3. Another Chapter; Signs of Edible and Inedible Birds

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عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ ابْنِ مَحْبُوبٍ عَنْ سَمَاعَةَ بْنِ مِهْرَانَ قَالَ سَأَلْتُ أَبَا عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ( عليه السلام ) عَنِ الْمَأْكُولِ مِنَ الطَّيْرِ وَ الْوَحْشِ فَقَالَ حَرَّمَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ( صلى الله عليه وآله ) كُلَّ ذِي مِخْلَبٍ مِنَ الطَّيْرِ وَ كُلَّ ذِي نَابٍ مِنَ الْوَحْشِفَقُلْتُ إِنَّ النَّاسَ يَقُولُونَ مِنَ السَّبُعِ فَقَالَ لِي يَا سَمَاعَةُ السَّبُعُ كُلُّهُ حَرَامٌ وَ إِنْ كَانَ سَبُعاً لَا نَابَ لَهُ وَ إِنَّمَا قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ( صلى الله عليه وآله ) هَذَا تَفْصِيلًا وَ حَرَّمَ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ وَ رَسُولُهُ ( صلى الله عليه وآله ) الْمُسُوخَ جَمِيعَهَا فَكُلِ الْآنَ مِنْ طَيْرِ الْبَرِّ مَا كَانَتْ لَهُ حَوْصَلَةٌ وَ مِنْ طَيْرِ الْمَاءِ مَا كَانَ لَهُ قَانِصَةٌ كَقَانِصَةِ الْحَمَامِ لَا مَعِدَةٌ كَمَعِدَةِ الْإِنْسَانِ وَ كُلُّ مَا صَفَّ وَ هُوَ ذُو مِخْلَبٍ فَهُوَ حَرَامٌ وَ الصَّفِيفُ كَمَا يَطِيرُ الْبَازِي وَ الصَّقْرُ وَ الْحِدَأَةُ وَ مَا أَشْبَهَ ذَلِكَ وَ كُلُّ مَا دَفَّ فَهُوَ حَلَالٌ وَ الْحَوْصَلَةُ وَ الْقَانِصَةُ يُمْتَحَنُ بِهَا مِنَ الطَّيْرِ مَا لَا يُعْرَفُ طَيَرَانُهُ وَ كُلُّ طَيْرٍ مَجْهُولٍ .


1. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from ibn Mahbub from Sama‘ah ibn Mehran who has said the following: “I once asked abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about edible birds and beasts (animals). He (the Imam) said, The Messenger of Allah, O Allah, grant compensation to Muhammad and his family worthy of their services to Your cause, prohibited using for food of every bird that has claws and beast that has canine teeth.’ He (the Imam) said, ‘O Sama‘ah, all beasts are inedible; even if it is a beast that does not have canine teeth. The Messenger of Allah has mentioned canine teeth for explanation. Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious, and His Messenger prohibited all metamorphosed animals. From the birds on land you can use for food that which has craw, and from the sea birds that which has gizzard like the gizzard of pigeons; not stomach like the stomach of human beings. Every bird which flies straight and has claws is not edible, and so also are the straight fliers like falcons and hawks and al- Hida’ah (a bird that hunts rats) and similar birds that flap their wings in flight and have craws or gizzard which defines every edible bird that cannot be distinguished from its flight and the unknown ones.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: حسن أو موثق - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (2/36)



مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي نَجْرَانَ عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ سِنَانٍ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ( عليه السلام ) قَالَ قُلْتُ لَهُ الطَّيْرُ مَا يُؤْكَلُ مِنْهُ فَقَالَ لَا يُؤْكَلُ مِنْهُ مَا لَمْ تَكُنْ لَهُ قَانِصَةٌ .


2. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from ibn abu Ibn abu Najran from ‘Abd Allah ibn Sinan who has said the following: “I once asked abu ‘Abd Allah, Alayhi al-Salam, about what is edible of birds. He (the Imam) said, ‘None of them is edible unless it has a craw.”’


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: صحيح - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (22/37)



عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ عَنْ عَلِيٍّ الزَّيَّاتِ عَنْ زُرَارَةَ أَنَّهُ قَالَ وَ اللَّهِ مَا رَأَيْتُ مِثْلَ أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ ( عليه السلام ) قَطُّ وَ ذَلِكَ أَنِّي سَأَلْتُهُ فَقُلْتُ أَصْلَحَكَ اللَّهُ مَا يُؤْكَلُ مِنَ الطَّيْرِ فَقَالَ كُلْ مَا دَفَّ وَ لَا تَأْكُلْ مَا صَفَّ قُلْتُ الْبَيْضُ فِي الْآجَامِ فَقَالَ مَا اسْتَوَى طَرَفَاهُ فَلَا تَأْكُلْهُ وَ مَا اخْتَلَفَ طَرَفَاهُ فَكُلْ قُلْتُ فَطَيْرُ الْمَاءِ قَالَ مَا كَانَتْ لَهُ قَانِصَةٌ فَكُلْ وَ مَا لَمْ تَكُنْ لَهُ قَانِصَةٌ فَلَا تَأْكُلْ .


3. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from ibn abu ‘Umayr from Ali al-Zayyat (Ali ibn Ri’ab) from Zurarah who has said the following: “I swear by Allah that I have never seen anyone like abu Ja‘far, Alayhi al-Salam. I once, said to him (the Imam), ‘I pray to Allah to keep you well, what is edible of birds?’ He (the Imam) said, ‘You can use for food all that flap their wings in flight, and do not eat what keeps its wings straight in flight.’ I then asked about eggs. He (the Imam) said, ‘All eggs with ends of similar shapes are not edible and those that have their ends of different shapes are edible.’ I then asked about the birds of water. He (the Imam) said, ‘All that have gizzards are edible and that which have no gizzard are not edible.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مجهول - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (2/37)



عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنْ هَارُونَ بْنِ مُسْلِمٍ عَنْ مَسْعَدَةَ بْنِ صَدَقَةَ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ( عليه السلام ) قَالَ كُلْ مِنَ الطَّيْرِ مَا كَانَتْ لَهُ قَانِصَةٌ وَ لَا مِخْلَبَ لَهُقَالَ وَ سَأَلْتُهُ عَنْ طَيْرِ الْمَاءِ فَقَالَ مِثْلَ ذَلِكَ .


4. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from Harun ibn Muslim from Mas’adah ibn Sadaqah who has said the following: “Abu ‘Abd Allah, Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘Of birds you can eat that which has gizzard and no claws.’ I then asked about birds in water and he (the Imam) said a similar thing.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (22/38)



عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ سَهْلِ بْنِ زِيَادٍ عَنِ ابْنِ فَضَّالٍ عَنِ ابْنِ بُكَيْرٍ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ( عليه السلام ) قَالَ كُلْ مِنَ الطَّيْرِ مَا كَانَتْ لَهُ قَانِصَةٌ أَوْ صِيصِيَةٌ أَوْ حَوْصَلَةٌ .


5. A number of our people have narrated from Sahl ibn Ziyad from ibn Faddal from ibn Bukayr who has said the following: “Abu ‘Abd Allah, Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘Of birds you can eat whatever has gizzard or spur of the rooster or craws.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف على المشهور - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (2/38)



بَعْضُ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنِ ابْنِ جُمْهُورٍ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ الْقَاسِمِ عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ أَبِي يَعْفُورٍ قَالَ قُلْتُ لِأَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ( عليه السلام ) إِنِّي أَكُونُ فِي الْآجَامِ فَيَخْتَلِفُ عَلَيَّ الطَّيْرُ فَمَا آكُلُ مِنْهُ فَقَالَ كُلْ مَا دَفَّ وَ لَا تَأْكُلْ مَا صَفَّ فَقُلْتُ إِنِّي أُوتَى بِهِ مَذْبُوحاً فَقَالَ كُلْ مَا كَانَتْ لَهُ قَانِصَةٌ .


6. Certain persons of our people have narrated from ibn Jumhur from Muhammad ibn al-Qasim from ‘Abd Allah ibn abu Ya‘fur who has said the following: “I once asked abu ‘Abd Allah, Alayhi al-Salam, about birds that I find in wilderness and about which is edible. He (the Imam) said, ‘All birds that flap their wings in flight are edible and all birds that keep their wings straight in flight are not edible.’ ‘What happens if they are brought to me already slaughtered?’ He (the Imam) said, ’Eat whatever has craws.’”


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Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مجهول - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (2/38)