56. Inheritance of a Child from Fornication

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1- عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ عَنْ حَمَّادٍ عَنِ الْحَلَبِيِّ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ أَيُّمَا رَجُلٍ وَقَعَ عَلَى وَلِيدَةِ قَوْمٍ حَرَاماً ثُمَّ اشْتَرَاهَا ثُمَّ ادَّعَى وَلَدَهَا فَإِنَّهُ لا يُوَرَّثُ مِنْهُ شَيْ‏ءٌ فَإِنَّ رَسُولَ اللهِ (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) قَالَ الْوَلَدُ لِلْفِرَاشِ وَلِلْعَاهِرِ الْحَجَرُ وَلا يُوَرَّثُ وَلَدَ الزِّنَا إِلا رَجُلٌ يَدَّعِي ابْنَ وَلِيدَتِهِ وَأَيُّمَا رَجُلٍ أَقَرَّ بِوَلَدِهِ ثُمَّ انْتَفَى مِنْهُ فَلَيْسَ ذَلِكَ لَهُ وَلا كَرَامَةَ يَلْحَقُ بِهِ وَلَدُهُ إِذَا كَانَ مِنِ امْرَأَتِهِ أَوْ وَلِيدَتِهِ.


1. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from ibn abu ‘Umayr from Hammad from al-Halabiy who has narrated the following: “This is a pronouncement from abu ‘ Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam. He (the Imam) has said, Tf a man falls upon a slave-girl of a people unlawfully, then buys her and claims her child, he cannot inherit from such a child anything. It is because the Messenger of Allah, O Allah, grant compensation to Muhammad and his family worthy of their services to Your cause, has said, “A child belongs to the bed (owner thereof) and for the fornicator is the stone (penalty by stoning to death with due judicial process).” A child born out of wedlock cannot be made to inherit except in the case of a man who claims the child of his newly purchased (already pregnant) slave-girl. Anyone who claims a child to be his child then rejects him, such child is not his and it is not honorable, his child is joined with him if the child is from his wife or (newly purchased) slave-girl.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: حسن - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (3/245)



2- مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ سَيْفٍ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ الْحَسَنِ الأشْعَرِيِّ قَالَ كَتَبَ بَعْضُ أَصْحَابِنَا كِتَاباً إِلَى أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ الثَّانِي (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) مَعِي يَسْأَلُهُ عَنْ رَجُلٍ فَجَرَ بِامْرَأَةٍ ثُمَّ إِنَّهُ تَزَوَّجَهَا بَعْدَ الْحَمْلِ فَجَاءَتْ بِوَلَدٍ وَهُوَ أَشْبَهُ خَلْقِ اللهِ بِهِ فَكَتَبَ بِخَطِّهِ وَخَاتَمِهِ الْوَلَدُ لِغَيَّةٍ لا يُوَرَّثُ.


2. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from Ali ibn Sayf from Muhammad ibn af-Hassan al-Ash ‘ariy who has narrated the following: “Once certain persons of our people with me wrote to abu Ja’far, al-Thaniy, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, asking about a man who commits the indecent act with a woman, then marries her after she becomes pregnant and gives birth to a child who of all creatures is similar to him. He (the Imam) wrote back in his handwriting the answer that said, ‘A child born out of wedlock cannot be made to inherit.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مجهول - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (3/246)



3- عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ يُونُسَ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ سَالِمٍ عَنْ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) فِي رَجُلٍ وَقَعَ عَلَى وَلِيدَةٍ حَرَاماً ثُمَّ اشْتَرَاهَا فَادَّعَى ابْنَهَا قَالَ فَقَالَ لا يُوَرَّثُ مِنْهُ إِنَّ رَسُولَ اللهِ (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) قَالَ الْوَلَدُ لِلْفِرَاشِ وَلِلْعَاهِرِ الْحَجَرُ وَلا يُوَرَّثُ وَلَدَ الزِّنَا إِلا رَجُلٌ يَدَّعِي ابْنَ وَلِيدَتِهِ.


3. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from Muhammad ibn ‘Isa from Yunus from Ali ibn Salim from Yahya who has narrated the following: “This is a pronouncement of abu ’Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about the case of a man who falls upon the slave-girl of a people in an unlawful manner. He then buys her and claims her child. He (the Imam) has said, ’He cannot inherit from such child because the Messenger of Allah, O Allah, grant compensation to Muhammad and his family worthy of their services to Your cause, has said, “A child belongs to the bed (owner thereof) and the fornicator deserve stones (to be stoned to death as penalty with due judicial process).” A child born out of wedlock cannot be inherited or made to inherit except in the case of a man who claims the child of his slave-girl.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مجهول - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (23/246)



4- عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ سَهْلِ بْنِ زِيَادٍ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ مَهْزِيَارَ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ الْحَسَنِ الأشْعَرِيِّ قَالَ كَتَبَ بَعْضُ أَصْحَابِنَا إِلَى أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ الثَّانِي (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) مَعِي يَسْأَلُهُ عَنْ رَجُلٍ فَجَرَ بِامْرَأَةٍ ثُمَّ إِنَّهُ تَزَوَّجَهَا بَعْدَ الْحَمْلِ فَجَاءَتْ بِوَلَدٍ وَهُوَ أَشْبَهُ خَلْقِ اللهِ بِهِ فَكَتَبَ بِخَطِّهِ وَخَاتَمِهِ الْوَلَدُ لِغَيَّةٍ لا يُوَرَّثُ. عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ يُونُسَ قَالَ مِيرَاثُ وَلَدِ الزِّنَا لِقَرَابَاتِهِ مِنْ قِبَلِ أُمِّهِ عَلَى نَحْوِ مِيرَاثِ ابْنِ الْمُلاعَنَةِ.


4. A number of our people have narrated from Sahl ibn Ziyad from Ali ibn Mahziyar from Muhammad ibn al-Hassan al-Ash‘ariy who has narrated the following: “Once certain persons of our people with me wrote to abu Ja’far, al-Thaniy, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, asking about a man who commits the indecent act with a woman; then marries her after she becomes pregnant and gives birth to a child who of all creatures is similar to him. He (the Imam) wrote back in his handwriting the answer that said, ‘A child from the indecent act is not inherited.’” Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from Muhammad ibn ‘Isa from Yunus who has narrated the following: “Inheritance of a child born out of wedlock belongs to the relatives of his mother like inheritance of a child of Mula‘anah (condemnation). (This is not a Hadith. It is the fatwa of Yunus and none of the many Ahadith that we have read has discussed it.)


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف على المشهور - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (23/246)