abu Basir who has narrated the following: “I once asked abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about the meaning of the words of Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious, ‘. . . do not consume your wealth among yourselves in falsehood and throw them to the rulers.’ (2:188) He (the Imam) said, ‘O abu Basir, Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious, knows that among the nations there are unjust rulers who commit injustice. He has not thereby meant the rulers of justice but He has meant the unjust rulers. O abu Muhammad, if you have a certain right on a man and you call him before the judges of justice but he refuses and wants to take you before the unjust rulers and judges for judgment for him, he is one of those who has gone for justice before the transgressors. This is mentioned in the words of Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious. “. . . have you considered those who think they have believed in what Allah has sent before you, they like to seek judgment before the transgressors when they are commanded to reject the transgressors, the devil.” (4:60)’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف 2 - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (4/274)



4- الْحُسَيْنُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ مُعَلَّى بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنِ الْحَسَنِ بْنِ عَلِيٍّ عَنْ أَبِي خَدِيجَةَ قَالَ قَالَ لِي أَبُو عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) إِيَّاكُمْ أَنْ يُحَاكِمَ بَعْضُكُمْ بَعْضاً إِلَى أَهْلِ الْجَوْرِ وَلَكِنِ انْظُرُوا إِلَى رَجُلٍ مِنْكُمْ يَعْلَمُ شَيْئاً مِنْ قَضَائِنَا فَاجْعَلُوهُ بَيْنَكُمْ فَإِنِّي قَدْ جَعَلْتُهُ قَاضِياً فَتَحَاكَمُوا إِلَيْهِ.


4. Al-Husayn Muhammad has narrated from Mu‘alla’ ibn Muhammad from al-Hassan ibn Ali from abu Khadijah who has narrated the following: “Abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, once said to me, ‘Beware no one among you must take one another before the people of injustice. You must find among yourselves one who knows certain things of our judgment; then you must appoint him to judge for you; I have made him to judge for you and you must seek adjudication before him.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف على المشهور 2 - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (4/274)



5- مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ الْحُسَيْنِ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ صَفْوَانَ عَنْ دَاوُدَ بْنِ الْحُصَيْنِ عَنْ عُمَرَ بْنِ حَنْظَلَةَ قَالَ سَأَلْتُ أَبَا عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) عَنْ رَجُلَيْنِ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا يَكُونُ بَيْنَهُمَا مُنَازَعَةٌ فِي دَيْنٍ أَوْ مِيرَاثٍ فَتَحَاكَمَا إِلَى السُّلْطَانِ أَوْ إِلَى الْقُضَاةِ أَيَحِلُّ ذَلِكَ فَقَالَ مَنْ تَحَاكَمَ إِلَى الطَّاغُوتِ فَحَكَمَ لَهُ فَإِنَّمَا يَأْخُذُ سُحْتاً وَإِنْ كَانَ حَقُّهُ ثَابِتاً لأنَّهُ أَخَذَ بِحُكْمِ الطَّاغُوتِ وَقَدْ أَمَرَ اللهُ أَنْ يُكْفَرَ بِهِ قُلْتُ كَيْفَ يَصْنَعَانِ قَالَ انْظُرُوا إِلَى مَنْ كَانَ مِنْكُمْ قَدْ رَوَى حَدِيثَنَا وَنَظَرَ فِي حَلالِنَا وَحَرَامِنَا وَعَرَفَ أَحْكَامَنَا فَارْضَوْا بِهِ حَكَماً فَإِنِّي قَدْ جَعَلْتُهُ عَلَيْكُمْ حَاكِماً فَإِذَا حَكَمَ بِحُكْمِنَا فَلَمْ يَقْبَلْهُ مِنْهُ فَإِنَّمَا بِحُكْمِ اللهِ قَدِ اسْتَخَفَّ وَعَلَيْنَا رَدَّ وَالرَّادُّ عَلَيْنَا الرَّادُّ عَلَى اللهِ وَهُوَ عَلَى حَدِّ الشِّرْكِ بِاللهِ.


5. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Muhammad ibn al-Husayn from Muhammad ibn ‘Isa from Safwan from Dawud ibn al- Haseen from ‘Umar ibn Hanzalah who has narrated the following: “I once asked abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about two of our people who have a dispute over a certain issue of religion or inheritance, and they go for judgment before the Sultan or a judge; if it is lawful. He (the Imam) said, ‘Whoever seeks judgment before al-Taghut (transgressors) who judges for him, whatever he then receives by such judgment is al-suht (sinful earning) even if it is his established right; he has taken it through the judgment of al-Taghut (transgressors) when Allah has commanded to reject al-Taghut.’ I then asked, ’What then should they do?’ He (the Imam) said, ‘You must find one among you who narrates our Hadith and has given thought about our lawful and unlawful matters and has learned our rules; then you must accept him as the judge among you; I have made him the judge and ruler over you. When he issues judgments according to our rules and it is not accepted from him, then the rule and laws of Allah are taken lightly and our rules are rejected. Those who reject us, they have rejected Allah and that is like taking things as partners of Allah.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: موثق 2 - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (4/275)