15. An Executor of the Will is held Responsible for Changing a Lawful Will

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1- عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ وَحُمَيْدُ بْنُ زِيَادٍ عَنْ عُبَيْدِ اللهِ بْنِ أَحْمَدَ جَمِيعاً عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ عَنْ زَيْدٍ النَّرْسِيِّ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ فَرْقَدٍ صَاحِبِ السَّابِرِيِّ قَالَ أَوْصَى إِلَيَّ رَجُلٌ بِتَرِكَتِهِ وَأَمَرَنِي أَنْ أَحُجَّ بِهَا عَنْهُ فَنَظَرْتُ فِي ذَلِكَ فَإِذَا شَيْ‏ءٌ يَسِيرٌ لا يَكْفِي لِلْحَجِّ فَسَأَلْتُ أَبَا حَنِيفَةَ وَفُقَهَاءَ أَهْلِ الْكُوفَةِ فَقَالُوا تَصَدَّقْ بِهَا عَنْهُ فَلَمَّا حَجَجْتُ لَقِيتُ عَبْدَ اللهِ بْنَ الْحَسَنِ فِي الطَّوَافِ فَسَأَلْتُهُ وَقُلْتُ لَهُ إِنَّ رَجُلا مِنْ مَوَالِيكُمْ مِنْ أَهْلِ الْكُوفَةِ مَاتَ وَأَوْصَى بِتَرِكَتِهِ إِلَيَّ وَأَمَرَنِي أَنْ أَحُجَّ بِهَا عَنْهُ فَنَظَرْتُ فِي ذَلِكَ فَلَمْ يَكْفِ لِلْحَجِّ فَسَأَلْتُ مَنْ قِبَلَنَا مِنَ الْفُقَهَاءِ فَقَالُوا تَصَدَّقْ بِهَا فَتَصَدَّقْتُ بِهَا فَمَا تَقُولُ فَقَالَ لِي هَذَا جَعْفَرُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ فِي الْحِجْرِ فَأْتِهِ وَسَلْهُ قَالَ فَدَخَلْتُ الْحِجْرَ فَإِذَا أَبُو عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) تَحْتَ الْمِيزَابِ مُقْبِلٌ بِوَجْهِهِ عَلَى الْبَيْتِ يَدْعُو ثُمَّ الْتَفَتَ إِلَيَّ فَرَآنِي فَقَالَ مَا حَاجَتُكَ قُلْتُ جُعِلْتُ فِدَاكَ إِنِّي رَجُلٌ مِنْ أَهْلِ الْكُوفَةِ مِنْ مَوَالِيكُمْ قَالَ فَدَعْ ذَا عَنْكَ حَاجَتُكَ قُلْتُ رَجُلٌ مَاتَ وَأَوْصَى بِتَرِكَتِهِ أَنْ أَحُجَّ بِهَا عَنْهُ فَنَظَرْتُ فِي ذَلِكَ فَلَمْ يَكْفِ لِلْحَجِّ فَسَأَلْتُ مَنْ عِنْدَنَا مِنَ الْفُقَهَاءِ فَقَالُوا تَصَدَّقْ بِهَا فَقَالَ مَا صَنَعْتَ قُلْتُ تَصَدَّقْتُ بِهَا فَقَالَ ضَمِنْتَ إِلا أَنْ يَكُونَ لا يَبْلُغُ أَنْ يُحَجَّ بِهِ مِنْ مَكَّةَ فَإِنْ كَانَ لا يَبْلُغُ أَنْ يُحَجَّ بِهِ مِنْ مَكَّةَ فَلَيْسَ عَلَيْكَ ضَمَانٌ وَإِنْ كَانَ يَبْلُغُ بِهِ مِنْ مَكَّةَ فَأَنْتَ ضَامِنٌ.


1. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father and Humayd ibn Ziyad has narrated from bud Allah ibn Ahmad all from ibn abu ‘Umayr from Zayd al-Narsiy from Ali ibn Farqad Sahib al-Sabiriy who has narrated the following: “A man made a will and asked me to pay for al-Hajj from his legacy, but when I examined his legacy it was not sufficient. I then asked abu Hanifah and the jurists of al-Kufah. They said that I must give as charity on his behalf. When I performed al-Hajj, I met ‘Abd Allah ibn al-Hassan during tawaf. I asked him, saying, ‘A man of your followers of the people of al-Kufah has died and has made a will in which he has asked me to perform al-Hajj for him from his legacy, but when I examined his legacy, it is not sufficient for al-Hajj and I asked the jurist in our area. They said that I must pay charity for him and I did so. What do you say about it?’ He said, ‘This is Ja‘far ibn Muhammad in al-Hijr. Go and ask him.’ I went in al-Hijr and found abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, under al-Mizab facing the house and praying. He (the Imam) turned to me, saw me and asked, ‘What do you need?’ I then said, ‘I pray to Allah to keep my soul in service for your cause, I am a man from al-Kufah of your friends.’ He (the Imam) said, ‘Leave it. What do you need?’ I then said, ‘A man has died and has made a will that al- Hajj must be performed from his legacy. I examined it and it is not sufficient for al-Hajj. I then asked the jurists about it in our area. They said that I must pay charity on his behalf.’ He (the Imam) said, ‘What did you do with it?’ I replied, ‘I gave it in charity.’ He (the Imam) said, ‘You are responsible, unless it was not sufficient even for performing al-Hajj from Makkah, but if it was sufficient for performing al-Hajj from Makkah, then you are responsible.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مجهول - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (23/35)



2- مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ سِنَانٍ عَنِ ابْنِ مُسْكَانَ عَنْ أَبِي سَعِيدٍ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ سُئِلَ عَنْ رَجُلٍ أَوْصَى بِحَجَّةٍ فَجَعَلَهَا وَصِيُّهُ فِي نَسَمَةٍ فَقَالَ يَغْرَمُهَا وَصِيُّهُ وَيَجْعَلُهَا فِي حَجَّةٍ كَمَا أَوْصَى بِهِ فَإِنَّ اللهَ تَبَارَكَ وَتَعَالَى يَقُولُ فَمَنْ بَدَّلَهُ بَعْدَ ما سَمِعَهُ فَإِنَّما إِثْمُهُ عَلَى الَّذِينَ يُبَدِّلُونَهُ.


2. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from Muhammad ibn Sinan from ibn Muskan from abu Sa‘id who has narrated the following: “Once abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, was asked about the case of a man who made a will for al- Hajj but the executor of his will spent it to set free an enslaved soul. He (the Imam) said, ‘The executor of the will is responsible to pay for his al-Hajj as the will required. Allah, most Blessed, most High, has said, ‘Whoever intentionally changes the will of a deceased person, he has committed a sin. Allah is All-hearing and All-knowing.’ (2:181)”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف على المشهور - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (3/36)



3- مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنِ ابْنِ مَحْبُوبٍ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ مَارِدٍ قَالَ سَأَلْتُ أَبَا عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) عَنْ رَجُلٍ أَوْصَى إِلَى رَجُلٍ وَأَمَرَهُ أَنْ يُعْتِقَ عَنْهُ نَسَمَةً بِسِتِّمِائَةِ دِرْهَمٍ مِنْ ثُلُثِهِ فَانْطَلَقَ الْوَصِيُّ فَأَعْطَى السِّتَّمِائَةِ دِرْهَمٍ رَجُلا يَحُجُّ بِهَا عَنْهُ قَالَ فَقَالَ أَرَى أَنْ يَغْرَمَ الْوَصِيُّ مِنْ مَالِهِ سِتَّمِائَةِ دِرْهَمٍ وَيَجْعَلَ السِّتَّمِائَةِ دِرْهَمٍ فِيمَا أَوْصَى بِهِ الْمَيِّتُ مِنْ نَسَمَةٍ.


3. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from ibn Mahbub from Muhammad ibn Marid who has narrated the following: “I once asked abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about the case of a man who made a will to set free a slave for six hundred dirham but the executor of his will gave six hundred dirham to perform al-Hajj for the deceased. He (the Imam) said, ‘As I see the executor of the will must pay six hundred dirham from his own assets to set free a slave for the deceased.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: صحيح - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (3/36)