65. Guardianship of Sa’ibah (Unconditionally Freed Slave)

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1- مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنِ الْحَسَنِ بْنِ مَحْبُوبٍ عَنْ عُمَرَ بْنِ يَزِيدَ قَالَ سَأَلْتُ أَبَا عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) عَنْ رَجُلٍ أَرَادَ أَنْ يُعْتِقَ مَمْلُوكاً لَهُ وَقَدْ كَانَ مَوْلاهُ يَأْخُذُ مِنْهُ ضَرِيبَةً فَرَضَهَا عَلَيْهِ فِي كُلِّ سَنَةٍ وَرَضِيَ بِذَلِكَ مِنْهُ الْمَوْلَى وَرَضِيَ الْمَمْلُوكُ بِذَلِكَ فَأَصَابَ الْمَمْلُوكُ فِي تِجَارَتِهِ مَالا سِوَى مَا كَانَ يُعْطِي مَوْلاهُ مِنَ الضَّرِيبَةِ قَالَ فَقَالَ إِذَا أَدَّى إِلَى سَيِّدِهِ مَا كَانَ فَرَضَ عَلَيْهِ فَمَا اكْتَسَبَهُ بَعْدَ الْفَرِيضَةِ فَهُوَ لِلْمَمْلُوكِ قَالَ ثُمَّ قَالَ أَبُو عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) أَلَيْسَ قَدْ فَرَضَ اللهُ عَلَى الْعِبَادِ فَرَائِضَ فَإِذَا أَدَّوْهَا إِلَيْهِ لَمْ يَسْأَلْهُمْ عَمَّا سِوَاهَا فَقُلْتُ لَهُ فَلِلْمَمْلُوكِ أَنْ يَتَصَدَّقَ مِمَّا اكْتَسَبَ وَيُعْتِقَ بَعْدَ الْفَرِيضَةِ الَّتِي كَانَ يُؤَدِّيهَا إِلَى سَيِّدِهِ قَالَ نَعَمْ وَأَجْرُ ذَلِكَ لَهُ قُلْتُ فَإِذَا أَعْتَقَ مَمْلُوكاً مِمَّا كَانَ اكْتَسَبَ سِوَى الْفَرِيضَةِ لِمَنْ يَكُونُ وَلاءُ الْمُعْتَقِ قَالَ يَذْهَبُ فَيُوَالِي مَنْ أَحَبَّ فَإِذَا ضَمِنَ جَرِيرَتَهُ وَعَقْلَهُ كَانَ مَوْلاهُ وَوَرِثَهُ قُلْتُ أَلَيْسَ قَدْ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللهِ (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) الْوَلاءُ لِمَنْ أَعْتَقَ قَالَ هَذَا سَائِبَةٌ لا يَكُونُ وَلاؤُهُ لِعَبْدٍ مِثْلِهِ قُلْتُ فَإِنْ ضَمِنَ الْعَبْدُ الَّذِي أَعْتَقَهُ جَرِيرَتَهُ وَحَدَثَهُ أَيَلْزَمُهُ ذَلِكَ وَيَكُونُ مَوْلاهُ وَيَرِثُهُ قَالَ لا يَجُوزُ ذَلِكَ وَلا يَرِثُ عَبْدٌ حُرّاً.


1. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from af-Hassan ibn Mahbub from ‘Umar ibn Yazid who has narrated the following: “I once asked abu ‘ Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about the case of a man who wants to free his slave. His master takes a certain amount of tax from him every year about which both the master and slave had happily agreed. The slave in business earns a certain amount of assets besides what he gives to his master as tax. He (the Imam) said, ‘If he pays to his master what was obligatory, thereafter what he earns belongs to the slave.’ He (the Imam) then said, Ts it not the case that Allah has made certain things obligatory on His servants and when they fulfill such obligations, He then does not ask for more?’ I then asked, ‘Can the slave give charity out of what he earns and set free after paying his dues to his master? He (the Imam) said, ‘Yes, he can do so and the reward for it belongs to him.’ I then asked, ‘If he frees a slave with his earning which is other than his dues, with whom then rests guardianship because of setting him free? He (the Imam) said, ‘He can go and find guardians that he likes. Whoever bails out his crimes and wergild such person becomes his guardian and heir.’ I then asked, ‘1s not it the case that the Messenger of Allah, O Allah, grant compensation to Muhammad and his family worthy of their services to Your cause, has said, “Guardianship rests with the one who buys one’s freedom?”’ He (the Imam) said, ‘This is Sa’ibah (unconditionally freed slave). Guardianship over him will not rest with another slave like him.’ I then asked, ‘If the slave that he has freed guarantees and bails out his crime and liabilities, does it become binding and because of this becomes his guardian and inherits him? He (the Imam) said, ‘That is not permissible because a slave cannot inherit one who is free.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مرسل - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (23/258)



2- ابْنُ مَحْبُوبٍ عَنِ ابْنِ رِئَابٍ عَنْ عَمَّارِ بْنِ أَبِي الأحْوَصِ قَالَ سَأَلْتُ أَبَا جَعْفَرٍ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) عَنِ السَّائِبَةِ فَقَالَ انْظُرُوا فِي الْقُرْآنِ فَمَا كَانَ فِيهِ فَتَحْرِيرُ رَقَبَةٍ فَتِلْكَ يَا عَمَّارُ السَّائِبَةُ الَّتِي لا وَلاءَ لأحَدٍ عَلَيْهَا إِلا اللهَ فَمَا كَانَ وَلاؤُهُ للهِ فَهُوَ لِرَسُولِهِ وَمَا كَانَ وَلاؤُهُ لِرَسُولِ اللهِ (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) فَإِنَّ وَلاءَهُ لِلإمَامِ وَجِنَايَتَهُ عَلَى الإمَامِ وَمِيرَاثَهُ لَهُ.


2. Ibn Mahbub has narrated from ibn Ri’ab from ‘Ammar ibn abu al-Ahwas who has narrated the following: “I once asked abu Ja‘far, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about Sa’ibah (unconditionally freed slave). He (the Imam) said, ‘You must consider what is in the Quran, “setting free a slave” O ‘Ammar, he is Sa’ibah (unconditionally freed slave) over whom there is no guardianship of anyone except Allah. Guardianship over whoever rests with Allah, such guardianship rests with His Messenger; and guardianship over whoever rests with the Messenger of Allah, O Allah, grant compensation to Muhammad and his family worthy of their services to Your cause, such guardianship rests with the Imam. His liabilities due to his crimes are on the Imam and his legacy is for the Imam.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: صحيح 2 - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (3/259)



3- عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ وَمُحَمَّدُ بْنُ إِسْمَاعِيلَ عَنِ الْفَضْلِ بْنِ شَاذَانَ جَمِيعاً عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ عَنْ هِشَامِ بْنِ سَالِمٍ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ إِذَا وَالَى الرَّجُلُ الرَّجُلَ فَلَهُ مِيرَاثُهُ وَعَلَيْهِ مَعْقُلَتُهُ.


3. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father and Muhammad ibn ’Isma‘il has narrated from al-Fadl ibn Shadhan from all from ibn abu ‘Umayr from Hisham ibn Salim who has narrated the following: “Abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘When a man is under the guardianship of a man for him is his legacy and on him is the liability for wergild.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مجهول 2 - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (3/259)



4- عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنِ الْحُسَيْنِ بْنِ سَعِيدٍ عَنْ حَمَّادِ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ شُعَيْبٍ الْعَقَرْقُوفِيِّ عَنْ أَبِي بَصِيرٍ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) أَنَّهُ سُئِلَ عَنِ الْمَمْلُوكِ يُعْتَقُ سَائِبَةً قَالَ يَتَوَلَّى مَنْ شَاءَ وَعَلَى مَنْ يَتَوَلَّى جَرِيرَتُهُ وَلَهُ مِيرَاثُهُ قُلْنَا لَهُ فَإِنْ سَكَتَ حَتَّى يَمُوتَ وَلَمْ يَتَوَالَ أَحَداً قَالَ يُجْعَلُ مَالُهُ فِي بَيْتِ مَالِ الْمُسْلِمِينَ‏.


4. A number of our people have narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from al-Husayn ibn Sa‘id from Hammad ibn ‘Isa from Shu’ayb al-‘Aqarqufiy from abu Basir who has narrated the following: “Once abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, was asked about the slave who is freed as Sa’ibah (unconditionally freed slave). He (the Imam) said, ‘He is free to find a guardian of his choosing and on whoever he chooses as his guardian are his liabilities for his crimes and for him is his legacy.’ We then asked, ‘What happens if he remains quiet until he dies and does not take anyone as his guardian?’ He (the Imam) said, ‘His legacy is placed in the treasury of the Muslims.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: حسن كالصحيح - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (23/259)



5- عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ سَهْلِ بْنِ زِيَادٍ وَمُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ وَعَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ جَمِيعاً عَنِ ابْنِ مَحْبُوبٍ عَنْ عَبْدِ اللهِ بْنِ سِنَانٍ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ مَنْ أَعْتَقَ رَجُلا سَائِبَةً فَلَيْسَ عَلَيْهِ مِنْ جَرِيرَتِهِ شَيْ‏ءٌ وَلَيْسَ لَهُ مِنْ مِيرَاثِهِ شَيْ‏ءٌ وَلْيُشْهِدْ عَلَى ذَلِكَ.


5. A number of our people have narrated from Sahl ibn Ziyad and Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad and Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father all from ibn Mahbub from ‘ Abd Allah ibn Sinan who has narrated the following: “Abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘If one frees a slave by manner of Sa’ibah (unconditionally freed slave) he is not liable for his crimes and there is nothing for him from his legacy and he must arrange witnesses for it.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: صحيح 2 - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (3/260)



6- ابْنُ مَحْبُوبٍ عَنْ خَالِدِ بْنِ جَرِيرٍ عَنْ أَبِي الرَّبِيعِ قَالَ سُئِلَ أَبُو عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) عَنِ السَّائِبَةِ فَقَالَ هُوَ الرَّجُلُ يُعْتِقُ غُلامَهُ ثُمَّ يَقُولُ لَهُ اذْهَبْ حَيْثُ شِئْتَ لَيْسَ لِي مِنْ مِيرَاثِكَ شَيْ‏ءٌ وَلا عَلَيَّ مِنْ جَرِيرَتِكَ شَيْ‏ءٌ وَيُشْهِدُ عَلَى ذَلِكَ شَاهِدَيْنِ.


6. Ibn Mahbub has narrated from Khalid ibn Jarir from abu al-Rabi’ who has narrated the following: “Once abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, was asked about Sa’ibah (unconditionally freed slave). He (the Imam) said, ‘He is a man who frees his slave, then says to him, “Go wherever you like. There is nothing for me from your legacy and I am not liable of anything because of your crimes.” He arranges witness to bear testimony thereof.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مجهول - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (23/260)



7- ابْنُ مَحْبُوبٍ عَنْ أَبِي أَيُّوبَ عَنْ بُرَيْدِ بْنِ مُعَاوِيَةَ الْعِجْلِيِّ قَالَ سَأَلْتُ أَبَا جَعْفَرٍ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) عَنْ رَجُلٍ كَانَ عَلَيْهِ عِتْقُ رَقَبَةٍ فَمَاتَ مِنْ قَبْلِ أَنْ يُعْتِقَ رَقَبَةً فَانْطَلَقَ ابْنُهُ فَابْتَاعَ رَجُلا مِنْ كَسْبِهِ فَأَعْتَقَهُ عَنْ أَبِيهِ وَإِنَّ الْمُعْتَقَ أَصَابَ بَعْدَ ذَلِكَ مَالا ثُمَّ مَاتَ وَتَرَكَهُ لِمَنْ يَكُونُ مِيرَاثُهُ قَالَ فَقَالَ إِنْ كَانَتِ الرَّقَبَةُ الَّتِي عَلَى أَبِيهِ فِي ظِهَارٍ أَوْ شُكْرٍ أَوْ وَاجِبَةً عَلَيْهِ فَإِنَّ الْمُعْتَقَ سَائِبَةٌ لا سَبِيلَ لأحَدٍ عَلَيْهِ وَإِنْ كَانَ تَوَالَى قَبْلَ أَنْ يَمُوتَ إِلَى أَحَدٍ مِنَ الْمُسْلِمِينَ فَضَمِنَ جِنَايَتَهُ وَحَدَثَهُ كَانَ مَوْلاهُ وَوَارِثَهُ إِنْ لَمْ يَكُنْ لَهُ قَرِيبٌ يَرِثُهُ قَالَ وَإِنْ لَمْ يَكُنْ تَوَالَى إِلَى أَحَدٍ مِنَ الْمُسْلِمِينَ حَتَّى مَاتَ فَإِنَّ مِيرَاثَهُ لإمَامِ الْمُسْلِمِينَ إِنْ لَمْ يَكُنْ لَهُ قَرِيبٌ يَرِثُهُ قَالَ وَإِنْ كَانَتِ الرَّقَبَةُ عَلَى أَبِيهِ تَطَوُّعاً وَقَدْ كَانَ أَبُوهُ أَمَرَهُ أَنْ يُعْتِقَ عَنْهُ نَسَمَةً فَإِنَّ وَلاءَ الْمُعْتَقِ هُوَ مِيرَاثٌ لِجَمِيعِ وُلْدِ الْمَيِّتِ مِنَ الرِّجَالِ قَالَ وَيَكُونُ الَّذِي اشْتَرَاهُ وَأَعْتَقَهُ بِأَمْرِ أَبِيهِ كَوَاحِدٍ مِنَ الْوَرَثَةِ إِذَا لَمْ يَكُنْ لِلْمُعْتَقِ قَرَابَةٌ مِنَ الْمُسْلِمِينَ أَحْرَارٌ يَرِثُونَهُ قَالَ وَإِنْ كَانَ ابْنُهُ الَّذِي اشْتَرَى الرَّقَبَةَ فَأَعْتَقَهَا عَنْ أَبِيهِ مِنْ مَالِهِ بَعْدَ مَوْتِ أَبِيهِ تَطَوُّعاً مِنْهُ مِنْ غَيْرِ أَنْ يَكُونَ أَبُوهُ أَمَرَهُ بِذَلِكَ فَإِنَّ وَلاءَهُ وَمِيرَاثَهُ لِلَّذِي اشْتَرَاهُ مِنْ مَالِهِ فَأَعْتَقَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ إِذَا لَمْ يَكُنْ لِلْمُعْتَقِ وَارِثٌ مِنْ قَرَابَتِهِ.


7. Ibn Mahbub has narrated from abu Ayyub from Burayd ibn Mu’awiyah al- ‘ Ij liy who has narrated the following: “I once asked abu Ja’far, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about the case of a man who owed the freeing of a slave but he died before freeing a slave. His son then went to buy a man from his earnings and set him free on behalf of his father; the freed man earned an asset and then died; and about to whom belongs his legacy? He (the Imam) said, ‘If his father owed it because of Zihar, thanksgiving or it was obligatory on him then the freed is Sa’ibah (unconditionally freed slave) and no one has anything on him. If he found a guardian for himself from the Muslims before his death, who took upon himself his liabilities for his crimes, he is his guardian and heir; if no relatives of the freed man exists. If he did not find anyone of the Muslims as his guardian until he died, then his legacy is for the Imam of the Muslims if his relatives who can inherit him do not exist.’ He (the Imam) said, ‘If his father owed the freeing of a slave for optional reasons and his father had commanded him to free for him a soul, then the guardianship of freed man belongs to all heirs of the deceased of the male ones.’ He (the Imam) said, ‘The one who buys and frees him because of the command of his father is like one of the heirs; if the freed does not have any relative among the Muslims who are free to inherit him.’ He (the Imam) said, ‘If his son buys the slave and frees for his father from his asset after his father, optionally on his behalf without any command from his father, then guardianship and legacy belongs to the one who bought the slave from his asset to be freed who freed him for his father. This applies only when the freed one has not left behind any relatives.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: صحيح 2 - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (3/260)



8- عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عِيسَى بْنِ عُبَيْدٍ عَنْ يُونُسَ عَنْ هِشَامِ بْنِ سَالِمٍ عَنْ سُلَيْمَانَ بْنِ خَالِدٍ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ سَأَلْتُهُ عَنْ مَمْلُوكٍ أُعْتِقَ سَائِبَةً قَالَ يَتَوَلَّى مَنْ شَاءَ وَعَلَى مَنْ تَوَلاهُ جَرِيرَتُهُ وَلَهُ مِيرَاثُهُ قُلْتُ فَإِنْ سَكَتَ حَتَّى يَمُوتَ قَالَ يُجْعَلُ مَالُهُ فِي بَيْتِ مَالِ الْمُسْلِمِينَ.


8. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from [his father] from Muhammad ibn ‘Isa ibn ‘Ubayd from Yunus from Hisham ibn Salim from Sulayman ibn Khalid who has narrated the following: “I once asked abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about the slave who is freed in the manner of Sa’ibah (unconditionally freed slave). He (the Imam) said, ‘He is free to choose a guardian whoever he likes to bail out his liabilities due to crime and then inherit his legacy. ’I then asked, ‘What happens if he remains quiet until he dies?’ He (the Imam) said, ‘His legacy is placed in the treasury of the Muslims.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: صحيح - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (23/261)



9- مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى وَغَيْرُهُ عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَبْدِ الْحَمِيدِ عَنْ هِشَامِ بْنِ سَالِمٍ عَنْ أَبِي بَصِيرٍ عَنْ أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ قَضَى أَمِيرُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) فِيمَنْ نَكَلَ بِمَمْلُوكِهِ أَنَّهُ حُرٌّ لا سَبِيلَ لَهُ عَلَيْهِ سَائِبَةٌ يَذْهَبُ فَيَتَوَلَّى إِلَى مَنْ أَحَبَّ فَإِذَا ضَمِنَ جَرِيرَتَهُ فَهُوَ يَرِثُهُ.


9. Muhammad ibn Yahya and others have narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from Muhammad ibn ‘Abd al-Hamid from Hisham ibn Salim from abu Basir who has narrated the following: “Abu Ja‘far, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said that Amir al-Mu’minin once issued a judgment. It was in the case of a slave whose master had caused him serious physical damage, that he (the slave) is free in the manner of Sa’ibah (unconditionally freed slave) so that he can choose whomever he likes as his guardian to bail out his liabilities for his crimes and then inherit his legacy.”’


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: صحيح 2 - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (3/261)