130. Contracting Taxpayers’ Land and the Tax on their Person; Contracting Land from Al- Sultan and then Contracting it to Others

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1- عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ سَهْلِ بْنِ زِيَادٍ وَأَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنِ ابْنِ مَحْبُوبٍ عَنْ إِبْرَاهِيمَ الْكَرْخِيِّ قَالَ سَأَلْتُ أَبَا عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) عَنْ رَجُلٍ كَانَتْ لَهُ قَرْيَةٌ عَظِيمَةٌ وَلَهُ فِيهَا عُلُوجٌ ذِمِّيُّونَ يَأْخُذُ مِنْهُمُ السُّلْطَانُ الْجِزْيَةَ فَيُعْطِيهِمْ يُؤْخَذُ مِنْ أَحَدِهِمْ خَمْسُونَ وَمِنْ بَعْضِهِمْ ثَلاثُونَ وَأَقَلُّ وَأَكْثَرُ فَيُصَالِحُ عَنْهُمْ صَاحِبُ الْقَرْيَةِ السُّلْطَانَ ثُمَّ يَأْخُذُ هُوَ مِنْهُمْ أَكْثَرَ مِمَّا يُعْطِي السُّلْطَانَ قَالَ هَذَا حَرَامٌ.


1. A number of our people have narrated from Sahl ibn Ziyad and Ahmad ibn Muhammad from ibn Mahbub from Ibrahim al-Kharkhiy who has said the following: “This is concerning my question before abu ‘ Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about the case of a man who had a large town in which he had taxpayer infidels from whom al-Sultan collected taxes and they paid to him fifty or thirty or more or less, each one. The owner of the town reached a settlement for them with al-Sultan and he collected more from them than what he paid to al-Sultan. He (the Imam) said, ‘It is unlawful.”’


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مجهول - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (9/349)



2- حُمَيْدُ بْنُ زِيَادٍ عَنِ الْحَسَنِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ الْحَسَنِ الْمِيثَمِيِّ قَالَ حَدَّثَنِي أَبُو نَجِيحٍ الْمِسْمَعِيِّ عَنِ الْفَيْضِ بْنِ الْمُخْتَارِ قَالَ قُلْتُ لأبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) جُعِلْتُ فِدَاكَ مَا تَقُولُ فِي أَرْضٍ أَتَقَبَّلُهَا مِنَ السُّلْطَانِ ثُمَّ أُؤَاجِرُهَا أَكَرَتِي عَلَى أَنَّ مَا أَخْرَجَ اللهُ مِنْهَا مِنْ شَيْ‏ءٍ كَانَ لِي مِنْ ذَلِكَ النِّصْفُ وَالثُّلُثُ بَعْدَ حَقِّ السُّلْطَانِ قَالَ لا بَأْسَ بِهِ كَذَلِكَ أُعَامِلُ أَكَرَتِي.


2. Humayd ibn Ziyad has narrated from al-Hassan ibn Muhammad from Ahmad ibn al-Hassan al-Mithamiy who has said that narrated to him abu Najih al-Misma‘iy from al-Fayd ibn al-Mukhtar who has said the following: “This is concerning my question before abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, saying, ‘I pray to Allah to keep my soul in service for your cause, what do you say about a land that I rent from al-Sultan, then rent it to my tenants for, whatever Allah makes to grow, one-half or one-third after excluding the share of al-Sultan. He (the Imam) said, ‘It is not unlawful and that is how I deal with my tenants.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مجهول - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (19/350)



3- عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ عَنْ حَمَّادٍ عَنِ الْحَلَبِيِّ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ لا بَأْسَ بِقَبَالَةِ الأرْضِ مِنْ أَهْلِهَا عِشْرِينَ سَنَةً وَأَقَلَّ مِنْ ذَلِكَ وَأَكْثَرَ فَيَعْمُرُهَا وَيُؤَدِّي مَا خَرَجَ عَلَيْهَا وَلا يُدْخِلِ الْعُلُوجَ فِي شَيْ‏ءٍ مِنَ الْقَبَالَةِ لأنَّهُ لا يَحِلُّ.


3. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from ibn abu ‘Um ay r from Hammad from al-Halabiy who has said the following: “Abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘It is not unlawful to reach an agreement with the owners of the land for twenty years or less or more, then revive it and pay what he spends on it; but one must not include al-‘ilj (the infidels) in the agreement because it is not lawful.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: حسن - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (19/350)



4- عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ عُثْمَانَ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ سَمَاعَةَ قَالَ سَأَلْتُهُ عَنِ الرَّجُلِ يَتَقَبَّلُ الأرْضَ بِطِيبَةِ نَفْسِ أَهْلِهَا عَلَى شَرْطٍ يُشَارِطُهُمْ عَلَيْهِ وَإِنْ هُوَ رَمَّ فِيهَا مَرَمَّةً أَوْ جَدَّدَ فِيهَا بِنَاءً فَإِنَّ لَهُ أَجْرَ بُيُوتِهَا إِلا الَّذِي كَانَ فِي أَيْدِي دَهَاقِينِهَا أَوَّلا قَالَ إِذَا كَانَ قَدْ دَخَلَ فِي قَبَالَةِ الأرْضِ عَلَى أَمْرٍ مَعْلُومٍ فَلا يَعْرِضُ لِمَا فِي أَيْدِي دَهَاقِينِهَا إِلا أَنْ يَكُونَ قَدِ اشْتَرَطَ عَلَى أَصْحَابِ الأرْضِ مَا فِي أَيْدِي الدَّهَاقِينِ.


4. A number of our people have narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from ‘Uthman ibn ‘Isa from Sama‘ah who has said the following: “I once asked him (the Imam), ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about the case of a man who formed a contract for a land without compulsion on the owners, with the condition with them that if he did certain repairs or built a building, that he would have the rent of such homes except what was in the hands of the farmers from before. He (the Imam) said, ‘If he has entered into contract for a known matter, he must not bother with farmers unless he has set a condition with the owner to include what is in the hands of the farmers also.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: موثق - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (19/350)



5- عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ عَنْ حَمَّادٍ عَنْ إِبْرَاهِيمَ بْنِ مَيْمُونٍ قَالَ سَأَلْتُ أَبَا عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) عَنْ قَرْيَةٍ لأنَاسٍ مِنْ أَهْلِ الذِّمَّةِ لا أَدْرِي أَصْلُهَا لَهُمْ أَمْ لا غَيْرَ أَنَّهَا فِي أَيْدِيهِمْ وَعَلَيْهِمْ خَرَاجٌ فَاعْتَدَى عَلَيْهِمُ السُّلْطَانُ فَطَلَبُوا إِلَيَّ فَأَعْطَوْنِي أَرْضَهُمْ وَقَرْيَتَهُمْ عَلَى أَنْ أَكْفِيَهُمُ السُّلْطَانَ بِمَا قَلَّ أَوْ كَثُرَ فَفَضَلَ لِي بَعْدَ ذَلِكَ فَضْلٌ بَعْدَ مَا قَبَضَ السُّلْطَانُ مَا قَبَضَ قَالَ لا بَأْسَ بِذَلِكَ لَكَ مَا كَانَ مِنْ فَضْلٍ.


5. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from ibn abu ‘Umayr from Hammad from Ibrahim ibn Maymun who has said the following: “This is concerning my question before abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about a town that belonged to non-Muslim taxpayers and I did not know if they were the original owners or not, except that it was in their hands and they paid Kharaj (taxes). Al-Sultan infringed on them and they asked me to take over their town and land to suffice them against al-Sultan with more or less. A certain amount of extra remained with me after whatever al-Sultan took away. He (the Imam) said, ‘It is not unlawful for you to have such extra remainders.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مجهول - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (9/351)