2. Kinds of Judges

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1- عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ خَالِدٍ عَنْ أَبِيهِ رَفَعَهُ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ الْقُضَاةُ أَرْبَعَةٌ ثَلاثَةٌ فِي النَّارِ وَوَاحِدٌ فِي الْجَنَّةِ رَجُلٌ قَضَى بِجَوْرٍ وَهُوَ يَعْلَمُ فَهُوَ فِي النَّارِ وَرَجُلٌ قَضَى بِجَوْرٍ وَهُوَ لا يَعْلَمُ فَهُوَ فِي النَّارِ وَرَجُلٌ قَضَى بِالْحَقِّ وَهُوَ لا يَعْلَمُ فَهُوَ فِي النَّارِ وَرَجُلٌ قَضَى بِالْحَقِّ وَهُوَ يَعْلَمُ فَهُوَ فِي الْجَنَّةِ وَقَالَ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) الْحُكْمُ حُكْمَانِ حُكْمُ اللهِ وَحُكْمُ الْجَاهِلِيَّةِ فَمَنْ أَخْطَأَ حُكْمَ اللهِ حَكَمَ بِحُكْمِ الْجَاهِلِيَّةِ.


1. A number of our people have narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Khalid from his father in a marfu ‘ manner who has narrated the following: “Abu ‘ Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘Judges are of four kinds of whom three are in the fire and one is in the garden (paradises). There is a man who issues judgments unjustly and he knows it, so he is in the fire. There is a man who issues judgments unjustly but he does not know, he also is in the fire; and there is a man who issues judgments that are right but he does not have the knowledge, he also is in the fire. There is a man who issues the right kind of judgments, based on his right knowledge, thus he is in the garden (paradises).’ “He (the Imam), ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘Judgments are of two kinds: the judgments under rules of Allah and the judgments of ignorance. If one misses the law and judgment of Allah, he then has judged by the judgment of ignorance.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مرفوع - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (24/266)



2- أَبُو عَلِيٍّ الأشْعَرِيُّ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَبْدِ الْجَبَّارِ عَنِ ابْنِ فَضَّالٍ عَنْ ثَعْلَبَةَ بْنِ مَيْمُونٍ عَنْ أَبِي بَصِيرٍ عَنْ أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ الْحُكْمُ حُكْمَانِ حُكْمُ اللهِ وَحُكْمُ الْجَاهِلِيَّةِ وَقَدْ قَالَ اللهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ وَمَنْ أَحْسَنُ مِنَ اللهِ حُكْماً لِقَوْمٍ يُوقِنُونَ وَاشْهَدُوا عَلَى زَيْدِ بْنِ ثَابِتٍ لَقَدْ حَكَمَ فِي الْفَرَائِضِ بِحُكْمِ الْجَاهِلِيَّةِ.


2. Abu Ali al-Ash‘ariy has narrated from Muhammad ibn ‘Abd al-Jabbar from ibn Faddal from Tha‘labah ibn Maymun from abu Basir who has narrated the following: “Abu Ja‘far, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘Judgments and laws are of two kinds: the judgment of Allah and the judgment of ignorance. Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious, has said, “. . . who is a better judge than Allah for a believing people.” (5:59) You all must bear testimony that Zayd ibn Thabit issued a judgment in matters of obligations according to the judgment of ignorance.’” (In the case of a contracting slave-girl and her fornication Zayd judged opposite to the judgment of Ali, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, in the time of ‘Uthman)


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: موثق 2 - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (4/266)