66. Stipulations in Marriage: The Permissible and Impermissible ones

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1- عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ سَهْلِ بْنِ زِيَادٍ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي نَجْرَانَ عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ أَبِي نَصْرٍ عَنْ عَاصِمِ بْنِ حُمَيْدٍ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ قَيْسٍ عَنْ أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) فِي الرَّجُلِ يَتَزَوَّجُ الْمَرْأَةَ إِلَى أَجَلٍ مُسَمًّى فَإِنْ جَاءَ بِصَدَاقِهَا إِلَى أَجَلٍ مُسَمًّى فَهِيَ امْرَأَتُهُ وَإِنْ لَمْ يَأْتِ بِصَدَاقِهَا إِلَى الأجَلِ فَلَيْسَ لَهُ عَلَيْهَا سَبِيلٌ وَذَلِكَ شَرْطُهُمْ بَيْنَهُمْ حِينَ أَنْكَحُوهُ فَقَضَى لِلرَّجُلِ أَنَّ بِيَدِهِ بُضْعَ امْرَأَتِهِ وَأَحْبَطَ شَرْطَهُمْ.


1. A number of our people have narrated from Sahl ibn Ziyad from ibn abu Najran from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from ibn abu Nasr fro ‘Asem ibn Hamid from Muhammad ibn Qays who has said the following: “About the case of a man who marries a woman for an appointed time that if within that time he pays mahr (dower) she is his wife and if he does not pay mahr (dower) within the appointed time he will have no way to the woman because such is their condition of the time of forming marriage, abu Ja’far ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘He has his wife in his hand and their condition falls void.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف على المشهور - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (20/143)



2- مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ وَعَبْدِ اللهِ ابْنَيْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ عَنْ هِشَامِ بْنِ سَالِمٍ عَنْ أَبِي الْعَبَّاسِ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) فِي الرَّجُلِ يَتَزَوَّجُ الْمَرْأَةَ وَيَشْتَرِطُ لَهَا أَنْ لا يُخْرِجَهَا مِنْ بَلَدِهَا قَالَ يَفِي لَهَا بِذَلِكَ أَوْ قَالَ يَلْزَمُهُ ذَلِكَ.


2. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad and ‘Abd Allah sons of Muhammad ibn ‘Isa have narrated from ibn abu ‘Umayr from Hisham ibn Salim from abu al-‘Abbas who has said the following: “About the case of a man who marries a woman with the condition that he will not take her out of her town, abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘He must keep that promise’ or that he (the Imam) said, ‘It is binding upon him.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: صحيح - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (20/143)



3- الْحُسَيْنُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ مُعَلَّى بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنِ الْحَسَنِ بْنِ عَلِيٍّ عَنْ أَبَانِ بْنِ عُثْمَانَ عَنْ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنِ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ سَأَلْتُهُ عَنْ رَجُلٍ تَزَوَّجَ امْرَأَةً وَشَرَطَ عَلَيْهَا أَنْ يَأْتِيَهَا إِذَا شَاءَ وَيُنْفِقَ عَلَيْهَا شَيْئاً مُسَمًّى كُلَّ شَهْرٍ قَالَ لا بَأْسَ بِهِ.


3. Al-Husayn from Muhammad has narrated from Mu’alla’ ibn Muhammad from al-Hassan ibn Ali from Aban ibn ‘Uthman from ‘Abd al- Rahman ibn abu ‘Abd Allah who has said the following: “This is concerning my question before abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about the case of a man who marries a woman with the condition to come to her whenever he wants and pays her an agreed upon amount every month. He (the Imam) said, ‘It is not unlawful.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف على المشهور - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (0/144)



4- مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ الْحَكَمِ عَنْ مُوسَى بْنِ بَكْرٍ عَنْ زُرَارَةَ قَالَ سُئِلَ أَبُو جَعْفَرٍ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) عَنِ الْمَهَارِيَّةِ يَشْتَرِطُ عَلَيْهَا عِنْدَ عُقْدَةِ النِّكَاحِ أَنْ يَأْتِيَهَا مَتَى شَاءَ كُلَّ شَهْرٍ وَكُلَّ جُمْعَةٍ يَوْماً وَمِنَ النَّفَقَةِ كَذَا وَكَذَا قَالَ لَيْسَ ذَلِكَ الشَّرْطُ بِشَيْ‏ءٍ وَمَنْ تَزَوَّجَ امْرَأَةً فَلَهَا مَا لِلْمَرْأَةِ مِنَ النَّفَقَةِ وَالْقِسْمَةِ وَلَكِنَّهُ إِذَا تَزَوَّجَ امْرَأَةً فَخَافَتْ مِنْهُ نُشُوزاً أَوْ خَافَتْ أَنْ يَتَزَوَّجَ عَلَيْهَا أَوْ يُطَلِّقَهَا فَصَالَحَتْهُ مِنْ حَقِّهَا عَلَى شَيْ‏ءٍ مِنْ نَفَقَتِهَا أَوْ قِسْمَتِهَا فَإِنَّ ذَلِكَ جَائِزٌ لا بَأْسَ بِهِ.


4. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from Ali ibn al-Hakam from Musa ibn Bakr from Zurarah who has said the following: “Abu Abu Ja’far, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, was asked about the case of a man who married a woman who could only be visited during the day because of a condition at the time of forming marriage that he could visit her whenever he wants, like every month, every week one day with so and so amount for expenses. He (the Imam) said, ‘Such condition is not meaningful. If one marries a woman she must have what a woman must have for her expenses as well as her share of her time. However, if a woman marries and is afraid of his neglecting or that he may marry another woman or divorce her and she reaches a settlement in exchange for her rights like expenses or share of her time, such points are valid, and it is not unlawful.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف على المشهور - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (20/144)



5- مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ الْحُسَيْنِ عَنْ صَفْوَانَ عَنْ عَلاءِ بْنِ رَزِينٍ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ مُسْلِمٍ عَنْ أَحَدِهِمَا (عَلَيْهِما السَّلام) فِي الرَّجُلِ يَقُولُ لِعَبْدِهِ أُعْتِقُكَ عَلَى أَنْ أُزَوِّجَكَ ابْنَتِي فَإِنْ تَزَوَّجْتَ أَوْ تَسَرَّيْتَ عَلَيْهَا فَعَلَيْكَ مِائَةُ دِينَارٍ فَأَعْتَقَهُ عَلَى ذَلِكَ وَتَسَرَّى أَوْ تَزَوَّجَ قَالَ عَلَيْهِ شَرْطُهُ.


5. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Muhammad ibn al-Husayn from Safwan from al-‘Ala’ ibn Razin from Muhammad ibn Muslim who has said the following: “About the case of a man who has a slave to whom he says, ‘I set you free with the condition that I will give my daughter in marriage to you and if you married a second wife on her or did something secretly against her you must pay one hundred dinar’, and he sets him free on such condition but he does secretly and marries. One of the two Imam, (abu Ja’far or abu ‘Abd Allah), ‘Alayhim al-Salam, has said, ‘He must stand by his condition.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: صحيح - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (20/145)



6- مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ الْحَكَمِ عَنْ مُوسَى بْنِ بَكْرٍ عَنْ زُرَارَةَ أَنَّ ضُرَيْساً كَانَتْ تَحْتَهُ بِنْتُ حُمْرَانَ فَجَعَلَ لَهَا أَنْ لا يَتَزَوَّجَ عَلَيْهَا وَأَنْ لا يَتَسَرَّى أَبَداً فِي حَيَاتِهَا وَلا بَعْدَ مَوْتِهَا عَلَى أَنْ جَعَلَتْ لَهُ هِيَ أَنْ لا تَتَزَوَّجَ بَعْدَهُ وَجَعَلا عَلَيْهِمَا مِنَ الْهَدْيِ وَالْحَجِّ وَالْبُدْنِ وَكُلَّ مَالِهِمَا فِي الْمَسَاكِينِ إِنْ لَمْ يَفِ كُلُّ وَاحِدٍ مِنْهُمَا لِصَاحِبِهِ ثُمَّ إِنَّهُ أَتَى أَبَا عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) فَذَكَرَ ذَلِكَ لَهُ فَقَالَ إِنَّ لابْنَةِ حُمْرَانَ لَحَقّاً وَلَنْ يَحْمِلَنَا ذَلِكَ عَلَى أَنْ لا نَقُولَ لَكَ الْحَقَّ اذْهَبْ وَتَزَوَّجْ وَتَسَرَّ فَإِنَّ ذَلِكَ لَيْسَ بِشَيْ‏ءٍ وَلَيْسَ شَيْ‏ءٌ عَلَيْكَ وَلا عَلَيْهَا وَلَيْسَ ذَلِكَ الَّذِي صَنَعْتُمَا بِشَيْ‏ءٍ فَجَاءَ فَتَسَرَّى وَوُلِدَ لَهُ بَعْدَ ذَلِكَ أَوْلادٌ.


6. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from Ali ibn al-Hakam from Musa ibn Bakr from Zurarah who has said the following: “Durays was married to the daughter of Humran with the condition that he will not marry a second wife on her and will never do anything secretly against her in her lifetime and after her death and a condition on her not to marry anyone after him. They set upon each other the condition of offering sacrifice, al-Hajj, and al-Budn and if anyone of them violated such conditions all of his or her assets go to the destitute. Then they came to abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, and informed him (the Imam) of the story. He (the Imam) said, ‘The daughter of Humran has her rights and such rights will not make us to say that you have no rights. Go and marry and do things secretly because the conditions are not congenial and you or she is not obliged for anything and what you have done is not meaningful.’ He did secretly certain things and many children were born for him.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف على المشهور - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (0/145)



7- مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنِ ابْنِ فَضَّالٍ عَنِ ابْنِ بُكَيْرٍ عَنْ بَعْضِ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) فِي امْرَأَةٍ نَكَحَهَا رَجُلٌ فَأَصْدَقَتْهُ الْمَرْأَةُ وَشَرَطَتْ عَلَيْهِ أَنَّ بِيَدِهَا الْجِمَاعَ وَالطَّلاقَ فَقَالَ خَالَفَ السُّنَّةَ وَوَلَّى الْحَقَّ مَنْ لَيْسَ أَهْلَهُ وَقَضَى أَنَّ عَلَى الرَّجُلِ الصَّدَاقَ وَأَنَّ بِيَدِهِ الْجِمَاعَ وَالطَّلاقَ وَتِلْكَ السُّنَّةُ.


7. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from ibn Faddal from ibn Bukayr from certain persons of our people who have said the following: “About the case of a woman who marries a man and she as part of her mahr (dower) says that going to bed will be in her control as well as divorce, abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘It is against the Sunnah and has entrusted the right with one who is not the right person for it. Judgment requires that the man must pay mahr (dower). He has the right to go to bed and divorce and that is the Sunnah.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مرسل - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (20/145)



8- مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ الْحُسَيْنِ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ إِسْمَاعِيلَ بْنِ بَزِيعٍ عَنْ مَنْصُورِ بْنِ بُزُرْجَ قَالَ قُلْتُ لأبِي الْحَسَنِ مُوسَى (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) وَأَنَا قَائِمٌ جَعَلَنِيَ اللهُ فِدَاكَ إِنَّ شَرِيكاً لِي كَانَتْ تَحْتَهُ امْرَأَةٌ فَطَلَّقَهَا فَبَانَتْ مِنْهُ فَأَرَادَ مُرَاجَعَتَهَا وَقَالَتِ الْمَرْأَةُ لا وَاللهِ لا أَتَزَوَّجُكَ أَبَداً حَتَّى تَجْعَلَ اللهَ لِي عَلَيْكَ أَلا تُطَلِّقَنِي وَلا تَزَوَّجَ عَلَيَّ قَالَ وَفَعَلَ قُلْتُ نَعَمْ قَدْ فَعَلَ جَعَلَنِيَ اللهُ فِدَاكَ قَالَ بِئْسَ مَا صَنَعَ وَمَا كَانَ يُدْرِيهِ مَا وَقَعَ فِي قَلْبِهِ فِي جَوْفِ اللَّيْلِ أَوِ النَّهَارِ ثُمَّ قَالَ لَهُ أَمَّا الآنَ فَقُلْ لَهُ فَلْيُتِمَّ لِلْمَرْأَةِ شَرْطَهَا فَإِنَّ رَسُولَ اللهِ (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) قَالَ الْمُسْلِمُونَ عِنْدَ شُرُوطِهِمْ قُلْتُ جُعِلْتُ فِدَاكَ إِنِّي أَشُكُّ فِي حَرْفٍ فَقَالَ هُوَ عِمْرَانُ يَمُرُّ بِكَ أَلَيْسَ هُوَ مَعَكَ بِالْمَدِينَةِ فَقُلْتُ بَلَى قَالَ فَقُلْ لَهُ فَلْيَكْتُبْهَا وَلْيَبْعَثْ بِهَا إِلَيَّ فَجَاءَنَا عِمْرَانُ بَعْدَ ذَلِكَ فَكَتَبْنَاهَا لَهُ وَلَمْ يَكُنْ فِيهَا زِيَادَةٌ وَلا نُقْصَانٌ فَرَجَعَ بَعْدَ ذَلِكَ فَلَقِيَنِي فِي سُوقِ الْحَنَّاطِينَ فَحَكَّ مَنْكِبَهُ بِمَنْكِبِي فَقَالَ يُقْرِئُكَ السَّلامَ وَيَقُولُ لَكَ قُلْ لِلرَّجُلِ يَفِي بِشَرْطِهِ.


8. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Muhammad ibn al-Husayn from Muhammad ibn ‘Isma’il ibn Bazi’ from Mansur ibn Buzurj who has said the following: “I once said to abu al-Hassan, Musa, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, when I was standing, ‘I pray to Allah to keep my soul in service for your cause, my partner had a wife. He divorced her and became stranger to her then he wanted to go back to her and she said, ‘No, by Allah, I will never marry you until you make it binding on yourself from Allah not to divorce me and not to marry a second wife.’ He (the Imam) asked, ‘Did he do so?’ I replied, ‘Yes, he did, I pray to Allah to keep my soul in service for your cause.’ He (the Imam) said, ‘What he has done is terrible, ignoring the fact that what may fall in his heart in the middle of the night or day.’ He (the Imam) then said, ‘Now, however, say to him to complete the condition for the woman because the Messenger of Allah, O Allah, grant compensation to Muhammad and his family worthy of their services to Your cause, has said, “Muslims stand by their conditions.’” I then said, ‘I pray to Allah to keep my soul in service for your cause, I have doubts about the words (of the stipulation).’ He (the Imam) said, ‘He is ‘Imran who meets you, is he not with you in al-Madinah?’ I replied, ‘Yes, that is true.’ He (the Imam) then said, ‘Tell him to write it and send it to me.’ ‘Imran afterwards came to us and we wrote them to him (the Imam) and there was no addition in it or reduction. He came back and met with me in the market of flours and touched my shoulder saying, ‘He (the Imam) says Salam (the phrase of offering greeting of peace) to you and says to you to tell the man to stand by his condition.’”


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Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: موثق - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (20/146)



9- عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ سَهْلِ بْنِ زِيَادٍ وَعَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ جَمِيعاً عَنِ ابْنِ مَحْبُوبٍ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ رِئَابٍ عَنْ أَبِي الْحَسَنِ مُوسَى (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ سُئِلَ وَأَنَا حَاضِرٌ عَنْ رَجُلٍ تَزَوَّجَ امْرَأَةً عَلَى مِائَةِ دِينَارٍ عَلَى أَنْ تَخْرُجَ مَعَهُ إِلَى بِلادِهِ فَإِنْ لَمْ تَخْرُجْ مَعَهُ فَإِنَّ مَهْرَهَا خَمْسُونَ دِينَاراً إِنْ أَبَتْ أَنْ تَخْرُجَ مَعَهُ إِلَى بِلادِهِ قَالَ فَقَالَ إِنْ أَرَادَ أَنْ يَخْرُجَ بِهَا إِلَى بِلادِ الشِّرْكِ فَلا شَرْطَ لَهُ عَلَيْهَا فِي ذَلِكَ وَلَهَا مِائَةُ دِينَارٍ الَّتِي أَصْدَقَهَا إِيَّاهَا وَإِنْ أَرَادَ أَنْ يَخْرُجَ بِهَا إِلَى بِلادِ الْمُسْلِمِينَ وَدَارِ الإسْلامِ فَلَهُ مَا اشْتَرَطَ عَلَيْهَا وَالْمُسْلِمُونَ عِنْدَ شُرُوطِهِمْ وَلَيْسَ لَهُ أَنْ يَخْرُجَ بِهَا إِلَى بِلادِهِ حَتَّى يُؤَدِّيَ إِلَيْهَا صَدَاقَهَا أَوْ تَرْضَى مِنْهُ مِنْ ذَلِكَ بِمَا رَضِيَتْ وَهُوَ جَائِزٌ لَهُ.


9. A number of our people have narrated from Sahl ibn Ziyad Ahmad ibn Muhammad from Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from all from ibn Mahbub from ibn Ri’ab who has said the following: “This is concerning a question before abu al-Hassan, Musa, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, in my presence, about the case of a man who marries a woman for one hundred dinar with the condition that she will go with him to his town. If she will not go with him to his town her mahr (dower) will be fifty dinar. He (the Imam) said, ‘If he wants to take her to the lands of pagans, then such condition is not valid and the one hundred dinar belongs to her which is her mahr (dower) but if he wants to take her to the lands of the Muslims within the Muslim domain then the condition is valid in his favor; Muslims must stand by their conditions. He cannot take her out of her town without first paying her mahr (dower) or make her agree with whatever amount, it then is permissible.’”


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Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: حسن كالصحيح - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (0/146)