42. The Case of One Who Wakes up in the Morning with an Intention to Fast, but Who Does Not Do So or Vice Versa when Fasting Is a Compensatory Fast for the Missed Fast in the Month of Ramadan or Other Days

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1ـ عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ عَنْ حَمَّادِ بْنِ عُثْمَانَ عَنِ الْحَلَبِيِّ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) قَالَ سَأَلْتُهُ عَنِ الرَّجُلِ يُصْبِحُ وَهُوَ يُرِيدُ الصِّيَامَ ثُمَّ يَبْدُو لَهُ فَيُفْطِرُ قَالَ هُوَ بِالْخِيَارِ مَا بَيْنَهُ وَبَيْنَ نِصْفِ النَّهَارِ قُلْتُ هَلْ يَقْضِيهِ إِذَا أَفْطَرَ قَالَ نَعَمْ لأَنَّهَا حَسَنَةٌ أَرَادَ أَنْ يَعْمَلَهَا فَلْيُتِمَّهَا قُلْتُ فَإِنَّ رَجُلاً أَرَادَ أَنْ يَصُومَ ارْتِفَاعَ النَّهَارِ أَ يَصُومُ قَالَ نَعَمْ.


1. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from ibn abu ‘Umayr from Hammad ibn ‘Uthaman from al-Halabiy who has said the following: “This is concerning my question before abu ‘ Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about a man who with the intention to fast wakes up in the morning, then for a certain reason decides not to fast. He (the Imam) said, ‘Until midday it is his choice to fast or not to fast.’ I then asked, ‘Is he required to make Qada’ (compensatory fast) for such fast if he discontinues it?’ He (the Imam) said, ‘Yes, it is a valid deed that he intended to do and he should complete it.’ I then asked, ‘Can a man who, when the day is up, decide to fast, do so?’ He (the Imam) said, ‘Yes, it is permissible for him to do so.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: حسن - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (16/314)



2ـ عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنِ الْحُسَيْنِ بْنِ سَعِيدٍ عَنْ فَضَالَةَ بْنِ أَيُّوبَ عَنْ حُسَيْنِ بْنِ عُثْمَانَ عَنْ سَمَاعَةَ بْنِ مِهْرَانَ عَنْ أَبِي بَصِيرٍ قَالَ سَأَلْتُ أَبَا عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) عَنِ الصَّائِمِ الْمُتَطَوِّعِ تَعْرِضُ لَهُ الْحَاجَةُ قَالَ هُوَ بِالْخِيَارِ مَا بَيْنَهُ وَبَيْنَ الْعَصْرِ وَإِنْ مَكَثَ حَتَّى الْعَصْرِ ثُمَّ بَدَا لَهُ أَنْ يَصُومَ فَإِنْ لَمْ يَكُنْ نَوَى ذَلِكَ فَلَهُ أَنْ يَصُومَ ذَلِكَ الْيَوْمَ إِنْ شَاءَ.


2. A number of our people have narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from al-Husayn ibn Sa‘id from Fadalah ibn Ayyub from al- Husayn ibn ‘Uthman from Sama‘ah ibn Mehran from abu Basir who has said the following: “I once asked abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about a man who fasts an optional fast but he faces a certain issue of his needs. He (the Imam) said, ‘He has the choice until al-‘Asr (later afternoon). If he waits until al-‘Asr and then it occurs to him to fast, if he did not have the intention for fasting, he can fast that day by the will of Allah.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: موثق 1 - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (6/315)



3ـ أَحْمَدُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنِ الْعَبَّاسِ بْنِ مَعْرُوفٍ عَنْ صَفْوَانَ بْنِ يَحْيَى عَنِ ابْنِ سِنَانٍ عَنْ عَمَّارِ بْنِ مَرْوَانَ عَنْ سَمَاعَةَ بْنِ مِهْرَانَ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) فِي قَوْلِهِ الصَّائِمُ بِالْخِيَارِ إِلَى زَوَالِ الشَّمْسِ قَالَ ذَلِكَ فِي الْفَرِيضَةِ فَأَمَّا النَّافِلَةُ فَلَهُ أَنْ يُفْطِرَ أَيَّ سَاعَةٍ شَاءَ إِلَى غُرُوبِ الشَّمْسِ.


3. Ahmad ibn Muhammad from has narrated from al-‘Abbas ibn Ma‘ruf from Safwan ibn Yahya from ibn Sinan from ‘Ammar ibn Marwan from Sama‘ah ibn Mehran who has said the following: “The words of abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, ‘A fasting person has the choice until Zawal (declining of the sun toward the west at noontime)’ is about obligatory fast. In the case of optional fast one has the choice to stop fasting any time up to sunset.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف على المشهور معتمد عندي 1 - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (6/315)



4ـ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ وَمُحَمَّدُ بْنُ إِسْمَاعِيلَ عَنِ الْفَضْلِ بْنِ شَاذَانَ جَمِيعاً عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ عَنْ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنِ الْحَجَّاجِ عَنْ أَبِي الْحَسَنِ صَلَوَاتُ الله عَلَيْهِ فِي الرَّجُلِ يَبْدُو لَهُ بَعْدَ مَا يُصْبِحُ وَيَرْتَفِعُ النَّهَارُ فِي صَوْمِ ذَلِكَ الْيَوْمِ لِيَقْضِيَهُ مِنْ شَهْرِ رَمَضَانَ وَلَمْ يَكُنْ نَوَى ذَلِكَ مِنَ اللَّيْلِ قَالَ نَعَمْ لِيَصُمْهُ وَلْيَعْتَدَّ بِهِ إِذَا لَمْ يَكُنْ أَحْدَثَ شَيْئاً.


4. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad Ahmad ibn Muhammad from Muhammad ibn ‘Isma‘il has narrated from al-Fadl ibn Shadhan from all from ibn abu ‘Umayr from ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn al-Hajjaj who has said the following: “This is about the case of one who only after it is day light, decides to fast that day as Qada’ (compensatory fast) for the fast of the month of Ramadan. He did not have such intention in the night. Abu al-Hassan, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said that he can fast that day and count it, if nothing invalidating has taken place before.”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: صحيح 1 - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (6/316)



5ـ عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنِ الْحَسَنِ بْنِ مَحْبُوبٍ عَنِ الْحَارِثِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ بُرَيْدٍ الْعِجْلِيِّ عَنْ أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) فِي رَجُلٍ أَتَى أَهْلَهُ فِي يَوْمٍ يَقْضِيهِ مِنْ شَهْرِ رَمَضَانَ قَالَ إِنْ كَانَ أَتَى أَهْلَهُ قَبْلَ زَوَالِ الشَّمْسِ فَلا شَيْ‏ءَ عَلَيْهِ إِلاَّ يَوْمٌ مَكَانَ يَوْمٍ وَإِنْ كَانَ أَتَى أَهْلَهُ بَعْدَ زَوَالِ الشَّمْسِ فَإِنَّ عَلَيْهِ أَنْ يَتَصَدَّقَ عَلَى عَشَرَةِ مَسَاكِينَ فَإِنْ لَمْ يَقْدِرْ صَامَ يَوْماً مَكَانَ يَوْمٍ وَصَامَ ثَلاثَةَ أَيَّامٍ كَفَّارَةً لِمَا صَنَعَ.


5. A number of our people have narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from al-FIassan ibn Mahbub from al=FIarith ibn Muhammad from Burayd al- ‘ Ij liy who has said the following: “I once asked abu Ja‘far, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about a man who when fasting as Qada’ (compensatory fast) for the fast of the month of Ramadan goes to his wife for sexual relation. He (the Imam) said, ‘If it takes place before Zawal (declining of the sun toward the west at noontime), he is not obligated for anything. It is only one day for one day. If it happens after Zawal (declining of the sun toward the west at noontime), he is required to pay charity to ten destitute people, and if he is not able to do so, he is required to fast one day for one day and fast three days as expiation for what he has done.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مجهول - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (16/316)



6ـ أَحْمَدُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنِ الْحُسَيْنِ بْنِ سَعِيدٍ عَنْ فَضَالَةَ بْنِ أَيُّوبَ عَنِ الْحُسَيْنِ بْنِ عُثْمَانَ عَنْ سَمَاعَةَ عَنْ أَبِي بَصِيرٍ قَالَ سَأَلْتُ أَبَا عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) عَنِ الْمَرْأَةِ تَقْضِي شَهْرَ رَمَضَانَ فَيُكْرِهُهَا زَوْجُهَا عَلَى الإِفْطَارِ فَقَالَ لا يَنْبَغِي لَهُ أَنْ يُكْرِهَهَا بَعْدَ الزَّوَالِ.


6. Ahmad ibn Muhammad from has narrated from al-Husayn ibn Sa‘id from Fadalah ibn Ayyub from al-Husayn ibn ‘Uthman from Sama‘ah, from abu Basir who has said the following: “I once asked abu ‘ Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about the case of a woman who fasts as Qada’ (compensatory fast) for the fast of the month of Ramadan and her husband forces her to invalidate her fast. He (the Imam) said, ‘It is not proper for him to do so after Zawal (declining of the sun toward the west at noontime)/”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: موثق 1 - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (6/317)



7ـ أَحْمَدُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنِ ابْنِ فَضَّالٍ عَنْ صَالِحِ بْنِ عَبْدِ الله الْخَثْعَمِيِّ قَالَ سَأَلْتُ أَبَا عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) عَنِ الرَّجُلِ يَنْوِي الصَّوْمَ فَيَلْقَاهُ أَخُوهُ الَّذِي هُوَ عَلَى أَمْرِهِ أَ يُفْطِرُ قَالَ إِنْ كَانَ تَطَوُّعاً أَجْزَأَهُ وَحُسِبَ لَهُ وَإِنْ كَانَ قَضَاءَ فَرِيضَةٍ قَضَاهُ.


7. Ahmad ibn Muhammad has narrated from ibn Faddal from Salih ibn ‘Abd Allah al-Khath’amiy who has said the following: “I once asked abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about a man who decides to fast, then he meets his brother who believes as he does; if he can discontinue his fast. He (the Imam) said, ‘If it is optional it will be counted as one day of fasting in his favor, but if it is obligatory Qada’ (compensatory fast), he must do its Qada’ (compensatory fast).”’


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مجهول 1 - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (6/317)