129. Partnership in Farming with Taxpayers and Others and Conditions Between Them

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1- عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ وَسَهْلِ بْنِ زِيَادٍ عَنِ الْحَسَنِ بْنِ مَحْبُوبٍ عَنْ إِبْرَاهِيمَ الْكَرْخِيِّ قَالَ قُلْتُ لأبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) أُشَارِكُ الْعِلْجَ فَيَكُونُ مِنْ عِنْدِيَ الأرْضُ وَالْبَذْرُ وَالْبَقَرُ وَيَكُونُ عَلَى الْعِلْجِ الْقِيَامُ وَالسَّقْيُ وَالْعَمَلُ فِي الزَّرْعِ حَتَّى يَصِيرَ حِنْطَةً وَشَعِيراً وَيَكُونُ الْقِسْمَةُ فَيَأْخُذُ السُّلْطَانُ حَقَّهُ وَيَبْقَى مَا بَقِيَ عَلَى أَنَّ لِلْعِلْجِ مِنْهُ الثُّلُثَ وَلِيَ الْبَاقِيَ قَالَ لا بَأْسَ بِذَلِكَ قُلْتُ فَلِي عَلَيْهِ أَنْ يَرُدَّ عَلَيَّ مِمَّا أَخْرَجَتِ الأرْضُ الْبَذْرَ وَيُقْسَمُ الْبَاقِي قَالَ إِنَّمَا شَارَكْتَهُ عَلَى أَنَّ الْبَذْرَ مِنْ عِنْدِكَ وَعَلَيْهِ السَّقْيُ وَالْقِيَامُ.


1. A number of our people have narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from Sahl ibn Ziyad from al-Hassan ibn Mahbub from Ibrahim al-Karkhiy who has narrated the following: “I once said to abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, ‘I become a partner of an al-‘ilj (a great non-Muslim person). I provide land, seed, and the bull. Al-‘ilj does the plantation and other works for the farm. When the wheat or barely comes, the produce is divided; al-Sultan takes away his right, one-third is for al-‘ilj and the remaining is for me. He (the Imam) said, ‘It is not unlawful.’ I then asked if the seed can be given to me from the produce of the land and the rest is divided. He (the Imam) said, ‘You have formed a partnership which required you to provide the seed and he must provide water and other works.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: صحيح - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (19/347)



2- مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ الْحُسَيْنِ عَنْ صَفْوَانَ عَنْ يَعْقُوبَ بْنِ شُعَيْبٍ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ سَأَلْتُهُ عَنِ الرَّجُلِ يَكُونُ لَهُ الأرْضُ مِنْ أَرْضِ الْخَرَاجِ فَيَدْفَعُهَا إِلَى الرَّجُلِ عَلَى أَنْ يَعْمُرَهَا وَيُصْلِحَهَا وَيُؤَدِّيَ خَرَاجَهَا وَمَا كَانَ مِنْ فَضْلٍ فَهُوَ بَيْنَهُمَا قَالَ لا بَأْسَ قَالَ وَسَأَلْتُهُ عَنِ الرَّجُلِ يُعْطِي الرَّجُلَ أَرْضَهُ وَفِيهَا رُمَّانٌ أَوْ نَخْلٌ أَوْ فَاكِهَةٌ فَيَقُولُ اسْقِ هَذَا مِنَ الْمَاءِ وَاعْمُرْهُ وَلَكَ نِصْفُ مَا أُخْرِجَ قَالَ لا بَأْسَ قَالَ وَسَأَلْتُهُ عَنِ الرَّجُلِ يُعْطِي الرَّجُلَ الأرْضَ فَيَقُولُ اعْمُرْهَا وَهِيَ لَكَ ثَلاثُ سِنِينَ أَوْ خَمْسُ سِنِينَ أَوْ مَا شَاءَ اللهُ قَالَ لا بَأْسَ قَالَ وَسَأَلْتُهُ عَنِ الْمُزَارَعَةِ فَقَالَ النَّفَقَةُ مِنْكَ وَالأرْضُ لِصَاحِبِهَا فَمَا أَخْرَجَ اللهُ مِنْهَا مِنْ شَيْ‏ءٍ قُسِمَ عَلَى الشَّطْرِ وَكَذَلِكَ أَعْطَى رَسُولُ اللهِ (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) أَهْلَ خَيْبَرَ حِينَ أَتَوْهُ فَأَعْطَاهُمْ إِيَّاهَا عَلَى أَنْ يَعْمُرُوهَا وَلَهُمُ النِّصْفُ مِمَّا أَخْرَجَتْ.


2. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Muhammad ibn Al-Husayn from Safwan from Ya’qub ibn Shu’ayb who has narrated the following: “This is concerning my question before abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about the case of a man who had a land of al-Kharaj (of government) which he had given to a man to develop, pay its taxes and the extra of its produce were to be shared by the two of them. He (the Imam) said, ‘It is not unlawful.’ I asked abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about the case of a man who gave his land to a man which had pomegranate, palm trees or fruit bearing trees. He told him to water and develop it for one-half of the produce thereof. He (the Imam) said, ‘It is not unlawful.’ This is concerning my question before abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about the case of a man who told a man to have his land for three or five years or as Allah wills. He (the Imam) said, ‘It is not unlawful.’ I then asked about sharecropping. He (the Imam) then said, ‘The expenses are from you and the land is from the land-owner. Its produce is divided in portions. This is how the Messenger of Allah, O Allah, grant compensation to Muhammad and his family worthy of their services to Your cause, gave the people of Khaybar when they came to him. He (the Messenger of Allah) gave it to them to develop for one-half of its produce.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: صحيح - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (19/347)



3- عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ عَنْ حَمَّادٍ عَنِ الْحَلَبِيِّ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللهِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلام) قَالَ قَالَ الْقَبَالَةُ أَنْ تَأْتِيَ الأرْضَ الْخَرِبَةَ فَتَقَبَّلَهَا مِنْ أَهْلِهَا عِشْرِينَ سَنَةً أَوْ أَقَلَّ مِنْ ذَلِكَ أَوْ أَكْثَرَ فَتَعْمُرَهَا وَتُؤَدِّيَ مَا خَرَجَ عَلَيْهَا فَلا بَأْسَ بِهِ.


3. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from ibn abu ‘Umayr from Hammad from al-Halabiy who has narrated the following: “Abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘In a land contract you can have it for twenty years or less from its people to develop it and pay its expenses; such contract is not unlawful.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: حسن - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (19/348)



4- عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ عُثْمَانَ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ سَمَاعَةَ قَالَ سَأَلْتُهُ عَنْ مُزَارَعَةِ الْمُسْلِمِ الْمُشْرِكَ فَيَكُونُ مِنْ عِنْدِ الْمُسْلِمِ الْبَذْرُ وَالْبَقَرُ وَتَكُونُ الأرْضُ وَالْمَاءُ وَالْخَرَاجُ وَالْعَمَلُ عَلَى الْعِلْجِ قَالَ لا بَأْسَ بِهِ قَالَ وَسَأَلْتُهُ عَنِ الْمُزَارَعَةِ قُلْتُ الرَّجُلُ يَبْذُرُ فِي الأرْضِ مِائَةَ جَرِيبٍ أَوْ أَقَلَّ أَوْ أَكْثَرَ طَعَاماً أَوْ غَيْرَهُ فَيَأْتِيهِ رَجُلٌ فَيَقُولُ خُذْ مِنِّي نِصْفَ ثَمَنِ هَذَا الْبَذْرِ الَّذِي زَرَعْتَهُ فِي الأرْضِ وَنِصْفُ نَفَقَتِكَ عَلَيَّ وَأَشْرِكْنِي فِيهِ قَالَ لا بَأْسَ قُلْتُ وَإِنْ كَانَ الَّذِي يَبْذُرُ فِيهِ لَمْ يَشْتَرِهِ بِثَمَنٍ وَإِنَّمَا هُوَ شَيْ‏ءٌ كَانَ عِنْدَهُ قَالَ فَلْيُقَوِّمْهُ قِيمَةً كَمَا يُبَاعُ يَوْمَئِذٍ فَلْيَأْخُذْ نِصْفَ الثَّمَنِ وَنِصْفَ النَّفَقَةِ وَيُشَارِكُهُ.


4. A number of our people have narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from ‘Uthman ibn ‘Isa from Sama‘ah who has narrated the following: “This is concerning my question before abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about sharecropping of a Muslim and a pagan in which the Muslim provides seed and bull, the land, water, taxes and work is by the al-‘ilj. He (the Imam) said, ‘It is not unlawful.’ I then asked about sharecropping saying that a man spreads seed on one hundred Jirib (acre) or less or more for grain or other produce. A man then comes and says to take one-half of the value of the seed from me and one-half of the expenses and give me a share in it. He (the Imam) then said, ‘It is not unlawful.’ I then asked, ‘What happens if he has not bought the seed, it just was with him?’ He (the Imam) then said, ‘He must appraise it with that day’s prices, then take one-half of its value and one-half of his expenses and then share the farm with him.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: موثق - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (19/348)