6. The Matters for which one can Make a Will and what is Preferable in the Issue

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1- عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ وَمُحَمَّدُ بْنُ إِسْمَاعِيلَ عَنِ الْفَضْلِ بْنِ شَاذَانَ جَمِيعاً عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ عَنْ مُعَاوِيَةَ بْنِ عَمَّارٍ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ كَانَ الْبَرَاءُ بْنُ مَعْرُورٍ الأنْصَارِيُّ بِالْمَدِينَةِ وَكَانَ رَسُولُ اللهِ (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) بِمَكَّةَ وَإِنَّهُ حَضَرَهُ الْمَوْتُ وَكَانَ رَسُولُ اللهِ (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) بِمَكَّةَ وَأَصْحَابُهُ وَالْمُسْلِمُونَ يُصَلُّونَ إِلَى بَيْتِ الْمَقْدِسِ وَأَوْصَى الْبَرَاءُ إِذَا دُفِنَ أَنْ يُجْعَلَ وَجْهُهُ إِلَى تِلْقَاءِ النَّبِيِّ (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) إِلَى الْقِبْلَةِ وَأَوْصَى بِثُلُثِ مَالِهِ فَجَرَتْ بِهِ السُّنَّةُ.


1. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from and Muhammad ibn ’Isma’il has narrated from al-Fadl ibn Shadhan from all ibn abu ‘Umayr from Mu‘awiyah ibn ‘Ammar who has narrated the following: “Abu ‘ Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said that al-Bara’ ibn Ma’rur al-Ansariy lived in al-Madinah. The Messenger of Allah, O Allah, grant compensation to Muhammad and his family worthy of their services to Your cause, lived in Makkah, and with his companions performed Salat (prayer) facing the direction of Bayt al-Maqdis. Al-Bara’ made a will that said, ‘His face in grave must be kept toward the direction to which the Holy Prophet performs Salat (prayer) and about one-third of his legacy and thus the Sunnah was established.”’


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: حسن كالصحيح - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (23/19)



2- مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ قَالَ كَتَبَ أَحْمَدُ بْنُ إِسْحَاقَ إِلَى أَبِي الْحَسَنِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) أَنَّ دُرَّةَ بِنْتَ مُقَاتِلٍ تُوُفِّيَتْ وَتَرَكَتْ ضَيْعَةً أَشْقَاصاً فِي مَوَاضِعَ وَأَوْصَتْ لِسَيِّدِهَا مِنْ أَشْقَاصِهَا بِمَا يَبْلُغُ أَكْثَرَ مِنَ الثُّلُثِ وَنَحْنُ أَوْصِيَاؤُهَا وَأَحْبَبْنَا أَنْ نُنْهِيَ إِلَى سَيِّدِنَا فَإِنْ هُوَ أَمَرَ بِإِمْضَاءِ الْوَصِيَّةِ عَلَى وَجْهِهَا أَمْضَيْنَاهَا وَإِنْ أَمَرَ بِغَيْرِ ذَلِكَ انْتَهَيْنَا إِلَى أَمْرِهِ فِي جَمِيعِ مَا يَأْمُرُ بِهِ إِنْ شَاءَ اللهُ قَالَ فَكَتَبَ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) بِخَطِّهِ لَيْسَ يَجِبُ لَهَا مِنْ تَرِكَتِهَا إِلا الثُّلُثُ وَإِنْ تَفَضَّلْتُمْ وَكُنْتُمُ الْوَرَثَةَ كَانَ جَائِزاً لَكُمْ إِنْ شَاءَ اللهُ.


2. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad has said that Ahmad ibn Ishaq wrote to abu al-Hassan, ‘Alayhi al- Salam saying: “Durrah, daughter of Muqatil has died. She has left assets and pieces of land in several places. She had made a will for her master of the pieces of land, which was more than one-third of her legacy. We are the executors of her will and like to ask our master if he commands to approve that will as it is, so we can also approve; and if he commands other things we follow his command in all that he commands by the will of Allah. He (the narrator) has said that he (the Imam), ‘Alayhi al-Salam, wrote in his own handwriting that said, ‘More than one-third is not obligatory on her legacy. If you have preferences and you are of the heirs it then is permissible for you by the will of Allah.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: صحيح - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (23/19)



3- عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنِ الْحُسَيْنِ بْنِ سَعِيدٍ عَنْ حَمَّادِ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ شُعَيْبِ بْنِ يَعْقُوبَ قَالَ سَأَلْتُ أَبَا عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) عَنِ الرَّجُلِ يَمُوتُ مَا لَهُ مِنْ مَالِهِ فَقَالَ لَهُ ثُلُثُ مَالِهِ وَلِلْمَرْأَةِ أَيْضاً.


3. A number of our people have narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from al-Husayn ibn Sa‘id from Hammad ibn ‘Isa from Shu’ayb from Ya’qub who has narrated the following: “I once asked abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about the case of a man who dies and about what is for him from his legacy. He (the Imam) said, ‘One third of his legacy is for him and this applies to a woman also.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: صحيح - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (23/20)



4- عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ سَهْلِ بْنِ زِيَادٍ وَعَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ جَمِيعاً عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي نَجْرَانَ عَنْ عَاصِمِ بْنِ حُمَيْدٍ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ قَيْسٍ عَنْ أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ كَانَ أَمِيرُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ صَلَوَاتُ اللهِ عَلَيْهِ يَقُولُ لأنْ أُوصِيَ بِخُمُسِ مَالِي أَحَبُّ إِلَيَّ مِنْ أَنْ أُوصِيَ بِالرُّبُعِ وَلأنْ أُوصِيَ بِالرُّبُعِ أَحَبُّ إِلَيَّ مِنْ أَنْ أُوصِيَ بِالثُّلُثِ وَمَنْ أَوْصَى بِالثُّلُثِ فَلَمْ يَتَّرِكْ فَقَدْ بَالَغَ قَالَ وَقَضَى أَمِيرُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) فِي رَجُلٍ تُوُفِّيَ وَأَوْصَى بِمَالِهِ كُلِّهِ أَوْ أَكْثَرِهِ فَقَالَ إِنَّ الْوَصِيَّةَ تُرَدُّ إِلَى الْمَعْرُوفِ غَيْرِ الْمُنْكَرِ فَمَنْ ظَلَمَ نَفْسَهُ وَأَتَى فِي وَصِيَّتِهِ الْمُنْكَرَ وَالْحَيْفَ فَإِنَّهَا تُرَدُّ إِلَى الْمَعْرُوفِ وَيُتْرَكُ لأهْلِ الْمِيرَاثِ مِيرَاثُهُمْ وَقَالَ مَنْ أَوْصَى بِثُلُثِ مَالِهِ فَلَمْ يَتَّرِكْ وَقَدْ بَلَغَ الْمَدَى ثُمَّ قَالَ لأنْ أُوصِيَ بِخُمُسِ مَالِي أَحَبُّ إِلَيَّ مِنْ أَنْ أُوصِيَ بِالرُّبُعِ.


4. A number of our people have narrated from Sahl ibn Ziyad and Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father all from ibn abu Najran from ‘Asem ibn Humayd from Muhammad ibn Qays who has narrated the following: “Abu Ja‘far, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, in this statement refers to the words of ’Amir al-Mu’minin. He (the Imam) said, ‘If I make a will about one-fifth of my legacy it is better than making a will about one- fourth of my legacy, and if I make a will about one-fourth of my legacy it is better than a will about one-third of my legacy. One who makes a will about one-third of his legacy and leaves nothing, he has exaggerated.’ “He (the Imam), ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said that ’Amir al-Mu’minin issued a judgment in the case of a man who had made a will about all of his legacy or most of it. He (the Imam) said, ‘The will is turned from unacceptable status into what is acceptable. If one does injustice to himself and comes up with an unacceptable will and an unjust one, it then is turned to an acceptable one to leave the legacy for the heirs.’ ’Amir al-Mu’minin has said, ‘If one makes a will about one-third of his legacy which does not leave anything for the heirs, he has reached the ultimate condition.’ He (the Imam) then said, ‘If one makes a will about one-fifth of his legacy it is more likable to me than a will about one-fourth.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: حسن كالصحيح 2 - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (3/20)



5- الْحُسَيْنُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ مُعَلَّى بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ وَمُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ جَمِيعاً عَنِ الْوَشَّاءِ عَنْ حَمَّادِ بْنِ عُثْمَانَ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ مَنْ أَوْصَى بِالثُّلُثِ فَقَدْ أَضَرَّ بِالْوَرَثَةِ وَالْوَصِيَّةُ بِالْخُمُسِ وَالرُّبُعِ أَفْضَلُ مِنَ الْوَصِيَّةِ بِالثُّلُثِ وَمَنْ أَوْصَى بِالثُّلُثِ فَلَمْ يَتَّرِكْ.


5. Al-Husayn ibn Muhammad has narrated from Mu‘alla’ ibn Muhammad and Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad all from al-Washsha’ from Hammad ibn ‘Uthaman who has narrated the following: “Abu ‘ Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘If one makes a will about one-third of his legacy he has harmed the heirs. Making a will about one-fifth or one-fourth of the legacy is better than making a will about one-third. If one makes a will about one-third he has not left anything (for the heirs).’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: صحيح - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (23/21)



6- عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ عَنْ هِشَامِ بْنِ سَالِمٍ وَحَفْصِ بْنِ الْبَخْتَرِيِّ وَحَمَّادِ بْنِ عُثْمَانَ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ مَنْ أَوْصَى بِالثُّلُثِ فَلَمْ يَتَّرِكْ.


6. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from ibn abu ‘Umayr from Hisham ibn Salim and Hafs ibn al-Bakhtariy and Hammad ibn ‘Uthaman who has narrated the following: “Abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘If one makes a will about one-third has not left any legacy.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: حسن - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (23/21)



7- عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ النَّوْفَلِيِّ عَنِ السَّكُونِيِّ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ قَالَ أَمِيرُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) مَنْ أَوْصَى بِثُلُثِ مَالِهِ ثُمَّ قُتِلَ خَطَأً فَإِنَّ ثُلُثَ دِيَتِهِ دَاخِلٌ فِي وَصِيَّتِهِ.


7. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from al-Nawfaliy from al-Sakuniy who has narrated the following: “Abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said that ’Amir al-Mu’minin has said, ‘If one makes a will about one-third of his legacy, then is killed by mistake, one-third of the wergild for him becomes part of that which he has willed.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف على المشهور - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (23/21)