6. Trying People and Examining Them by Means of al-Ka‘bah

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1ـ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ أَبِي يُسْرٍ عَنْ دَاوُدَ بْنِ عَبْدِ الله عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَمْرِو بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ عِيسَى بْنِ يُونُسَ قَالَ كَانَ ابْنُ أَبِي الْعَوْجَاءِ مِنْ تَلامِذَةِ الْحَسَنِ الْبَصْرِيِّ فَانْحَرَفَ عَنِ التَّوْحِيدِ فَقِيلَ لَهُ تَرَكْتَ مَذْهَبَ صَاحِبِكَ وَدَخَلْتَ فِيمَا لا أَصْلَ لَهُ وَلا حَقِيقَةَ فَقَالَ إِنَّ صَاحِبِي كَانَ مِخْلَطاً كَانَ يَقُولُ طَوْراً بِالْقَدَرِ وَطَوْراً بِالْجَبْرِ وَوَمَا أَعْلَمُهُ اعْتَقَدَ مَذْهَباً دَامَ عَلَيْهِ وَقَدِمَ مَكَّةَ مُتَمَرِّداً وَإِنْكَاراً عَلَى مَنْ يَحُجُّ وَكَانَ يَكْرَهُ الْعُلَمَاءُ مُجَالَسَتَهُ وَمُسَاءَلَتَهُ لِخُبْثِ لِسَانِهِ وَفَسَادِ ضَمِيرِهِ فَأَتَى أَبَا عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) فَجَلَسَ إِلَيْهِ فِي جَمَاعَةٍ مِنْ نُظَرَائِهِ فَقَالَ يَا أَبَا عَبْدِ الله إِنَّ الْمَجَالِسَ أَمَانَاتٌ وَلا بُدَّ لِكُلِّ مَنْ بِهِ سُعَالٌ أَنْ يَسْعُلَ أَ فَتَأْذَنُ فِي الْكَلامِ فَقَالَ تَكَلَّمْ فَقَالَ إِلَى كَمْ تَدُوسُونَ هَذَا الْبَيْدَرَ وَتَلُوذُونَ بِهَذَا الْحَجَرِ وَتَعْبُدُونَ هَذَا الْبَيْتَ الْمَعْمُورَ بِالطُّوبِ وَالْمَدَرِ وَتُهَرْوِلُونَ حَوْلَهُ هَرْوَلَةَ الْبَعِيرِ إِذَا نَفَرَ إِنَّ مَنْ فَكَّرَ فِي هَذَا وَقَدَّرَ عَلِمَ أَنَّ هَذَا فِعْلٌ أَسَّسَهُ غَيْرُ حَكِيمٍ وَلا ذِي نَظَرٍ فَقُلْ فَإِنَّكَ رَأْسُ هَذَا الأَمْرِ وَسَنَامُهُ وَأَبُوكَ أُسُّهُ وَتَمَامُهُ فَقَالَ أَبُو عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) إِنَّ مَنْ أَضَلَّهُ الله وَأَعْمَى قَلْبَهُ اسْتَوْخَمَ الْحَقَّ وَلَمْ يَسْتَعِذْ بِهِ وَصَارَ الشَّيْطَانُ وَلِيَّهُ وَرَبَّهُ وَقَرِينَهُ يُورِدُهُ مَنَاهِلَ الْهَلَكَةِ ثُمَّ لا يُصْدِرُهُ وَهَذَا بَيْتٌ اسْتَعْبَدَ الله بِهِ خَلْقَهُ لِيَخْتَبِرَ طَاعَتَهُمْ فِي إِتْيَانِهِ فَحَثَّهُمْ عَلَى تَعْظِيمِهِ وَزِيَارَتِهِ وَجَعَلَهُ مَحَلَّ أَنْبِيَائِهِ وَقِبْلَةً لِلْمُصَلِّينَ إِلَيْهِ فَهُوَ شُعْبَةٌ مِنْ رِضْوَانِهِ وَطَرِيقٌ يُؤَدِّي إِلَى غُفْرَانِهِ مَنْصُوبٌ عَلَى اسْتِوَاءِ الْكَمَالِ وَمَجْمَعِ الْعَظَمَةِ وَالْجَلالِ خَلَقَهُ الله قَبْلَ دَحْوِ الأَرْضِ بِأَلْفَيْ عَامٍ فَأَحَقُّ مَنْ أُطِيعَ فِيمَا أَمَرَ وَانْتُهِيَ عَمَّا نَهَى عَنْهُ وَزَجَرَ الله الْمُنْشِىُ لِلأَرْوَاحِ وَالصُّوَرِ.


1. Muhammad ibn abu ‘Abd Allah has narrated from Muhammad ibn abu Yusr from Dawud ibn ‘Abd Allah from Muhammad ibn ‘Amr ibn Muhammad from ‘Isa ibn Yunus who has said the following: “Ibn abu al-‘Awja’ was one of the pupils of al-Hassan al-Basriy. He deviated from the belief of Monotheism. It was said to him, ‘You have given up the religion of your friend and have come to something that has no foundation and reality.’ He replied, ‘My friend was mixing the issue. One time he would say, “It is predestination” and then he would say, “It is compulsion.” I do not know if he believes in any religion with which he can continue.’ He went to Makkah, in disobedience and in rejection of belief in performing Hajj. Scholars disliked to sit and to speak with him due to his bad mouth and filthy conscience. He went to abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, and sat next to him in the company of people like him, and said, ‘O abu ‘Abd Allah, meeting places are trusts where everyone can cough if one needs to cough. Will you allow speaking?’ He (the Imam) said, ‘You can speak.’ He said, ‘For how long you continue walking around it like farmers threshing hay under their feet, seek refuge with this stone, worship this House built with bricks and rubble, run around like runaway camels? One who thinks a little about it comes to know of this action to be founded without wisdom and thinking. Say something about it; you’re the head of this matter and its peak, your father is the origin thereof and its completion.’ Abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, then said, ‘One whom Allah has made blind and has made him to go astray, he mistreats the truth and considers it tasteless; thus Satan becomes his source of authority and guardian, lord and companion, who leads to destructive places wherefrom he can never come out to safety. Through this house, Allah has asked His creatures to worship Him (acknowledge Him as their sole owner) so He may examine the quality of their obedience in their answering His call. He thus has strongly advised them to respect it with greatness and visit it. He has made it a place of His prophets and a point to face during performing salat (prayer). It is a branch of His pleasure, and it is a road and it leads to His forgiveness. It is established in perfect balance as a focal point of greatness and glory. Allah created it two thousand years before the spread of earth. He deserves more than anyone who is obeyed in what He commands and in what He prohibits and admonishes. Allah is the inventor of the spirits and forms.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مجهول - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (17/22)



2ـ وَرُوِيَ أَنَّ أَمِيرَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ (صلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) قَالَ فِي خُطْبَةٍ لَهُ وَلَوْ أَرَادَ الله جَلَّ ثَنَاؤُهُ بِأَنْبِيَائِهِ حَيْثُ بَعَثَهُمْ أَنْ يَفْتَحَ لَهُمْ كُنُوزَ الذِّهْبَانِ وَمَعَادِنَ الْعِقْيَانِ وَمَغَارِسَ الْجِنَانِ وَأَنْ يَحْشُرَ طَيْرَ السَّمَاءِ وَوَحْشَ الأَرْضِ مَعَهُمْ لَفَعَلَ وَلَوْ فَعَلَ لَسَقَطَ الْبَلاءُ وَبَطَلَ الْجَزَاءُ وَاضْمَحَلَّتِ الأَنْبَاءُ وَلَمَا وَجَبَ لِلْقَائِلِينَ أُجُورُ الْمُبْتَلَيْنَ وَلا لَحِقَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ ثَوَابُ الْمُحْسِنِينَ وَلا لَزِمَتِ الأَسْمَاءُ أَهَالِيَهَا عَلَى مَعْنًى مُبِينٍ وَلِذَلِكَ لَوْ أَنْزَلَ الله مِنَ السَّمَاءِ آيَةً فَظَلَّتْ أَعْنَاقُهُمْ لَهَا خَاضِعِينَ وَلَوْ فَعَلَ لَسَقَطَ الْبَلْوَى عَنِ النَّاسِ أَجْمَعِينَ وَلَكِنَّ الله جَلَّ ثَنَاؤُهُ جَعَلَ رُسُلَهُ أُولِي قُوَّةٍ فِي عَزَائِمِ نِيَّاتِهِمْ وَضَعَفَةً فِيمَا تَرَى الأَعْيُنُ مِنْ حَالاتِهِمْ مِنْ قَنَاعَةٍ تَمْلأُ الْقُلُوبَ وَالْعُيُونَ غَنَاؤُهُ وَخَصَاصَةٍ تَمْلأُ الأَسْمَاعَ وَالأَبْصَارَ أَذَاؤُهُ وَلَوْ كَانَتِ الأَنْبِيَاءُ أَهْلَ قُوَّةٍ لا تُرَامُ وَعِزَّةٍ لا تُضَامُ وَمُلْكٍ يُمَدُّ نَحْوَهُ أَعْنَاقُ الرِّجَالِ وَيُشَدُّ إِلَيْهِ عُقَدُ الرِّحَالِ لَكَانَ أَهْوَنَ عَلَى الْخَلْقِ فِي الاخْتِبَارِ وَأَبْعَدَ لَهُمْ فِي الاسْتِكْبَارِ وَلآَمَنُوا عَنْ رَهْبَةٍ قَاهِرَةٍ لَهُمْ أَوْ رَغْبَةٍ مَائِلَةٍ بِهِمْ فَكَانَتِ النِّيَّاتُ مُشْتَرَكَةً وَالْحَسَنَاتُ مُقْتَسَمَةً وَلَكِنَّ الله أَرَادَ أَنْ يَكُونَ الاتِّبَاعُ لِرُسُلِهِ وَالتَّصْدِيقُ بِكُتُبِهِ وَالْخُشُوعُ لِوَجْهِهِ وَالاسْتِكَانَةُ لأَمْرِهِ وَالاسْتِسْلامُ لِطَاعَتِهِ أُمُوراً لَهُ خَاصَّةً لا تَشُوبُهَا مِنْ غَيْرِهَا شَائِبَةٌ وَكُلَّمَا كَانَتِ الْبَلْوَى وَالاخْتِبَارُ أَعْظَمَ كَانَتِ الْمَثُوبَةُ وَالْجَزَاءُ أَجْزَلَ أَ لا تَرَوْنَ أَنَّ الله جَلَّ ثَنَاؤُهُ اخْتَبَرَ الأَوَّلِينَ مِنْ لَدُنِ آدَمَ إِلَى الآخِرِينَ مِنْ هَذَا الْعَالَمِ بِأَحْجَارٍ لا تَضُرُّ وَلا تَنْفَعُ وَلا تُبْصِرُ وَلا تَسْمَعُ فَجَعَلَهَا بَيْتَهُ الْحَرَامَ الَّذِي جَعَلَهُ لِلنَّاسِ قِيَاماً ثُمَّ وَضَعَهُ بِأَوْعَرِ بِقَاعِ الأَرْضِ حَجَراً وَأَقَلِّ نَتَائِقِ الدُّنْيَا مَدَراً وَأَضْيَقِ بُطُونِ الأَوْدِيَةِ مَعَاشاً وَأَغْلَظِ مَحَالِّ الْمُسْلِمِينَ مِيَاهاً بَيْنَ جِبَالٍ خَشِنَةٍ وَرِمَالٍ دَمِثَةٍ وَعُيُونٍ وَشِلَةٍ وَقُرًى مُنْقَطِعَةٍ وَأَثَرٍ مِنْ مَوَاضِعِ قَطْرِ السَّمَاءِ دَاثِرٍ لَيْسَ يَزْكُو بِهِ خُفٌّ وَلا ظِلْفٌ وَلا حَافِرٌ ثُمَّ أَمَرَ آدَمَ وَوُلْدَهُ أَنْ يَثْنُوا أَعْطَافَهُمْ نَحْوَهُ فَصَارَ مَثَابَةً لِمُنْتَجَعِ أَسْفَارِهِمْ وَغَايَةً لِمُلْقَى رِحَالِهِمْ تَهْوِي إِلَيْهِ ثِمَارُ الأَفْئِدَةِ مِنْ مَفَاوِزِ قِفَارٍ مُتَّصِلَةٍ وَجَزَائِرِ بِحَارٍ مُنْقَطِعَةٍ وَمَهَاوِي فِجَاجٍ عَمِيقَةٍ حَتَّى يَهُزُّوا مَنَاكِبَهُمْ ذُلُلاً يُهَلِّلُونَ لله حَوْلَهُ وَيَرْمُلُونَ عَلَى أَقْدَامِهِمْ شُعْثاً غُبْراً لَهُ قَدْ نَبَذُوا الْقُنُعَ وَالسَّرَابِيلَ وَرَاءَ ظُهُورِهِمْ وَحَسَرُوا بِالشُّعُورِ حَلْقاً عَنْ رُءُوسِهِمُ ابْتِلاءً عَظِيماً وَاخْتِبَاراً كَبِيراً وَامْتِحَاناً شَدِيداً وَتَمْحِيصاً بَلِيغاً وَقُنُوتاً مُبِيناً جَعَلَهُ الله سَبَباً لِرَحْمَتِهِ وَوُصْلَةً وَوَسِيلَةً إِلَى جَنَّتِهِ وَعِلَّةً لِمَغْفِرَتِهِ وَابْتِلاءً لِلْخَلْقِ بِرَحْمَتِهِ وَلَوْ كَانَ الله تَبَارَكَ وَتَعَالَى وَضَعَ بَيْتَهُ الْحَرَامَ وَمَشَاعِرَهُ الْعِظَامَ بَيْنَ جَنَّاتٍ وَأَنْهَارٍ وَسَهْلٍ وَقَرَارٍ جَمَّ الأَشْجَارِ دَانِيَ الثِّمَارِ مُلْتَفَّ النَّبَاتِ مُتَّصِلَ الْقُرَى مِنْ بُرَّةٍ سَمْرَاءَ وَرَوْضَةٍ خَضْرَاءَ وَأَرْيَافٍ مُحْدِقَةٍ وَعِرَاصٍ مُغْدِقَةٍ وَزُرُوعٍ نَاضِرَةٍ وَطُرُقٍ عَامِرَةٍ وَحَدَائِقَ كَثِيرَةٍ لَكَانَ قَدْ صَغُرَ الْجَزَاءُ عَلَى حَسَبِ ضَعْفِ الْبَلاءِ ثُمَّ لَوْ كَانَتِ الأَسَاسُ الْمَحْمُولُ عَلَيْهَا وَالأَحْجَارُ الْمَرْفُوعُ بِهَا بَيْنَ زُمُرُّدَةٍ خَضْرَاءَ وَيَاقُوتَةٍ حَمْرَاءَ وَنُورٍ وَضِيَاءٍ لَخَفَّفَ ذَلِكَ مُصَارَعَةَ الشَّكِّ فِي الصُّدُورِ وَلَوَضَعَ مُجَاهَدَةَ إِبْلِيسَ عَنِ الْقُلُوبِ وَلَنَفَى مُعْتَلِجَ الرَّيْبِ مِنَ النَّاسِ وَلَكِنَّ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ يَخْتَبِرُ عَبِيدَهُ بِأَنْوَاعِ الشَّدَائِدِ وَيَتَعَبَّدُهُمْ بِأَلْوَانِ الْمَجَاهِدِ وَيَبْتَلِيهِمْ بِضُرُوبِ الْمَكَارِهِ إِخْرَاجاً لِلتَّكَبُّرِ مِنْ قُلُوبِهِمْ وَإِسْكَاناً لِلتَّذَلُّلِ فِي أَنْفُسِهِمْ وَلِيَجْعَلَ ذَلِكَ أَبْوَاباً فُتُحاً إِلَى فَضْلِهِ وَأَسْبَاباً ذُلُلاً لِعَفْوِهِ وَفِتْنَتِهِ كَمَا قَالَ الم. أَ حَسِبَ النَّاسُ أَنْ يُتْرَكُوا أَنْ يَقُولُوا آمَنَّا وَهُمْ لا يُفْتَنُونَ. وَلَقَدْ فَتَنَّا الَّذِينَ مِنْ قَبْلِهِمْ فَلَيَعْلَمَنَّ الله الَّذِينَ صَدَقُوا وَلَيَعْلَمَنَّ الْكاذِبِينَ.


2. It is narrated that ’Amir al-Mu’minin once said in his sermon the following: “’Amir al-Mu’minin, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said that if Allah, Glorious is whose praise, wanted, He could have opened to His prophets the treasures of gold (stored), mines of pure growing gold, placed at their disposal, gardens of plantations, flocks of birds from the skies and animals on land. Had He done so, trial and testing system would have failed as well, the system of reward; the news (about the hereafter) vanished, people resting would have been the same as those under trial and assessment. The believers would not receive any reward as people of good deeds, nor do any name and terminology make any clear sense. In addition, if Allah were to send from the sky miracles to force their neck down to submission, He could have done so, but trial and test would have remained without basis in the case of all people. However, Allah, Glorious is whose praise, made His messengers to possess determination in their intentions, but weak to the eyes of people. “It is due to such determination that their (prophet’s) ability to exercise moderation fills up the hearts and eyes with satisfaction, with feeling of self-sufficiency and their exercising of self-abnegation fills up the ears and eyes (without question). Had the prophets been powerful beyond the power of others, had they had incompatible might and a kingdom that every man desired, and every one sought to achieve, it would have been easy to examine the creatures and far for the creatures to assume arrogance. They (people) would believe them for crushing fear from them or for the attractive interest found with them (the prophets). In such case, the intentions and good deeds remained subject to equal division and distribution. Allah, however, wanted that following of His messengers, acknowledgement of His books, expressing humbleness before Him, seeking comfort with His commands, submission to His orders, remain especially for Him alone, without any confusion or doubts to affect its purity of being just for Him. The more there is trial and greater test, the reward and compensation is worthier and appreciable. Have you not noticed that Allah, Glorious is whose praise, has tried and tested from Adam to the last ones of this world by means of stones that do not harm anyone or benefit them, do not see or hear? Thus, He has made it His sacred house, which He has made for people a place of worship. He then has made its location in a most barren land with rocks, the least in terms of fertility, the narrowest of valleys and means of living, the most difficult in availability of water for Muslims. It is among the rough hills, fine sands, fountains of very little water and towns that are cut off from each other, with very little traces of the drops from the sky which do not even reach anyone’s shoes or cloven-hoofs or hooves. He then commanded Adam and his offspring to ready themselves to turn to it. It then became the turning point for the destination of their journey, the final destination for them to rest. To this destination, the fruits of hearts fall from the wilderness, and vast extended land, from the cut off island in the oceans, from the deep valley of faraway places. They move their shoulders with humbleness, declaring around it (the House) that no one except Allah deserves worship. They walk on sand, on foot, dusty and tired for His sake. (One can see them) without head covering and (normal) dress, their heads shaven for the great trial, and tremendous test, intense examination, slow purification and sifting and with clear appeals. Allah has made it a means to achieve His kindness, a connection and means to reach His paradise, a reason to gain His forgiveness. It is a trial for His creatures through His kindness. The reward would have been very little and small if the trial had been of a certain lesser degree. This could happen if Allah, the most Blessed, the most High, were to place His Sacred House and other great monumental landmarks among the gardens, canals, open flat lands, thick groves of trees, easily accessible fruits, plentiful grass, connected towns, with brown colored fields, green gardens, countryside houses surrounded with beautiful yards, delightful farms, well built roads and many gardens. “The trial would turn into ease and comfort if the foundations on which it is carried, the stones with which it is raised were of green emerald, red ruby, lights and rays. This would reduce the creeping of doubts in the chests, make the struggle of Satan against the hearts very weak, nullify the pricking of doubts and hesitation by the people. Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Glorious, however, tests and examines His servants by various kinds of difficult examinations. He makes them to prove their loyalty as worshippers by a hard struggle. He tries by means of hardships to expel arrogance from their hearts and settle humbleness in their souls, so that it can open the door to His favors and provide easy means for His forgiveness and His trial, as He has said, ’Do people think that they will be left without trial just because they have said, “We have believed?” We certainly placed under test and trial those who lived before them so that Allah would find who was truthful and who were the liars.’” (29:1-2)


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Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مرسل - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (17/23)