30. Inheritance of a Boy and a Girl who are not yet Mature

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1- عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ سَهْلِ بْنِ زِيَادٍ وَمُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ وَعَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ جَمِيعاً عَنِ الْحَسَنِ بْنِ مَحْبُوبٍ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ رِئَابٍ عَنْ أَبِي عُبَيْدَةَ قَالَ سَأَلْتُ أَبَا جَعْفَرٍ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) عَنْ غُلامٍ وَجَارِيَةٍ زَوَّجَهُمَا وَلِيَّانِ لَهُمَا وَهُمَا غَيْرُ مُدْرِكَيْنِ قَالَ فَقَالَ النِّكَاحُ جَائِزٌ وَأَيُّهُمَا أَدْرَكَ كَانَ لَهُ الْخِيَارُ فَإِنْ مَاتَا قَبْلَ أَنْ يُدْرِكَا فَلا مِيرَاثَ بَيْنَهُمَا وَلا مَهْرَ إِلا أَنْ يَكُونَا قَدْ أَدْرَكَا وَرَضِيَا قُلْتُ فَإِنْ أَدْرَكَ أَحَدُهُمَا قَبْلَ الآخَرِ قَالَ يَجُوزُ ذَلِكَ عَلَيْهِ إِنْ هُوَ رَضِيَ قُلْتُ فَإِنْ كَانَ الرَّجُلُ الَّذِي أَدْرَكَ قَبْلَ الْجَارِيَةَ وَرَضِيَ بِالنِّكَاحِ ثُمَّ مَاتَ قَبْلَ أَنْ تُدْرِكَ الْجَارِيَةُ أَتَرِثُهُ قَالَ نَعَمْ يُعْزَلُ مِيرَاثُهَا مِنْهُ حَتَّى تُدْرِكَ وَتَحْلِفَ بِاللهِ مَا ادَّعَاهَا إِلَى أَخْذِ الْمِيرَاثِ إِلا رِضَاهَا بِالتَّزْوِيجِ ثُمَّ يُدْفَعُ إِلَيْهَا الْمِيرَاثُ وَنِصْفُ الْمَهْرِ قُلْتُ فَإِنْ مَاتَتِ الْجَارِيَةُ وَلَمْ تَكُنْ أَدْرَكَتْ أَيَرِثُهَا الزَّوْجُ الْمُدْرِكُ قَالَ لا لأنَّ لَهَا الْخِيَارَ إِذَا أَدْرَكَتْ قُلْتُ فَإِنْ كَانَ أَبُوهَا هُوَ الَّذِي زَوَّجَهَا قَبْلَ أَنْ تُدْرِكَ قَالَ يَجُوزُ عَلَيْهَا تَزْوِيجُ الأبِ وَيَجُوزُ عَلَى الْغُلامِ وَالْمَهْرُ عَلَى الأبِ لِلْجَارِيَةِ.


1. A number of our people have narrated from Sahl ibn Ziyad and Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad and Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father all al-Hassan ibn Mahbub from Ali ibn Ri’ab from abu ‘ Ubaydah who has narrated the following: “I once asked abu Ja’far, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about the case of a boy and a girl who are not mature and whose guardians arrange their marriage. He (the Imam) said, ‘Their marriage is permissible and whoever of the two becomes mature has the right to choose the marriage or not. If they die before maturity there is no inheritance between them and no mahr (dower) unless they become mature and approve the marriage.’ I then asked, ‘What happens if one of them becomes mature before the other?’ He (the Imam) said, ‘It is permissible for him if he approves.’ I then asked, ‘What happens if the man becomes mature before the girl and approves the marriage, then dies before she becomes mature; if she inherits. He (the Imam) said, ‘Yes, her share must be kept aside until she becomes mature and swears by Allah that the reason for her claiming inheritance is because of her approving the marriage, then it is given to her with one-half of mahr (dower).’ I then asked, ‘What happens if the girl dies before her maturity; if she inherits the husband who is mature.’ He (the Imam) said, ‘No, because she has the choice upon her maturity.’ I then asked, ‘What happens if her father is the reason for her marriage before her maturity?’ He (the Imam) said, ‘Such a marriage is permissible for her and for the boy but mahr (dower) is due on the father for the girl.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: صحيح - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (23/194)



2- عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ سَهْلِ بْنِ زِيَادٍ عَنِ ابْنِ مَحْبُوبٍ وَمُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنِ ابْنِ مَحْبُوبٍ عَنْ نُعَيْمِ بْنِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ عَبَّادِ بْنِ كَثِيرٍ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ سَأَلْتُهُ عَنْ رَجُلٍ زَوَّجَ ابْناً لَهُ مُدْرِكاً مِنْ يَتِيمَةٍ فِي حَجْرِهِ قَالَ تَرِثُهُ إِنْ مَاتَ وَلا يَرِثُهَا لأنَّ لَهَا الْخِيَارَ وَلا خِيَارَ عَلَيْهَا.


2. A number of our people have narrated from Sahl ibn Ziyad from ibn Mahbub and Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Isa from ibn Mahbub from Nu’aym ibn Ibrahim from ‘Abbad ibn Kathir who has narrated the following: “I once asked abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about the case of a man who arranges marriage for his mature son with an orphan girl in his custody. He (the Imam) said, ‘She will inherit him if he dies because she has the choice to approve or disapprove the marriage after she becomes mature and there is no choice against her.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مجهول 2 - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (3/195)



3- مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنِ ابْنِ فَضَّالٍ عَنِ الْقَاسِمِ بْنِ عُرْوَةَ عَنِ ابْنِ بُكَيْرٍ عَنْ عُبَيْدِ بْنِ زُرَارَةَ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ سَأَلْتُهُ عَنِ الصَّبِيِّ يُزَوَّجُ الصَّبِيَّةَ هَلْ يَتَوَارَثَانِ قَالَ إِذَا كَانَ أَبَوَاهُمَا [هُمَا] اللَّذَانِ زَوَّجَاهُمَا فَنَعَمْ قُلْتُ أَيَجُوزُ طَلاقُ الأبِ قَالَ لا.


3. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from ibn Faddal from al-Qasim ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Urwah from ibn Bukayr from ‘Ubayd ibn Zurarah who has narrated the following: “I once asked abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about the case of a child who marries a female child; if they inherit each other. He (the Imam) said, ‘If their fathers are the ones who have arranged their marriage then they inherit.’ I then asked, ‘Is their divorce by father permissible?’ He (the Imam) said, ‘No, it is not permissible.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مجهول 2 - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (3/196)