147. Hiring an Animal and Using Beyond Limit

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1- الْحُسَيْنُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ مُعَلَّى بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنِ الْحَسَنِ بْنِ عَلِيٍّ عَنْ أَبَانِ بْنِ عُثْمَانَ عَنِ الْحَسَنِ الصَّيْقَلِ قَالَ قُلْتُ لأبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) مَا تَقُولُ فِي رَجُلٍ اكْتَرَى دَابَّةً إِلَى مَكَانٍ مَعْلُومٍ فَجَاوَزَهُ قَالَ يُحْسَبُ لَهُ الأجْرُ بِقَدْرِ مَا جَاوَزَ وَإِنْ عَطِبَ الْحِمَارُ فَهُوَ ضَامِنٌ.


1. Al-Husayn ibn Muhammad has narrated from Mu’alla’ ibn Muhammad from al-Hassan ibn Ali from Aban ibn ‘Uthman from al- Hassan al-Sayqal who has said the following: “This is concerning my question before abu ‘ Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about the case of a man who hires a stumper to a certain place but he goes beyond such place. He (the Imam) said, ’He must pay for the extra distance; and if the donkey is destroyed, he is held responsible.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف على المشهور - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (19/388)



2- عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ الْحَكَمِ عَنِ الْعَلاءِ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ مُسْلِمٍ عَنْ أَبِي حَمْزَةَ عَنْ أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ سَأَلْتُهُ عَنِ الرَّجُلِ يَكْتَرِي الدَّابَّةَ فَيَقُولُ اكْتَرَيْتُهَا مِنْكَ إِلَى مَكَانِ كَذَا وَكَذَا فَإِنْ جَاوَزْتُهُ فَلَكَ كَذَا وَكَذَا زِيَادَةً وَيُسَمِّي ذَلِكَ قَالَ لا بَأْسَ بِهِ كُلِّهِ.


2. A number of our people have narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from Ali ibn al-Hakam from al-‘Ala’ from Muhammad ibn Muslim from abu Hamzah who has said the following: “This is concerning my question before abu Ja’far, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about the case of a man who rents a stumper and says, ‘I rent it from you to so and so place; if I went beyond such place you will be paid so and so much extra which he mentions.’ He (the Imam) said, ’All of it is permissible.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: صحيح - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (19/389)



3- أَحْمَدُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ [عَنْ رَجُلٍ] عَنْ أَبِي الْمَغْرَاءِ عَنِ الْحَلَبِيِّ قَالَ سَأَلْتُ أَبَا عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) عَنِ الرَّجُلِ تَكَارَى دَابَّةً إِلَى مَكَانٍ مَعْلُومٍ فَنَفَقَتِ الدَّابَّةُ قَالَ إِنْ كَانَ جَازَ الشَّرْطَ فَهُوَ ضَامِنٌ وَإِنْ دَخَلَ وَادِياً لَمْ يُوثِقْهَا فَهُوَ ضَامِنٌ وَإِنْ سَقَطَتْ فِي بِئْرٍ فَهُوَ ضَامِنٌ لأنَّهُ لَمْ يَسْتَوْثِقْ مِنْهَا.


3. Ahmad ibn Muhammad has narrated from a man from abu al-Mighra’ from al-Halabiy who has said the following: “This is concerning my question before abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about the case of a man who rents a stumper to a certain place but it dies. He (the Imam) said, ‘If he has violated the stipulation he is responsible, if he enters a valley where he is not confident for its safety, he then is responsible, if it falls in a well where for its safety he is not confident, he is responsible.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: صحيح - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (19/389)



4- مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ الْحُسَيْنِ عَنْ صَفْوَانَ عَنِ الْعَلاءِ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ مُسْلِمٍ عَنْ أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ سَمِعْتُهُ يَقُولُ كُنْتُ جَالِساً عِنْدَ قَاضٍ مِنْ قُضَاةِ الْمَدِينَةِ فَأَتَاهُ رَجُلانِ فَقَالَ أَحَدُهُمَا إِنِّي تَكَارَيْتُ هَذَا يُوَافِي بِيَ السُّوقَ يَوْمَ كَذَا وَكَذَا وَإِنَّهُ لَمْ يَفْعَلْ قَالَ فَقَالَ لَيْسَ لَهُ كِرَاءٌ قَالَ فَدَعَوْتُهُ وَقُلْتُ يَا عَبْدَ اللهِ لَيْسَ لَكَ أَنْ تَذْهَبَ بِحَقِّهِ وَقُلْتُ لِلآخَرِ لَيْسَ لَكَ أَنْ تَأْخُذَ كُلَّ الَّذِي عَلَيْهِ اصْطَلِحَا فَتَرَادَّا بَيْنَكُمَا.


4. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from al-Husayn from Muhammad from Safwan from al-‘Ala’ from Muhammad ibn Muslim who has said the following: “I once heard abu Ja’far, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, saying, ‘I was sitting near the judge in al-Madinah when two men came to him. One of them said, ‘I hired this person to appear in the market on such and such day but he did not appear.’ The judge said, ’He does not deserve payment.’ He (the Imam) has said, ’I then called him and said, “O servant of Allah, you cannot take away his right.” To the other man I said, “You cannot take all that he owes. You must reach a settlement and be lenient toward each other.’””


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: صحيح - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (19/389)



5- مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ إِسْمَاعِيلَ عَنْ مَنْصُورِ بْنِ يُونُسَ عَنْ مُحَمَّدٍ الْحَلَبِيِّ قَالَ كُنْتُ قَاعِداً عِنْدَ قَاضٍ مِنَ الْقُضَاةِ وَعِنْدَهُ أَبُو جَعْفَرٍ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) جَالِسٌ فَأَتَاهُ رَجُلانِ فَقَالَ أَحَدُهُمَا إِنِّي تَكَارَيْتُ إِبِلَ هَذَا الرَّجُلِ لِيَحْمِلَ لِي مَتَاعاً إِلَى بَعْضِ الْمَعَادِنِ فَاشْتَرَطْتُ عَلَيْهِ أَنْ يُدْخِلَنِي الْمَعْدِنَ يَوْمَ كَذَا وَكَذَا لأنَّهَا سُوقٌ أَتَخَوَّفُ أَنْ يَفُوتَنِي فَإِنِ احْتُبِسْتُ عَنْ ذَلِكَ حَطَطْتُ مِنَ الْكِرَى لِكُلِّ يَوْمٍ أُحْتَبَسُهُ كَذَا وَكَذَا وَإِنَّهُ حَبَسَنِي عَنْ ذَلِكَ الْوَقْتِ كَذَا وَكَذَا يَوْماً فَقَالَ الْقَاضِي هَذَا شَرْطٌ فَاسِدٌ وَفِّهِ كِرَاهُ فَلَمَّا قَامَ الرَّجُلُ أَقْبَلَ إِلَيَّ أَبُو جَعْفَرٍ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) فَقَالَ شَرْطُهُ هَذَا جَائِزٌ مَا لَمْ يَحُطَّ بِجَمِيعِ كِرَاهُ.


5. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from Muhammad ibn ‘Isma’il from Mansur ibn Yunus from Muhammad al-Halabiy who has said the following: “I once was sitting with the judge and abu Ja’far, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, was also there, when two men came to him and one of them said, ‘I rented a camel from this man to carry my goods to the mine and I stipulated with him to come to me to the mine on so and so day because that was the market day and I was afraid of missing it. If you will be held up I will reduce the rent for each day that you are held up so and so much amount. He kept me on hold for so and so many days.’ The judge said, ’This is an invalid stipulation. You must pay his rent.’ When the man stood up he came to abu Ja’far, ‘Alayhi al- Salam, who said, ’His stipulation is permissible as long as he does not drop all of the rent.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: موثق - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (19/390)



6- عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنِ ابْنِ مَحْبُوبٍ عَنْ أَبِي وَلادٍ الْحَنَّاطِ قَالَ اكْتَرَيْتُ بَغْلا إِلَى قَصْرِ ابْنِ هُبَيْرَةَ ذَاهِباً وَجَائِياً بِكَذَا وَكَذَا وَخَرَجْتُ فِي طَلَبِ غَرِيمٍ لِي فَلَمَّا صِرْتُ قُرْبَ قَنْطَرَةِ الْكُوفَةِ خُبِّرْتُ أَنَّ صَاحِبِي تَوَجَّهَ إِلَى النِّيلِ فَتَوَجَّهْتُ نَحْوَ النِّيلِ فَلَمَّا أَتَيْتُ النِّيلَ خُبِّرْتُ أَنَّ صَاحِبِي تَوَجَّهَ إِلَى بَغْدَادَ فَاتَّبَعْتُهُ وَظَفِرْتُ بِهِ وَفَرَغْتُ مِمَّا بَيْنِي وَبَيْنَهُ وَرَجَعْنَا إِلَى الْكُوفَةِ وَكَانَ ذَهَابِي وَمَجِيئِي خَمْسَةَ عَشَرَ يَوْماً فَأَخْبَرْتُ صَاحِبَ الْبَغْلِ بِعُذْرِي وَأَرَدْتُ أَنْ أَتَحَلَّلَ مِنْهُ مِمَّا صَنَعْتُ وَأُرْضِيَهُ فَبَذَلْتُ لَهُ خَمْسَةَ عَشَرَ دِرْهَماً فَأَبَى أَنْ يَقْبَلَ فَتَرَاضَيْنَا بِأَبِي حَنِيفَةَ فَأَخْبَرْتُهُ بِالْقِصَّةِ وَأَخْبَرَهُ الرَّجُلُ فَقَالَ لِي وَمَا صَنَعْتَ بِالْبَغْلِ فَقُلْتُ قَدْ دَفَعْتُهُ إِلَيْهِ سَلِيماً قَالَ نَعَمْ بَعْدَ خَمْسَةَ عَشَرَ يَوْماً فَقَالَ مَا تُرِيدُ مِنَ الرَّجُلِ قَالَ أُرِيدُ كِرَى بَغْلِي فَقَدْ حَبَسَهُ عَلَيَّ خَمْسَةَ عَشَرَ يَوْماً فَقَالَ مَا أَرَى لَكَ حَقّاً لأنَّهُ اكْتَرَاهُ إِلَى قَصْرِ ابْنِ هُبَيْرَةَ فَخَالَفَ وَرَكِبَهُ إِلَى النِّيلِ وَإِلَى بَغْدَادَ فَضَمِنَ قِيمَةَ الْبَغْلِ وَسَقَطَ الْكِرَى فَلَمَّا رَدَّ الْبَغْلَ سَلِيماً وَقَبَضْتَهُ لَمْ يَلْزَمْهُ الْكِرَى قَالَ فَخَرَجْنَا مِنْ عِنْدِهِ وَجَعَلَ صَاحِبُ الْبَغْلِ يَسْتَرْجِعُ فَرَحِمْتُهُ مِمَّا أَفْتَى بِهِ أَبُو حَنِيفَةَ فَأَعْطَيْتُهُ شَيْئاً وَتَحَلَّلْتُ مِنْهُ فَحَجَجْتُ تِلْكَ السَّنَةَ فَأَخْبَرْتُ أَبَا عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) بِمَا أَفْتَى بِهِ أَبُو حَنِيفَةَ فَقَالَ فِي مِثْلِ هَذَا الْقَضَاءِ وَشِبْهِهِ تَحْبِسُ السَّمَاءُ مَاءَهَا وَتَمْنَعُ الأرْضُ بَرَكَتَهَا قَالَ فَقُلْتُ لأبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) فَمَا تَرَى أَنْتَ قَالَ أَرَى لَهُ عَلَيْكَ مِثْلَ كِرَى بَغْلٍ ذَاهِباً مِنَ الْكُوفَةِ إِلَى النِّيلِ وَمِثْلَ كِرَى بَغْلٍ رَاكِباً مِنَ النِّيلِ إِلَى بَغْدَادَ وَمِثْلَ كِرَى بَغْلٍ مِنْ بَغْدَادَ إِلَى الْكُوفَةِ تُوَفِّيهِ إِيَّاهُ قَالَ فَقُلْتُ جُعِلْتُ فِدَاكَ إِنِّي قَدْ عَلَفْتُهُ بِدَرَاهِمَ فَلِي عَلَيْهِ عَلَفُهُ فَقَالَ لا لأنَّكَ غَاصِبٌ فَقُلْتُ أَرَأَيْتَ لَوْ عَطِبَ الْبَغْلُ وَنَفَقَ أَلَيْسَ كَانَ يَلْزَمُنِي قَالَ نَعَمْ قِيمَةُ بَغْلٍ يَوْمَ خَالَفْتَهُ قُلْتُ فَإِنْ أَصَابَ الْبَغْلَ كَسْرٌ أَوْ دَبَرٌ أَوْ غَمْزٌ فَقَالَ عَلَيْكَ قِيمَةُ مَا بَيْنَ الصِّحَّةِ وَالْعَيْبِ يَوْمَ تَرُدُّهُ عَلَيْهِ قُلْتُ فَمَنْ يَعْرِفُ ذَلِكَ قَالَ أَنْتَ وَهُوَ إِمَّا أَنْ يَحْلِفَ هُوَ عَلَى الْقِيمَةِ فَتَلْزَمَكَ فَإِنْ رَدَّ الْيَمِينَ عَلَيْكَ فَحَلَفْتَ عَلَى الْقِيمَةِ لَزِمَهُ ذَلِكَ أَوْ يَأْتِيَ صَاحِبُ الْبَغْلِ بِشُهُودٍ يَشْهَدُونَ أَنَّ قِيمَةَ الْبَغْلِ حِينَ أَكْرَى كَذَا وَكَذَا فَيَلْزَمَكَ قُلْتُ إِنِّي كُنْتُ أَعْطَيْتُهُ دَرَاهِمَ وَرَضِيَ بِهَا وَحَلَّلَنِي فَقَالَ إِنَّمَا رَضِيَ بِهَا وَحَلَّلَكَ حِينَ قَضَى عَلَيْهِ أَبُو حَنِيفَةَ بِالْجَوْرِ وَالظُّلْمِ وَلَكِنِ ارْجِعْ إِلَيْهِ فَأَخْبِرْهُ بِمَا أَفْتَيْتُكَ بِهِ فَإِنْ جَعَلَكَ فِي حِلٍّ بَعْدَ مَعْرِفَتِهِ فَلا شَيْ‏ءَ عَلَيْكَ بَعْدَ ذَلِكَ قَالَ أَبُو وَلادٍ فَلَمَّا انْصَرَفْتُ مِنْ وَجْهِي ذَلِكَ لَقِيتُ الْمُكَارِيَ فَأَخْبَرْتُهُ بِمَا أَفْتَانِي بِهِ أَبُو عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) وَقُلْتُ لَهُ قُلْ مَا شِئْتَ حَتَّى أُعْطِيَكَهُ فَقَالَ قَدْ حَبَّبْتَ إِلَيَّ جَعْفَرَ بْنَ مُحَمَّدٍ (عَلَيْهِما السَّلام) وَوَقَعَ فِي قَلْبِي لَهُ التَّفْضِيلُ وَأَنْتَ فِي حِلٍّ وَإِنْ أَحْبَبْتَ أَنْ أَرُدَّ عَلَيْكَ الَّذِي أَخَذْتُ مِنْكَ فَعَلْتُ.


6. A number of our people have narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from ibn Mahbub from abu Wallad al-Hannat who has said the following: “I once rented a mule to Qasr ibn Hubayrah for both ways for so and so much amount. I left in search of my debtor and when I reached near the bridge of al-Kufah, I was informed that my debtor had gone to al-Nil. I then moved to al-Nil. When I went to al-Nil I was informed that my debtor had gone to Baghdad. I then followed him, found him and finalized whatever was between him and me and we returned to al-Kufah. Going and coming took me fifteen days. I informed the owner of the mule of my reasons for the delay. I wanted to make it a lawful deal and make him agree so I paid him fifteen dirham but he refused to accept it. We then agreed to go to abu Hanifah for judgment. I told my side of the story to him and the man also told his side of the story. He asked me, ‘What did you do to the mule?’ I replied, ‘I have returned it to him safely.’ He (owner) said, ‘Yes, after fifteen days.’ He asked, ‘What do you want from the man?’ He replied, ‘I want the rent for the mule which he kept for fifteen days.’ He said, ‘I do not see any such right in your favor because he rented it to Qasr ibn Hubayrah, and he then violated the agreement and rode it to al-Nil and to Baghdad, so he became responsible for the price of the mule and the rent became void. He then returned the mule safely to you and you have it in your possession so he is not responsible for rent.’ We came out of his office and the owner of mule kept saying, ‘To Allah we belong and to Him we all return.’ I felt sympathy for him because of the fatwa of abu Hanifah against him and I gave him something and asked him not to hold me responsible. I went for al-Hajj in that year and informed abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about the fatwa of abu Hanifah. He (the Imam) said, ‘It is because of this kind of judgments that the sky stops sending water and the earth denies its blessings.’ I then asked abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al- Salam, ‘What do you say about it?’ I say that you must pay him a similar rent that is charged for a mule from al-Kufah to al-Nil, a similar rent for a mule that is charged from al-Nil to Baghdad, a similar rent that is charged for a mule from Baghdad to al-Kufah. You must pay him.’ I then said, ‘I pray to Allah to keep my soul in service for your cause, I fed the mule with a cost of many dirhams so he must pay for the feed.’ He (the Imam) said, ‘No, because you usurped it.’ I then said, ‘What could happen if the mule died and was damaged, would he not hold me responsible?’ He (the Imam) said, ‘Yes, he could do so for the value of the mule on the day you went against the stipulation.’ I then asked, ‘What could happen if the mule became damaged, sustained injuries or so?’ He (the Imam) said, ‘You would owe the price between healthy and damaged mule on the day you returned to him.’ I then asked, ‘Who could determine it?’ He (the Imam) said, ‘You and he (owner of mule) could do so. Either he had to take an oath to confirm the value for which you were responsible. If he turned the oath to you, you then had to take an oath about the value and it became binding on him or the owner of the mule had to present testimony and witness to prove how much the value of the mule was when it was rented and it became binding upon you.’ I then said, ‘I gave him a certain amount of dirham, he agreed and made it lawful in my favor.’ He (the Imam) said, ‘He agreed and made it lawful for you because of the fatwa of abu Hanifah, unjustly. However, you must go to him and inform him of my fatwa on this matter to see if he still agrees after knowing it, thereafter there will be nothing on you.’ Abu Wallad al-Hannat has said, ‘As soon as I returned I met al-Mukariy and informed him of the fatwa of abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, and I said to him, “Now say what you want to say so I pay you.” He said, “I feel love for Ja’far ibn Muhammad in my heart and my heart says he has preference over the others. You do not owe me anything even though I love to return what I have taken from you, I still can do so.’””


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: صحيح - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (19/391)



7- مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنِ الْعَمْرَكِيِّ بْنِ عَلِيٍّ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ جَعْفَرٍ عَنْ أَخِيهِ أَبِي الْحَسَنِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ سَأَلْتُهُ عَنْ رَجُلٍ اسْتَأْجَرَ دَابَّةً فَأَعْطَاهَا غَيْرَهُ فَنَفَقَتْ مَا عَلَيْهِ فَقَالَ إِنْ كَانَ شَرَطَ أَنْ لا يَرْكَبَهَا غَيْرُهُ فَهُوَ ضَامِنٌ لَهَا وَإِنْ لَمْ يُسَمِّ فَلَيْسَ عَلَيْهِ شَيْ‏ءٌ.


7. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from al-‘Amrakiy ibn Ali from Ali ibn Ja’far from his who has said the following: “This is concerning my question before abu al-Hassan, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about the case of a man who rents a stumper but he gives it to another one and it dies. He (the Imam) said, ‘If he had stipulated that no one else except him ride it, then he is responsible; if such thing is not mentioned then he is not responsible.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: صحيح - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (9/393)