3. The Case of one who Judges by Means of what is other than what Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious, has Revealed

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1- عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ ابْنِ فَضَّالٍ عَنْ ثَعْلَبَةَ عَنْ صَبَّاحٍ الأزْرَقِ عَنْ حَكَمٍ الْحَنَّاطِ عَنْ أَبِي بَصِيرٍ عَنْ أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) وَحَكَمٍ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي يَعْفُورٍ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالا مَنْ حَكَمَ فِي دِرْهَمَيْنِ بِغَيْرِ مَا أَنْزَلَ اللهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ مِمَّنْ لَهُ سَوْطٌ أَوْ عَصًا فَهُوَ كَافِرٌ بِمَا أَنْزَلَ اللهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ عَلَى مُحَمَّدٍ (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه).


1. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from ibn Faddal from Thalabah from Sabbah al-Azraq from Hakam al-Hannat from abu Basir from abu Ja‘far, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, and Hakam from ibn abu Ya’fur from abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, who has narrated the following: “The two Imam, ‘Alayhim al-Salam, have made this pronouncement. ‘One who issues judgment and he is of the people who possess whip or stick (government). Even though it is about two dirham but it is by means of something other than what Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious, has sent, he is in denial of what Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious, has sent to Muhammad, O Allah, grant compensation to Muhammad and his family worthy of their services to Your cause.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مجهول - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (24/267)



2- عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ حُمْرَانَ عَنْ أَبِي بَصِيرٍ قَالَ سَمِعْتُ أَبَا عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) يَقُولُ مَنْ حَكَمَ فِي دِرْهَمَيْنِ بِغَيْرِ مَا أَنْزَلَ اللهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ فَهُوَ كَافِرٌ بِاللهِ الْعَظِيمِ.


2. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from ibn abu ‘Umayr from Muhammad ibn Humran from abu Basir who has narrated the following: “I once heard abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, saying, ‘One who issues judgment on the basis of something other than what Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious, has sent is in denial of the existence of Allah, the most Great.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مجهول 2 - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (4/267)



3- عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنِ الْحُسَيْنِ بْنِ سَعِيدٍ عَنْ بَعْضِ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ عَبْدِ اللهِ بْنِ كَثِيرٍ عَنْ عَبْدِ اللهِ بْنِ مُسْكَانَ رَفَعَهُ قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللهِ (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) مَنْ حَكَمَ فِي دِرْهَمَيْنِ بِحُكْمِ جَوْرٍ ثُمَّ جَبَرَ عَلَيْهِ كَانَ مِنْ أَهْلِ هَذِهِ الآيَةِ وَمَنْ لَمْ يَحْكُمْ بِما أَنْزَلَ اللهُ فَأُولئِكَ هُمُ الْكافِرُونَ فَقُلْتُ وَكَيْفَ يَجْبُرُ عَلَيْهِ فَقَالَ يَكُونُ لَهُ سَوْطٌ وَسِجْنٌ فَيَحْكُمُ عَلَيْهِ فَإِذَا رَضِيَ بِحُكُومَتِهِ وَإِلا ضَرَبَهُ بِسَوْطِهِ وَحَبَسَهُ فِي سِجْنِهِ.


3. A number of our people have narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from al-Husayn ibn Sa‘id from certain persons of our people from ‘Abd Allah ibn Kathir from ‘Abd Allah ibn Muskan in a marfu‘ manner who has narrated the following: “He (the Imam), ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said that the Messenger of Allah, O Allah, grant compensation to Muhammad and his family worthy of their services to Your cause, has said this Hadith. ‘One who issues judgment even about two dirham by means of injustice then applies it by force is of those to whom this verse of the Quran applies, “. . . those who issue judgment but not according to the laws of Allah, they are of the unbelievers.” (5:44) I then said, ‘How does he enforce on him?’ He (the Imam) said, ‘He is one who has the whip and jail. He issues judgment against him to agree with his judgment, otherwise, he beats him up with his whip and confines him in his jail.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مرفوع 2 - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (4/267)



4- عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ سَهْلِ بْنِ زِيَادٍ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ الْمُؤْمِنِ عَنْ مُعَاوِيَةَ بْنِ وَهْبٍ قَالَ سَمِعْتُ أَبَا عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) يَقُولُ أَيُّ قَاضٍ قَضَى بَيْنَ اثْنَيْنِ فَأَخْطَأَ سَقَطَ أَبْعَدَ مِنَ السَّمَاءِ.


4. A number of our people have narrated from Sahl ibn Ziyad from Muhammad ibn ‘Isa from ‘Abd Allah al-Mu’min from Mu‘awiyah ibn Wahab who has narrated the following: “I once heard abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, saying, ‘Any judge who issues a judgment between the two and makes a mistake, he falls into a depth farther than the sky.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف 2 - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (4/268)



5- عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنِ الْحُسَيْنِ بْنِ سَعِيدٍ عَنْ فَضَالَةَ بْنِ أَيُّوبَ عَنْ دَاوُدَ بْنِ فَرْقَدٍ قَالَ حَدَّثَنِي رَجُلٌ عَنْ سَعِيدِ بْنِ أَبِي الْخَضِيبِ الْبَجَلِيِّ قَالَ كُنْتُ مَعَ ابْنِ أَبِي لَيْلَى مُزَامِلَهُ حَتَّى جِئْنَا إِلَى الْمَدِينَةِ فَبَيْنَا نَحْنُ فِي مَسْجِدِ الرَّسُولِ (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) إِذْ دَخَلَ جَعْفَرُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ (عَلَيْهِما السَّلام) فَقُلْتُ لابْنِ أَبِي لَيْلَى تَقُومُ بِنَا إِلَيْهِ فَقَالَ وَمَا نَصْنَعُ عِنْدَهُ فَقُلْتُ نُسَائِلُهُ وَنُحَدِّثُهُ فَقَالَ قُمْ فَقُمْنَا إِلَيْهِ فَسَاءَلَنِي عَنْ نَفْسِي وَأَهْلِي ثُمَّ قَالَ مَنْ هَذَا مَعَكَ فَقُلْتُ ابْنُ أَبِي لَيْلَى قَاضِي الْمُسْلِمِينَ فَقَالَ لَهُ أَنْتَ ابْنُ أَبِي لَيْلَى قَاضِي الْمُسْلِمِينَ قَالَ نَعَمْ قَالَ تَأْخُذُ مَالَ هَذَا فَتُعْطِيهِ هَذَا وَتَقْتُلُ وَتُفَرِّقُ بَيْنَ الْمَرْءِ وَزَوْجِهِ لا تَخَافُ فِي ذَلِكَ أَحَداً قَالَ نَعَمْ قَالَ فَبِأَيِّ شَيْ‏ءٍ تَقْضِي قَالَ بِمَا بَلَغَنِي عَنْ رَسُولِ اللهِ (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) وَعَنْ عَلِيٍّ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) وَعَنْ أَبِي بَكْرٍ وَعُمَرَ قَالَ فَبَلَغَكَ عَنْ رَسُولِ اللهِ (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) أَنَّهُ قَالَ إِنَّ عَلِيّاً (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) أَقْضَاكُمْ قَالَ نَعَمْ قَالَ فَكَيْفَ تَقْضِي بِغَيْرِ قَضَاءِ عَلِيٍّ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) وَقَدْ بَلَغَكَ هَذَا فَمَا تَقُولُ إِذَا جِي‏ءَ بِأَرْضٍ مِنْ فِضَّةٍ وَسَمَاءٍ مِنْ فِضَّةٍ ثُمَّ أَخَذَ رَسُولُ اللهِ (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) بِيَدِكَ فَأَوْقَفَكَ بَيْنَ يَدَيْ رَبِّكَ فَقَالَ يَا رَبِّ إِنَّ هَذَا قَضَى بِغَيْرِ مَا قَضَيْتَ قَالَ فَاصْفَرَّ وَجْهُ ابْنِ أَبِي لَيْلَى حَتَّى عَادَ مِثْلَ الزَّعْفَرَانِ ثُمَّ قَالَ لِي الْتَمِسْ لِنَفْسِكَ زَمِيلا وَاللهِ لا أُكَلِّمُكَ مِنْ رَأْسِي كَلِمَةً أَبَداً.


5. A number of our people have narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Isa from al-Husayn ibn Sa‘id from ibn Faddal from Dawud ibn Farqad who has narrated the following: “A man narrated to me from Sa‘id ibn abu al-Khasib al-Bajaliy who has said that once I was with ibn abu Layla’ as a travelmate until we arrived in al-Madinah. When we were in the Masjid of the Messenger of Allah, O Allah, grant compensation to Muhammad and his family worthy of their services to Your cause, Ja‘far ibn Muhammad, ‘Alayhim al-Salam, came in. I then said to ibn abu Layla’ to go to him (the Imam). He asked, ‘What will we do before him?’ I said, ‘Speak to him and ask him questions.’ He then said, ‘Stand up and allow us to go.’ We went before him (the Imam) and he asked me about my family and myself and asked, ‘Who is this man with you?’ I said, ‘This is ibn abu Layla’, the judge of the Muslims.’ He (the Imam) then asked, ‘Are you ibn abu Layla’ the judge of the Muslims?’ He replied, ‘Yes, I am he.’ He (the Imam) asked, ‘Do you take the assets of this and give it to this one, (issue command to) kill and separate a man from his woman without being afraid of anyone?’ He replied, ‘Yes, I do so.’ He (the Imam) then asked, ‘By what means do you judge?’ He replied, ‘I judge by means of what has come to me from the Messenger of Allah, O Allah, grant compensation to Muhammad and his family worthy of their services to Your cause, and from Ali, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, from abu Bakr and ‘Umar.’ He (the Imam) asked, ‘Has it come to your notice that the Messenger of Allah, O Allah, grant compensation to Muhammad and his family worthy of their services to Your cause, said, “Ali is the best among you to issue judgment.’” He replied, ‘Yes, it has come to my notice.’ He (the Imam) asked, ‘Why then do you judge against the judgment of Ali, ‘Alayhi al-Salam ? You do it after knowing this fact. What will you say if an earth of gold will be brought and a sky of silver on one side? On the other hand the Messenger of Allah, O Allah, grant compensation to Muhammad and his family worthy of their services to Your cause, will hold your hand and make you stand before your Lord, and say, ‘This judged on the basis of something other than Your laws and judgment.’ The face of ibn abu Layla’ turned pale like saffron. He (the Imam) said to me, ‘Find another travelmate, otherwise, I will not speak to you, not even a word from my head.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مجهول 2 - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (4/268)