45. Children’s Fasting and When They Owe Fasting

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1ـ عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ عَنْ حَمَّادٍ عَنِ الْحَلَبِيِّ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) قَالَ إِنَّا نَأْمُرُ صِبْيَانَنَا بِالصِّيَامِ إِذَا كَانُوا بَنِي سَبْعِ سِنِينَ بِمَا أَطَاقُوا مِنْ صِيَامِ الْيَوْمِ فَإِنْ كَانَ إِلَى نِصْفِ النَّهَارِ وَأَكْثَرَ مِنْ ذَلِكَ أَوْ أَقَلَّ فَإِذَا غَلَبَهُمُ الْعَطَشُ وَالْغَرَثُ أَفْطَرُوا حَتَّى يَتَعَوَّدُوا الصَّوْمَ وَيُطِيقُوهُ فَمُرُوا صِبْيَانَكُمْ إِذَا كَانُوا أَبْنَاءَ تِسْعِ سِنِينَ بِمَا أَطَاقُوا مِنْ صِيَامٍ فَإِذَا غَلَبَهُمُ الْعَطَشُ أَفْطَرُوا.


1. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father [from ibn abu ‘ Umayr] from Hammad from al-Halabiy who has said the following: “Abu ‘ Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘We command our children, when they are seven years old, to fast as long as they can. In midday or more if thirst increases, they stop fasting so they develop endurance. You should command your children to fast, when they are nine years old, for as long as they can fast. When thirst increases they can stop fasting.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: حسن 1 - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (6/322)



2ـ عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنِ الْحُسَيْنِ بْنِ سَعِيدٍ عَنْ فَضَالَةَ بْنِ أَيُّوبَ عَنْ مُعَاوِيَةَ بْنِ وَهْبٍ قَالَ سَأَلْتُ أَبَا عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) فِي كَمْ يُؤْخَذُ الصَّبِيُّ بِالصِّيَامِ قَالَ مَا بَيْنَهُ وَبَيْنَ خَمْسَ عَشْرَةَ سَنَةً وَأَرْبَعَ عَشْرَةَ سَنَةً فَإِنْ هُوَ صَامَ قَبْلَ ذَلِكَ فَدَعْهُ وَلَقَدْ صَامَ ابْنِي فُلانٌ قَبْلَ ذَلِكَ فَتَرَكْتُهُ.


2. A number of our people have narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from al-Husayn ibn Sa’id from Fadalah ibn Ayyub from Mu‘awiyah ibn Wahab who has said the following: “I once asked abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about the case of children when they are required to fast. He (the Imam) said, ‘They must fast when they are fifteen and fourteen years old. If they fast before this then allow them to do so. My son, so and so fasted before such time and I allowed him to do so.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: صحيح - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (16/322)



3ـ أَحْمَدُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ عُثْمَانَ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ سَمَاعَةَ قَالَ سَأَلْتُهُ عَنِ الصَّبِيِّ مَتَى يَصُومُ قَالَ إِذَا قَوِيَ عَلَى الصِّيَامِ.


3. Ahmad ibn Muhammad from has narrated from ‘Uthman ibn ‘Isa from Sama‘ah, who has said the following: “I once asked abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about a child when he is required to fast. He (the Imam) said, ‘When he is able to fast he must fast.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: موثق 1 - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (6/323)



4ـ عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ النَّوْفَلِيِّ عَنِ السَّكُونِيِّ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) قَالَ إِذَا أَطَاقَ الْغُلامُ صِيَامَ ثَلاثَةِ أَيَّامٍ مُتَتَابِعَةٍ فَقَدْ وَجَبَ عَلَيْهِ صِيَامُ شَهْرِ رَمَضَانَ.


4. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from al-Nawfaliy from al-Sakuniy who has said the following: “Abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘When a boy is able to fast for three days continuously it is obligatory on him to fast in the month of Ramadan.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف على المشهور 1 - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (6/323)