158. A Slave Does Business Who Becomes Indebted

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1- بَعْضُ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ الْحُسَيْنِ عَنْ عُثْمَانَ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ ظَرِيفٍ الأكْفَانِيِّ قَالَ كَانَ أَذِنَ لِغُلامٍ لَهُ فِي الشِّرَاءِ وَالْبَيْعِ فَأَفْلَسَ وَلَزِمَهُ دَيْنٌ فَأُخِذَ بِذَلِكَ الدَّيْنِ الَّذِي عَلَيْهِ وَلَيْسَ يُسَاوِي ثَمَنُهُ مَا عَلَيْهِ مِنَ الدَّيْنِ فَسَأَلَ أَبَا عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) فَقَالَ إِنْ بِعْتَهُ لَزِمَكَ الدَّيْنُ وَإِنْ أَعْتَقْتَهُ لَمْ يَلْزَمْكَ الدَّيْنُ فَأَعْتَقَهُ فَلَمْ يَلْزَمْهُ شَيْ‏ءٌ.


1. Certain persons of our people have narrated Muhammad ibn al-Husayn from ‘Uthman ibn ‘Isa from Zarif al-Akfaniy who has said the following: “This is about the case of a man who authorizes his slave to buy and sell and who becomes bankrupt and is taken by the creditor for the debt which is more than his price. I asked abu ‘ Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about it. He (the Imam) said, Tf you sell him you are responsible for the debt, but if you set him free you are not responsible for the debt.’ He set him free and he was not held responsible for anything.”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مرسل - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (19/414)



2- حُمَيْدُ بْنُ زِيَادٍ عَنِ الْحَسَنِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنِ ابْنِ مَحْبُوبٍ عَنِ ابْنِ رِئَابٍ عَنْ زُرَارَةَ قَالَ سَأَلْتُ أَبَا جَعْفَرٍ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) عَنْ رَجُلٍ مَاتَ وَتَرَكَ عَلَيْهِ دَيْناً وَتَرَكَ عَبْداً لَهُ مَالٌ فِي التِّجَارَةِ وَوَلَداً وَفِي يَدِ الْعَبْدِ مَالٌ وَمَتَاعٌ وَعَلَيْهِ دَيْنٌ اسْتَدَانَهُ الْعَبْدُ فِي حَيَاةِ سَيِّدِهِ فِي تِجَارَتِهِ وَإِنَّ الْوَرَثَةَ وَغُرَمَاءَ الْمَيِّتِ اخْتَصَمُوا فِيمَا فِي يَدِ الْعَبْدِ مِنَ الْمَالِ وَالْمَتَاعِ وَفِي رَقَبَةِ الْعَبْدِ فَقَالَ أَرَى أَنْ لَيْسَ لِلْوَرَثَةِ سَبِيلٌ عَلَى رَقَبَةِ الْعَبْدِ وَلا عَلَى مَا فِي يَدِهِ مِنَ الْمَتَاعِ وَالْمَالِ إِلا أَنْ يُضَمَّنُوا دَيْنَ الْغُرَمَاءِ جَمِيعاً فَيَكُونُ الْعَبْدُ وَمَا فِي يَدِهِ مِنَ الْمَالِ لِلْوَرَثَةِ فَإِنْ أَبَوْا كَانَ الْعَبْدُ وَمَا فِي يَدِهِ لِلْغُرَمَاءِ يُقَوَّمُ الْعَبْدُ وَمَا فِي يَدِهِ مِنَ الْمَالِ ثُمَّ يُقْسَمُ ذَلِكَ بَيْنَهُمْ بِالْحِصَصِ فَإِنْ عَجَزَ قِيمَةُ الْعَبْدِ وَمَا فِي يَدِهِ عَنْ أَمْوَالِ الْغُرَمَاءِ رَجَعُوا عَلَى الْوَرَثَةِ فِيمَا بَقِيَ لَهُمْ إِنْ كَانَ الْمَيِّتُ تَرَكَ شَيْئاً قَالَ وَإِنْ فَضَلَ مِنْ قِيمَةِ الْعَبْدِ وَمَا كَانَ فِي يَدِهِ عَنْ دَيْنِ الْغُرَمَاءِ رُدَّ عَلَى الْوَرَثَةِ.


2. Humayd ibn Ziyad has narrated from al-Hassan ibn Muhammad from ibn Mahbub from ibn Ri’ab from Zurarah who has said the following: “This is concerning my question before abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about the case of a man who dies owing a certain amount of debts and leaves behind a slave who has his assets in business and a son. In the hand of the slave he leaves the assets, goods and debts owed by the slave which he had incurred during the lifetime of his master for business. The heir and creditors dispute about what is in the hand of the slave, the slave himself and the assets and goods. He (the Imam) said, ‘In my view the heirs have no say about the slave or about what is in his hand of assets and goods, except if they take responsibility for the debt for all the creditors. Thereafter the slave and what is in his hand of the assets and goods all go in the hands of the heirs; but if they refuse to take responsibility, the slave and all that is in his hand go to the creditors. The slave and whatever is in his hand of the assets are distributed among the creditors proportionate to their shares. If the slave and the asset could not pay the debts the creditors can ask the heirs for the remaining liabilities if the deceased has left anything. If the slave and assets exceed the debts the remaining goes to the heirs.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: موثق - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (19/415)



3- مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ الْحُسَيْنِ عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ أَبِي نَصْرٍ عَنْ عَاصِمِ بْنِ حُمَيْدٍ عَنْ أَبِي بَصِيرٍ عَنْ أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ قُلْتُ لَهُ رَجُلٌ يَأْذَنُ لِمَمْلُوكِهِ فِي التِّجَارَةِ فَيَصِيرُ عَلَيْهِ دَيْنٌ قَالَ إِنْ كَانَ أَذِنَ لَهُ أَنْ يَسْتَدِينَ فَالدَّيْنُ عَلَى مَوْلاهُ وَإِنْ لَمْ يَكُنْ أَذِنَ لَهُ أَنْ يَسْتَدِينَ فَلا شَيْ‏ءَ عَلَى الْمَوْلَى وَيُسْتَسْعَى الْعَبْدُ فِي الدَّيْنِ.


3. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Muhammad ibn al-Husayn from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from ibn abu Nasr from ‘Asem ibn Hamid from abu Basir who has said the following: “This is concerning my question before abu Ja‘far, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about the case of a man who authorizes his slave to do business but he becomes indebted. He (the Imam) said, Tf his master had authorized him to borrow; then he is responsible for the debts, but if he had not authorized him to borrow, he is not responsible for anything but the slave is made to work to pay the debts.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: صحيح - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (19/415)