82. Exchange of Various Goods for Other Items of Goods

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1- عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ رِجَالِهِ ذَكَرَهُ قَالَ الذَّهَبُ بِالذَّهَبِ وَالْفِضَّةُ بِالْفِضَّةِ وَزْناً بِوَزْنٍ سَوَاءً لَيْسَ لِبَعْضِهِ فَضْلٌ عَلَى بَعْضٍ وَتُبَاعُ الْفِضَّةُ بِالذَّهَبِ وَالذَّهَبُ بِالْفِضَّةِ كَيْفَ شِئْتَ يَداً بِيَدٍ وَلا بَأْسَ بِذَلِكَ وَلا تَحِلُّ النَّسِيئَةُ وَالذَّهَبُ وَالْفِضَّةُ يُبَاعَانِ بِمَا سِوَاهُمَا مِنْ وَزْنٍ أَوْ كَيْلٍ أَوْ عَدَدٍ أَوْ غَيْرِ ذَلِكَ يَداً بِيَدٍ وَنَسِيئَةً جَمِيعاً لا بَأْسَ بِذَلِكَ وَمَا كِيلَ أَوْ وُزِنَ مِمَّا أَصْلُهُ وَاحِدٌ فَلَيْسَ لِبَعْضِهِ فَضْلٌ عَلَى بَعْضٍ كَيْلا بِكَيْلٍ أَوْ وَزْناً بِوَزْنٍ فَإِذَا اخْتَلَفَ أَصْلُ مَا يُكَالُ فَلا بَأْسَ بِهِ اثْنَانِ بِوَاحِدٍ يَداً بِيَدٍ وَيُكْرَهُ نَسِيئَةً [فَإِنِ اخْتَلَفَ أَصْلُ مَا يُوزَنُ فَلَيْسَ بِهِ بَأْسٌ اثْنَانِ بِوَاحِدٍ يَداً بِيَدٍ وَيُكْرَهُ نَسِيئَةً] وَمَا كِيلَ بِمَا وُزِنَ فَلا بَأْسَ بِهِ يَداً بِيَدٍ وَنَسِيئَةً جَمِيعاً لا بَأْسَ بِهِ وَمَا عُدَّ عَدَداً وَلَمْ يُكَلْ وَلَمْ يُوزَنْ فَلا بَأْسَ بِهِ اثْنَانِ بِوَاحِدٍ يَداً بِيَدٍ وَيُكْرَهُ نَسِيئَةً وَقَالَ إِذَا كَانَ أَصْلُهُ وَاحِداً وَإِنِ اخْتَلَفَ أَصْلُ مَا يُعَدُّ فَلا بَأْسَ بِهِ اثْنَانِ بِوَاحِدٍ يَداً بِيَدٍ وَنَسِيئَةً جَمِيعاً لا بَأْسَ بِهِ وَمَا عُدَّ أَوْ لَمْ يُعَدَّ فَلا بَأْسَ بِهِ بِمَا يُكَالُ أَوْ بِمَا يُوزَنُ يَداً بِيَدٍ وَنَسِيئَةً جَمِيعاً لا بَأْسَ بِذَلِكَ وَمَا كَانَ أَصْلُهُ وَاحِداً وَكَانَ يُكَالُ أَوْ يُوزَنُ فَخَرَجَ مِنْهُ شَيْ‏ءٌ لا يُكَالُ وَلا يُوزَنُ فَلا بَأْسَ بِهِ يَداً بِيَدٍ وَيُكْرَهُ نَسِيئَةً وَذَلِكَ أَنَّ الْقُطْنَ وَالْكَتَّانَ أَصْلُهُ يُوزَنُ وَغَزْلُهُ يُوزَنُ وَثِيَابُهُ لا تُوزَنُ فَلَيْسَ لِلْقُطْنِ فَضْلٌ عَلَى الْغَزْلِ وَأَصْلُهُ وَاحِدٌ فَلا يَصْلُحُ إِلا مِثْلا بِمِثْلٍ وَوَزْناً بِوَزْنٍ فَإِذَا صُنِعَ مِنْهُ الثِّيَابُ صَلَحَ يَداً بِيَدٍ وَالثِّيَابُ لا بَأْسَ الثَّوْبَانِ بِالثَّوْبِ وَإِنْ كَانَ أَصْلُهُ وَاحِداً يَداً بِيَدٍ وَيُكْرَهُ نَسِيئَةً وَإِذَا كَانَ قُطْنٌ وَكَتَّانٌ فَلا بَأْسَ بِهِ اثْنَانِ بِوَاحِدٍ يَداً بِيَدٍ وَيُكْرَهُ نَسِيئَةً وَإِنْ كَانَتِ الثِّيَابُ قُطْناً وَكَتَّاناً فَلا بَأْسَ بِهِ اثْنَانِ بِوَاحِدٍ يَداً بِيَدٍ وَنَسِيئَةً كِلاهُمَا لا بَأْسَ بِهِ وَلا بَأْسَ بِثِيَابِ الْقُطْنِ وَالْكَتَّانِ بِالصُّوفِ يَداً بِيَدٍ وَنَسِيئَةً وَمَا كَانَ مِنْ حَيَوَانٍ فَلا بَأْسَ بِهِ اثْنَانِ بِوَاحِدٍ وَإِنْ كَانَ أَصْلُهُ وَاحِداً يَداً بِيَدٍ وَيُكْرَهُ نَسِيئَةً وَإِذَا اخْتَلَفَ أَصْلُ الْحَيَوَانِ فَلا بَأْسَ اثْنَانِ بِوَاحِدٍ يَداً بِيَدٍ وَيُكْرَهُ نَسِيئَةً وَإِذَا كَانَ حَيَوَانٌ بِعَرْضٍ فَتَعَجَّلْتَ الْحَيَوَانَ وَأَنْسَأْتَ الْعَرْضَ فَلا بَأْسَ بِهِ وَإِنْ تَعَجَّلْتَ الْعَرْضَ وَأَنْسَأْتَ الْحَيَوَانَ فَهُوَ مَكْرُوهٌ وَإِذَا بِعْتَ حَيَوَاناً بِحَيَوَانٍ أَوْ زِيَادَةِ دِرْهَمٍ أَوْ عَرْضٍ فَلا بَأْسَ وَلا بَأْسَ أَنْ تَعَجَّلَ الْحَيَوَانَ وَتُنْسِئَ الدَّرَاهِمَ وَالدَّارُ بِالدَّارَيْنِ وَجَرِيبُ أَرْضٍ بِجَرِيبَيْنِ لا بَأْسَ بِهِ يَداً بِيَدٍ وَيُكْرَهُ نَسِيئَةً قَالَ وَلا يُنْظَرُ فِيمَا يُكَالُ وَيُوزَنُ إِلا إِلَى الْعَامَّةِ وَلا يُؤْخَذُ فِيهِ بِالْخَاصَّةِ فَإِنْ كَانَ قَوْمٌ يَكِيلُونَ اللَّحْمَ وَيَكِيلُونَ الْجَوْزَ فَلا يُعْتَبَرُ بِهِمْ لأنَّ أَصْلَ اللَّحْمِ أَنْ يُوزَنَ وَأَصْلَ الْجَوْزِ أَنْ يُعَدَّ.


1. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his narrators whom he has mentioned the following: “Exchange of gold for gold, silver for silver by weight in equal quantities is balanced. One does not have preference over the other. Silver can be exchanged for gold and gold can be exchanged for silver as you like in a hand in hand transaction and it is not harmful but it is not lawful on credit. Gold and silver can be sold in exchange for other things which are exchanged by weighing or measuring or numbering in a hand in hand transaction, and on credit all of such deals are not harmful. Things exchanged by measure or weight which are of the same origin do not have any preference over the other in measuring or weighing. If they are of different origins and are of things measured, it is not harmful to exchange two for one in a hand in hand deal but it is Makruh (detestable) on credit. Things of different origin which are exchanged by weight can be exchanged two for one in a hand in hand deal but on credit is Makruh (detestable). The exchange of things measured for what is weighed is not harmful in a hand in hand deal and on credit as well. The exchange of things numbered and not measured or weighed is not harmful if it is two for one in a hand in hand deal but it is Makruh (detestable) on credit. “He (Ali ibn Ibrahim) has said that this is if the origin is the same. If the origin of things numbered is different, then, it is not harmful to exchange two for one in a hand in hand deal or on credit as well, it all is not harmful. The exchange of things numbered or not numbered for what is measured or weighed in a hand in hand transaction or on credit is not harmful at all. Of things of the same origin and measured or weighed if then something comes out that is not measured or weighed, it is not harmful to exchange them in a hand in hand deal but it is Makruh (detestable) on credit. It is because cotton and al-Kattan originally are weighed and its yarn is weighed but fabrics are not weighed so cotton has no preference over yarn and its origin is one; so it is not valid unless it is in equal quantities by the same weight. When fabric is made out of it then in a hand in hand deal it is valid. In the case of fabrics it is valid to exchange one cloth for two cloths even though its origin is one in a hand in hand deal but it is Makruh (detestable) on credit. If it is cotton and al-Kattan then it is not harmful to exchange two for one in a hand in hand deal and it is Makruh on credit. If it is fabric of cotton and al-Kattan, it is not harmful to exchange two for one in a hand in hand deal or on credit; both deals are permissible. It is not harmful to exchange cotton and al-Kattan for wool in a hand in hand deal and on credit. The exchange of things from animals is not harmful if it is two for one, even if of one origin, in a hand in hand deal but it is Makruh (detestable) on credit. If the animals are of different origins it is not harmful to exchange two for one in a hand and hand deal but it is Makruh on credit. If animals are exchanged for goods and you take delivery of animal and leave the goods on credit, it is not harmful. If you take delivery of the goods and leave the animal it is Makruh (detestable). It is not harmful if you sell the animal in exchange for animal in addition with dirham also or goods. If you take delivery of animal and leave dirham on credit or one house for two houses, one Jirib of land for two Jirib of land it is not harmful in a hand in hand deal but it is Makruh (detestable) on credit. “He (Ali ibn Ibrahim) has said, Tn the case of goods exchanged by measuring or weighing standard is the one which is common, not a special one, such as if a people measure meat and almonds it is not taken as standard because originally meat is weighed and almonds are counted in numbers. ”” (According to Mir’at al-‘Uqul the above is fatwa of Ali ibn Ibrahim or his Shaykhs which is very strange to happen from people like him)


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مرسل - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (19/203)