6. Verifying the Rise of the New Moon and Finding Witnesses for It

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1ـ عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ وَمُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ جَمِيعاً عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ عَنْ حَمَّادِ بْنِ عُثْمَانَ عَنِ الْحَلَبِيِّ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) قَالَ إِنَّهُ سُئِلَ عَنِ الأَهِلَّةِ فَقَالَ هِيَ أَهِلَّةُ الشُّهُورِ فَإِذَا رَأَيْتَ الْهِلالِ فَصُمْ وَإِذَا رَأَيْتَهُ فَأَفْطِرْ.


1. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father and Muhammad ibn Yahya from Ahmad ibn Muhammad all from ibn abu ‘Umayr from Hammad ibn ‘Uthman from al-Halabiy who has said the following: “Abu ‘ Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, was asked about the crescents (mentioned in the holy Quran). He (the Imam) replied, ‘It is a reference to the new moon of the months. When you see the new moon, begin fasting; when you see the new moon discontinue fasting.’”


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Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: صحيح - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (16/228)



2ـ حَمَّادٌ عَنِ الْحَلَبِيِّ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) قَالَ كَانَ عَلِيٌّ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) يَقُولُ لا أُجِيزُ فِي الْهِلالِ إِلاَّ شَهَادَةَ رَجُلَيْنِ عَدْلَيْنِ.


2. Hammad has narrated from al-Halabiy who has said the following: “Abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said that ’Amir al-Mu’minin, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, would say, ‘I do not accept a testimony about seeing the crescent if it is from less than two just witnesses.’”


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Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: صحيح - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (16/229)



3ـ مُحَمَّدُ بْنِ يَحْيَى عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ الْحُسَيْنِ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ الْحَكَمِ عَنِ الْعَلاءِ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ مُسْلِمٍ قَالَ لا تَجُوزُ شَهَادَةُ النِّسَاءِ فِي الْهِلالِ.


3. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Muhammad al-Husayn from Ali ibn al-Hakam from fro al-‘Ala’ from Muhammad ibn Muslim who has said the following: “He (the Imam), ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘Testimony by women is not admissible in the case of seeing the crescent.’”


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Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: صحيح 1 - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (6/229)



4ـ عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ عَنْ حَمَّادِ بْنِ عُثْمَانَ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) قَالَ قَالَ أَمِيرُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ صَلَوَاتُ الله عَلَيْهِ لا تَجُوزُ شَهَادَةُ النِّسَاءِ فِي الْهِلالِ وَلا تَجُوزُ إِلاَّ شَهَادَةُ رَجُلَيْنِ عَدْلَيْنِ.


4. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from ibn abu ‘Umayr from Hammad ibn ‘Uthaman who has said the following: “Abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said that ’Amir al-Mu’minin, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘Testimony of women about the crescent is not admissible, only the testimony of two just witnesses is accepted.’”


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Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: حسن 1 - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (6/229)



5ـ عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ الْحَكَمِ عَنْ سَيْفِ بْنِ عَمِيرَةَ عَنِ الْفَضْلِ بْنِ عُثْمَانَ قَالَ قَالَ أَبُو عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) لَيْسَ عَلَى أَهْلِ الْقِبْلَةِ إِلاَّ الرُّؤْيَةُ لَيْسَ عَلَى الْمُسْلِمِينَ إِلاَّ الرُّؤْيَةُ.


5. A number of our people have narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Isa from Ali ibn al-Hakam from Sayf ibn ‘Amirah formal- Fadl ibn ‘Uthman who has said the following: “Abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘People of al-Qiblah (al-Ka‘bah) must see the crescent. The Muslims must see the crescent.’”


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Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: صحيح - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (16/229)



6ـ أَحْمَدُ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ الْحَكَمِ عَنْ أَبِي أَيُّوبَ الْخَزَّازِ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ مُسْلِمٍ عَنْ أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) قَالَ إِذَا رَأَيْتُمُ الْهِلالَ فَصُومُوا وَإِذَا رَأَيْتُمُوهُ فَأَفْطِرُوا وَلَيْسَ بِالرَّأْيِ وَلا بِالتَّظَنِّي وَلَيْسَ الرُّؤْيَةَ أَنْ يَقُومَ عَشَرَةُ نَفَرٍ فَيَقُولَ وَاحِدٌ هُوَ ذَا وَيَنْظُرُ تِسْعَةٌ فَلا يَرَوْنَهُ لَكِنْ إِذَا رَآهُ وَاحِدٌ رَآهُ أَلْفٌ.


6. Ahmad has narrated from Ali ibn al-Hakam from abu Ayyub al-Khazzaz from Muhammad ibn Muslim who has said the following: “Abu Ja’far, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘When you see the crescent, then fast and when you see the crescent (again), then discontinue fasting. It is not by opinions and conjectures. If out of ten people only one says that there is the crescent but the rest cannot see, it is not seeing. If one can see a thousand can also see.’”


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Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: صحيح 1 - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (6/229)



7ـ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ وَمُحَمَّدِ بْنِ خَالِدٍ عَنْ سَعْدِ بْنِ سَعْدٍ عَنْ عَبْدِ الله بْنِ الْحُسَيْنِ عَنِ الصَّلْتِ الْخَزَّازِ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) قَالَ إِذَا غَابَ الْهِلالُ قَبْلَ الشَّفَقِ فَهُوَ لِلَيْلَتِهِ وَإِذَا غَابَ بَعْدَ الشَّفَقِ فَهُوَ لِلَيْلَتَيْنِ.


7. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad Ahmad ibn Muhammad from Muhammad ibn Khalid from Sa‘d ibn Sa‘d from ‘Abd Allah ibn al-Husayn from al-Salt al-Khazzaz who has said the following: “Abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘If the crescent disappears before al-Shafaq (redness), then it is its first night but if it disappears after al-Shafaq (redness) then it is its second night.’”


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Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مجهول 1 - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (6/230)



8ـ عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ حَمْزَةَ أَبِي يَعْلَى عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ الْحَسَنِ بْنِ أَبِي خَالِدٍ رَفَعَهُ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) إِذَا صَحَّ هِلالُ شَهْرِ رَجَبٍ فَعُدَّ تِسْعَةً وَخَمْسِينَ يَوْماً وَصُمْ يَوْمَ السِّتِّينَ.


8. A number of our people have narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Isa from Hamzah ibn abu Ya‘liy from Muhammad ibn al- Hassan ibn abu Khalid in a marfu‘ manner who has said the following: “He (the Imam), ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘If the crescent of the month of Rajab is established, then count fifty nine days and fast the sixtieth day.’”


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Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مجهول مرفوع 1 - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (6/230)



9ـ أَحْمَدُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ بَكْرٍ وَمُحَمَّدُ بْنُ أَبِي صُهْبَانَ عَنْ حَفْصٍ عَنْ عَمْرِو بْنِ سَالِمٍ وَمُحَمَّدِ بْنِ زِيَادِ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ هَارُونَ بْنِ خَارِجَةَ قَالَ قَالَ أَبُو عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) عُدَّ شَعْبَانَ تِسْعَةً وَعِشْرِينَ يَوْماً فَإِنْ كَانَتْ مُتَغَيِّمَةً فَأَصْبِحْ صَائِماً فَإِنْ كَانَتْ صَاحِيَةً وَتَبَصَّرْتَهُ وَلَمْ تَرَ شَيْئاً فَأَصْبِحْ مُفْطِراً.


9. Ahmad ibn Muhammad has narrated from Bakr and Muhammad ibn abu Suhban from Hafs ibn al-Bakhtariy from ‘Umar (‘Amr) ibn Salim and Muhammad ibn Ziyad ibn ‘Isa from Harun ibn Kharijah who has said the following: “Abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘Count of the month of al-Sha‘ban twenty nine days; if it is cloudy then fast, but if it is clear and you looked but did not see anything, you can remain without fasting.’”


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Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مجهول صحيح على الظاه ر 1 - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (6/230)



1ـ عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ عَنْ حَمَّادٍ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) قَالَ إِذَا رَأَوُا الْهِلالَ قَبْلَ الزَّوَالِ فَهُوَ لِلَيْلَتِهِ الْمَاضِيَةِ وَإِذَا رَأَوْهُ بَعْدَ الزَّوَالِ فَهُوَ لِلَيْلَتِهِ الْمُسْتَقْبَلَةِ.


10. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from ibn abu ‘Umayr from Hammad who has said the following: “Abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘If they can see the crescent before Zawal (declining of the sun toward the west at noontime), then it is of the last night but if they see it after Zawal, then it is of the coming night.’”


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Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: حسن 1 - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (6/231)



11ـ أَحْمَدُ بْنُ إِدْرِيسَ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ أَحْمَدَ عَنْ يَعْقُوبَ بْنِ يَزِيدَ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ مُرَازِمٍ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) قَالَ إِذَا تَطَوَّقَ الْهِلالُ فَهُوَ لِلَيْلَتَيْنِ وَإِذَا رَأَيْتَ ظِلَّ رَأْسِكَ فِيهِ فَهُوَ لِثَلاثِ لَيَالٍ.


11. Ahmad ibn Idris Muhammad ibn Ahmad from Ya’qub ibn Yazid from Muhammad ibn Murazim from his father who has said the following: “Abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said that if the crescent forms a crown around it, then it is two nights old and if you can see the shadow of your head it is three nights old.’”


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Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: صحيح - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (16/231)



12ـ عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنْ حَمَّادِ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ إِسْمَاعِيلَ بْنِ الْحُرِّ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) قَالَ إِذَا غَابَ الْهِلالُ قَبْلَ الشَّفَقِ فَهُوَ لِلَيْلَتِهِ وَإِذَا غَابَ بَعْدَ الشَّفَقِ فَهُوَ لِلَيْلَتَيْنِ.


12. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from Hammad ibn ‘Isa from ‘Isma‘il ibn al-Hurr who has said the following: “Abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘If the crescent disappears before al-Shafaq (redness) it is of the first night, but if disappears after al-Shafaq it is of the second night.’”


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Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مجهول - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (16/231)