5. The Reason for the Sacred Area and Why It Is This Much

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1ـ عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ أَبِي نَصْرٍ قَالَ سَأَلْتُ أَبَا الْحَسَنِ الرِّضَا (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) عَنِ الْحَرَمِ وَأَعْلامِهِ كَيْفَ صَارَ بَعْضُهَا أَقْرَبَ مِنْ بَعْضٍ وَبَعْضُهَا أَبْعَدَ مِنْ بَعْضٍ فَقَالَ إِنَّ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ لَمَّا أَهْبَطَ آدَمَ مِنَ الْجَنَّةِ هَبَطَ عَلَى أَبِي قُبَيْسٍ فَشَكَا إِلَى رَبِّهِ الْوَحْشَةَ وَأَنَّهُ لا يَسْمَعُ مَا كَانَ يَسْمَعُهُ فِي الْجَنَّةِ فَأَهْبَطَ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ عَلَيْهِ يَاقُوتَةً حَمْرَاءَ فَوَضَعَهَا فِي مَوْضِعِ الْبَيْتِ فَكَانَ يَطُوفُ بِهَا آدَمُ فَكَانَ ضَوْؤُهَا يَبْلُغُ مَوْضِعَ الأَعْلامِ فَيُعَلَّمُ الأَعْلامُ عَلَى ضَوْئِهَا وَجَعَلَهُ الله حَرَماً. عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ أَبِي هَمَّامٍ إِسْمَاعِيلَ بْنِ هَمَّامٍ الْكِنْدِيِّ عَنْ أَبِي الْحَسَنِ الرِّضَا (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) نَحْوَ هَذَا.


1. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn abu Nasr who has said the following: “I once asked abu al-Hassan, al-Rida, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about the Sacred Area, about its landmarks and why certain ones of its landmarks are closer than others, and others are farther?’ He (the Imam) replied, ’When Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Glorious, sent Adam down from paradise, he landed on abu Qubays (hill). He complained before his Lord against loneliness and that he does not hear what he used to hear in paradise. Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Glorious, then sent for him a piece of red ruby. He placed it on the site of the House. Adam walked around it. The light from it fell on certain surrounding sites of the landmarks which are distinguished as such (the landmarks). Allah made them the boundary of the Sacred Area.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: حسن والسند الثاني صحيح 1 - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (7/18)



2ـ عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ سَهْلِ بْنِ زِيَادٍ وَأَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ جَمِيعاً عَنِ ابْنِ مَحْبُوبٍ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ إِسْحَاقَ عَنْ أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ عَنْ آبَائِهِ (عَلَيْهِم السَّلاَم) أَنَّ الله تَبَارَكَ وَتَعَالَى أَوْحَى إِلَى جَبْرَئِيلَ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) أَنَا الله الرَّحْمَنُ الرَّحِيمُ وَأَنِّي قَدْ رَحِمْتُ آدَمَ وَحَوَّاءَ لَمَّا شَكَيَا إِلَيَّ مَا شَكَيَا فَاهْبِطْ عَلَيْهِمَا بِخَيْمَةٍ مِنْ خِيَمِ الْجَنَّةِ وَعَزِّهِمَا عَنِّي بِفِرَاقِ الْجَنَّةِ وَاجْمَعْ بَيْنَهُمَا فِي الْخَيْمَةِ فَإِنِّي قَدْ رَحِمْتُهُمَا لِبُكَائِهِمَا وَوَحْشَتِهِمَا فِي وَحْدَتِهِمَا وَانْصِبِ الْخَيْمَةَ عَلَى التُّرْعَةِ الَّتِي بَيْنَ جِبَالِ مَكَّةَ قَالَ وَالتُّرْعَةُ مَكَانُ الْبَيْتِ وَقَوَاعِدِهِ الَّتِي رَفَعَتْهَا الْمَلائِكَةُ قَبْلَ آدَمَ فَهَبَطَ جَبْرَئِيلُ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) عَلَى آدَمَ بِالْخَيْمَةِ عَلَى مِقْدَارِ أَرْكَانِ الْبَيْتِ وَقَوَاعِدِهِ فَنَصَبَهَا قَالَ وَأَنْزَلَ جَبْرَئِيلُ آدَمَ مِنَ الصَّفَا وَأَنْزَلَ حَوَّاءَ مِنَ الْمَرْوَةِ وَجَمَعَ بَيْنَهُمَا فِي الْخَيْمَةِ قَالَ وَكَانَ عَمُودُ الْخَيْمَةِ قَضِيبَ يَاقُوتٍ أَحْمَرَ فَأَضَاءَ نُورُهُ وَضَوْؤُهُ جِبَالَ مَكَّةَ وَمَا حَوْلَهَا قَالَ وَامْتَدَّ ضَوْءُ الْعَمُودِ قَالَ فَهُوَ مَوَاضِعُ الْحَرَمِ الْيَوْمَ مِنْ كُلِّ نَاحِيَةٍ مِنْ حَيْثُ بَلَغَ ضَوْءُ الْعَمُودِ قَالَ فَجَعَلَهُ الله حَرَماً لِحُرْمَةِ الْخَيْمَةِ وَالْعَمُودِ لأَنَّهُمَا مِنَ الْجَنَّةِ قَالَ وَلِذَلِكَ جَعَلَ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ الْحَسَنَاتِ فِي الْحَرَمِ مُضَاعَفَةً وَالسَّيِّئَاتِ مُضَاعَفَةً قَالَ وَمُدَّتْ أَطْنَابُ الْخَيْمَةِ حَوْلَهَا فَمُنْتَهَى أَوْتَادِهَا مَا حَوْلَ الْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ قَالَ وَكَانَتْ أَوْتَادُهَا مِنْ عِقْيَانِ الْجَنَّةِ وَأَطْنَابُهَا مِنْ ضَفَائِرِ الأُرْجُوَانِ قَالَ وَأَوْحَى الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ إِلَى جَبْرَئِيلَ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) اهْبِطْ عَلَى الْخَيْمَةِ بِسَبْعِينَ أَلْفَ مَلَكٍ يَحْرُسُونَهَا مِنْ مَرَدَةِ الشَّيَاطِينِ وَيُؤْنِسُونَ آدَمَ وَيَطُوفُونَ حَوْلَ الْخَيْمَةِ تَعْظِيماً لِلْبَيْتِ وَالْخَيْمَةِ قَالَ فَهَبَطَ بِالْمَلائِكَةِ فَكَانُوا بِحَضْرَةِ الْخَيْمَةِ يَحْرُسُونَهَا مِنْ مَرَدَةِ الشَّيَاطِينِ الْعُتَاةِ وَيَطُوفُونَ حَوْلَ أَرْكَانِ الْبَيْتِ وَالْخَيْمَةِ كُلَّ يَوْمٍ وَلَيْلَةٍ كَمَا كَانُوا يَطُوفُونَ فِي السَّمَاءِ حَوْلَ الْبَيْتِ الْمَعْمُورِ قَالَ وَأَرْكَانُ الْبَيْتِ الْحَرَامِ فِي الأَرْضِ حِيَالَ الْبَيْتِ الْمَعْمُورِ الَّذِي فِي السَّمَاءِ ثُمَّ قَالَ إِنَّ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ أَوْحَى إِلَى جَبْرَئِيلَ بَعْدَ ذَلِكَ أَنِ اهْبِطْ إِلَى آدَمَ وَحَوَّاءَ فَنَحِّهِمَا عَنْ مَوَاضِعِ قَوَاعِدِ بَيْتِي وَارْفَعْ قَوَاعِدَ بَيْتِي لِمَلائِكَتِي ثُمَّ وُلْدِ آدَمَ فَهَبَطَ جَبْرَئِيلُ عَلَى آدَمَ وَحَوَّاءَ فَأَخْرَجَهُمَا مِنَ الْخَيْمَةِ وَنَحَّاهُمَا عَنْ تُرْعَةِ الْبَيْتِ وَنَحَّى الْخَيْمَةَ عَنْ مَوْضِعِ التُّرْعَةِ قَالَ وَوَضَعَ آدَمَ عَلَى الصَّفَا وَحَوَّاءَ عَلَى الْمَرْوَةِ فَقَالَ آدَمُ يَا جَبْرَئِيلُ أَ بِسَخَطٍ مِنَ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ حَوَّلْتَنَا وَفَرَّقْتَ بَيْنَنَا أَمْ بِرِضاً وَتَقْدِيرٍ عَلَيْنَا فَقَالَ لَهُمَا لَمْ يَكُنْ ذَلِكَ بِسَخَطٍ مِنَ الله عَلَيْكُمَا وَلَكِنَّ الله لا يُسْأَلُ عَمَّا يَفْعَلُ يَا آدَمُ إِنَّ السَّبْعِينَ أَلْفَ مَلَكٍ الَّذِينَ أَنْزَلَهُمُ الله إِلَى الأَرْضِ لِيُؤْنِسُوكَ وَيَطُوفُوا حَوْلَ أَرْكَانِ الْبَيْتِ الْمَعْمُورِ وَالْخَيْمَةِ سَأَلُوا الله أَنْ يَبْنِيَ لَهُمْ مَكَانَ الْخَيْمَةِ بَيْتاً عَلَى مَوْضِعِ التُّرْعَةِ الْمُبَارَكَةِ حِيَالَ الْبَيْتِ الْمَعْمُورِ فَيَطُوفُونَ حَوْلَهُ كَمَا كَانُوا يَطُوفُونَ فِي السَّمَاءِ حَوْلَ الْبَيْتِ الْمَعْمُورِ فَأَوْحَى الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ إِلَيَّ أَنْ أُنَحِّيَكَ وَأَرْفَعَ الْخَيْمَةَ فَقَالَ آدَمُ قَدْ رَضِينَا بِتَقْدِيرِ الله وَنَافِذِ أَمْرِهِ فِينَا فَرَفَعَ قَوَاعِدَ الْبَيْتِ الْحَرَامِ بِحَجَرٍ مِنَ الصَّفَا وَحَجَرٍ مِنَ الْمَرْوَةِ وَحَجَرٍ مِنْ طُورِ سَيْنَاءَ وَحَجَرٍ مِنْ جَبَلِ السَّلامِ وَهُوَ ظَهْرَ الْكُوفَةِ وَأَوْحَى الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ إِلَى جَبْرَئِيلَ أَنِ ابْنِهِ وَأَتِمَّهُ فَاقْتَلَعَ جَبْرَئِيلُ الأَحْجَارَ الأَرْبَعَةَ بِأَمْرِ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ مِنْ مَوَاضِعِهِنَّ بِجَنَاحِهِ فَوَضَعَهَا حَيْثُ أَمَرَ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ فِي أَرْكَانِ الْبَيْتِ عَلَى قَوَاعِدِهِ الَّتِي قَدَّرَهَا الْجَبَّارُ وَنَصَبَ أَعْلامَهَا ثُمَّ أَوْحَى الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ إِلَى جَبْرَئِيلَ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) أَنِ ابْنِهِ وَأَتِمَّهُ بِحِجَارَةٍ مِنْ أَبِي قُبَيْسٍ وَاجْعَلْ لَهُ بَابَيْنِ بَاباً شَرْقِيّاً وَبَاباً غَرْبِيّاً قَالَ فَأَتَمَّهُ جَبْرَئِيلُ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) فَلَمَّا أَنْ فَرَغَ طَافَتْ حَوْلَهُ الْمَلائِكَةُ فَلَمَّا نَظَرَ آدَمُ وَحَوَّاءُ إِلَى الْمَلائِكَةِ يَطُوفُونَ حَوْلَ الْبَيْتِ انْطَلَقَا فَطَافَا سَبْعَةَ أَشْوَاطٍ ثُمَّ خَرَجَا يَطْلُبَانِ مَا يَأْكُلانِ.


2. A number of our people have narrated from Sahl ibn Ziyad and Ahmad ibn Muhammad all from ibn Mahbub from Muhammad ibn Ishaq who have said the following: “Abu Ja’far, has narrated from his ancestors, ‘Alayhim al-Salam, who have said that Allah, the most Blessed, the most High, sent revelation to Jibril that said, T am Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful. I granted mercy to Adam and Hawwa’ (Eve) when they complained to Me the way they did. Descend down to them with a tent from paradise; provide them comfort on My behalf on their separation from paradise. Call them in one tent; I have granted them mercy due to their weeping, their fear and feeling lonely. Pitch the tent on al-Tur‘ah (a high place) in the mountains of Makkah’. He (the Imam) said, ‘Al-Tur’ah is the site of the House and its pillars that angels had raised before Adam.’ Jibril descended down with the tent, which was of the size of the site of the House, and its pillars. He (Jibril) pitched up the tent.’ He (the Imam) said, ’Jibril then asked Adam to come down from al-Safa’ and asked Hawwa’ to come down from al-Marwah. He (Jibril) brought them in one tent.’ He (the Imam) said, ‘The pole of the tent was a pole made of red ruby, its light and rays shone at the hills of Makkah and its surroundings.’ He (the Imam) said, ‘The light of the pole then extended.’ He (the Imam) said, ’Places on which the light from the pole fell became known as part of the Sacred Area today.’ He (the Imam) then said, ‘Allah made such area sacred due to the sanctity of the tent and the pole; they were from paradise.’ He (the Imam) said, ’For this reason Allah counts both good deeds and evil deeds in multiples.’ He (the Imam) said, ‘Ropes of the tent were extended around it to fasten to the pegs which in turn mark the limits of the area of the Sacred Masjid.’ He (the Imam) said, ‘The pegs were of pure gold and the ropes were of purple color fibers from paradise.’ He (the Imam) said, ‘Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Glorious, sent revelation to Jibril that said, ‘Allow seventy thousand angels to guard the tent against satanic disobedient ones, comfort Adam and perform Tawaf around the tent to show the greatness of the House and the tent.’ He (the Imam) said, ‘Jibril came with the angels and they were guards at the tent against disobedient and violent individuals of Satan. They performed Tawaf around the House and the tent every day and night just as they did around the established House in the heaven.’ He (the Imam) said, ‘The pillars of the Sacred House on earth stand parallel with the Established House in the heaven.’ He (the Imam) said, ‘Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Glorious, sent thereafter revelation to Jibril that said, “You must go to Adam and Hawwa’ (Eve), move them away from the pillars of the House and raise the pillars of the House for my angels, then for the children of Adam.” Jibril came to Adam and Hawwa’ (Eve), moved them away from the tent and al- Tur‘ah of the House and removed the tent from al-Tur‘ah (the site of the House).’ He (the Imam) said, ‘Adam was placed on al-Safa’ and Hawwa’ was placed on al-Marwah. Adam then asked Jibril, “Is it because of the anger of Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Glorious, that you have moved us and separated us from each other or with His agreement and measures for us?” He (Jibril) told them that it was not due to Allah’s anger against both of them but Allah cannot be questioned for what He does. O Adam, the seventy thousand angels that Allah has sent to earth provide you comfort; you must perform Tawaf around the pillars of the House, the Established one, and the tent. They asked Allah to build for them instead of the tent a house on the site of al-Tur‘ah, the blessed one, parallel to the Established House in the heaven so they can perform Tawaf around it, as they do around the Established House in the heaven. Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Glorious, then sent to me revelation to move you away and the tent. Adam then said, “We are happy with the measures of Allah and whatever He commands about us.” The pillars of the Sacred House were raised with one stone from al-Safa’, one from al-Marwah, one from Mount Sinai and one from the Mount Peace which is behind al-Kufa. Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Glorious, sent revelation to Jibril to build and complete it. Jibril then dug out the four stones by the command of Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Glorious, from their places by his wing, and placed them on the corners of the House in places of the pillars marked and measured by the Almighty, as Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Glorious, had commanded him to do. Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Glorious, then sent revelation to Jibril that said, “You must build and complete it with stones from abu Qubays and make two doors for it, one to the east and one to the west.’” He (the Imam) said, ‘He (Jibril) completed it. When he finished, angels performed Tawaf around it. When Adam and Hawwa’ looked to the angels performing Tawaf around the House, they moved to perform Tawaf by walking around it seven times and then they went out in search for food.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مجهول - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (17/19)