54. Marriage without Witness

Back to book

1- عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ عَنْ عُمَرَ بْنِ أُذَيْنَةَ عَنْ زُرَارَةَ بْنِ أَعْيَنَ قَالَ سُئِلَ أَبُو عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) عَنِ الرَّجُلِ يَتَزَوَّجُ الْمَرْأَةَ بِغَيْرِ شُهُودٍ فَقَالَ لا بَأْسَ بِتَزْوِيجِ الْبَتَّةِ فِيمَا بَيْنَهُ وَبَيْنَ اللهِ إِنَّمَا جُعِلَ الشُّهُودُ فِي تَزْوِيجِ الْبَتَّةِ مِنْ أَجْلِ الْوَلَدِ لَوْ لا ذَلِكَ لَمْ يَكُنْ بِهِ بَأْسٌ.


1. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from ibn abu ‘Umayr from ‘Umar ibn ‘Udhaynah from Zurarah ibn ‘A‘yan who has said the following: “Once abu ‘ Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, was asked about the case of a man who married a woman without witness. He (the Imam) said, ‘It is not unlawful at all between him and Allah. Witness in marriage is for the sake of children, if that is not the concern then it is not unlawful.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: حسن - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (20/120)



2- عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ وَمُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ عَبْدِ اللهِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ جَمِيعاً عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ عَنْ هِشَامِ بْنِ سَالِمٍ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ إِنَّمَا جُعِلَتِ الْبَيِّنَاتُ لِلنَّسَبِ وَالْمَوَارِيثِ وَفِي رِوَايَةٍ أُخْرَى وَالْحُدُودِ.


2. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from and Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from ‘Abd Allah ibn Muhammad all from ibn abu ‘Umayr from Hisham ibn Salim who has said the following: “Abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘Witness and testimony (for marriage) is only for the sake of children and inheritance.’ In another Hadith it is said, ‘and it is for the sake of criminal issues.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: حسن كالصحيح وآخره مرسل - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (0/120)



3- عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ وَمُحَمَّدُ بْنُ إِسْمَاعِيلَ عَنِ الْفَضْلِ بْنِ شَاذَانَ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ عَنْ حَفْصِ بْنِ الْبَخْتَرِيِّ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) فِي الرَّجُلِ يَتَزَوَّجُ بِغَيْرِ بَيِّنَةٍ قَالَ لا بَأْسَ.


3. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from and Muhammad ibn ‘Isma’il has narrated from al-Fadl ibn Shadhan from ibn abu ‘Umayr from Hafs ibn al-Bakhtariy who has said the following: “About the case of a man who marries without witness, abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘It is not unlawful.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: حسن كالصحيح - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (0/120)



4- عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ سَهْلِ بْنِ زِيَادٍ عَنْ دَاوُدَ النَّهْدِيِّ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي نَجْرَانَ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ الْفُضَيْلِ قَالَ قَالَ أَبُو الْحَسَنِ مُوسَى (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) لأبِي يُوسُفَ الْقَاضِي إِنَّ اللهَ تَبَارَكَ وَتَعَالَى أَمَرَ فِي كِتَابِهِ بِالطَّلاقِ وَأَكَّدَ فِيهِ بِشَاهِدَيْنِ وَلَمْ يَرْضَ بِهِمَا إِلا عَدْلَيْنِ وَأَمَرَ فِي كِتَابِهِ بِالتَّزْوِيجِ فَأَهْمَلَهُ بِلا شُهُودٍ فَأَثْبَتُّمْ شَاهِدَيْنِ فِيمَا أَهْمَلَ وَأَبْطَلْتُمُ الشَّاهِدِينَ فِيمَا أَكَّدَ.


4. A number of our people have narrated from Sahl ibn Ziyad from Dawud al-Nahdiy from ibn abu Najran from Muhammad ibn al- Fudayl who has said the following: “Abu al-Hassan, Musa, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, once said to abu Yusuf, al-Qadi, ‘Allah, most Blessed, most High, has commanded in His book about divorce and He has placed strong emphasis on the presence of two witnesses. He has not accepted anyone as witness other than two just ones. He has commanded in His book about marriage but He has left it (presence of witness) as overlooked. You, however, have established firmly the need for the presence of witnesses where He has overlooked, but you have invalidated the need for the presence of witnesses where He has placed strong emphasis (which is divorce).”’


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (0/120)