2. The Excellence of the Month of Ramadan

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1ـ عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنْ عَبْدِ الله بْنِ الْمُغِيرَةِ عَنْ عَمْرٍو الشَّامِيِّ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) قَالَ إِنَّ عِدَّةَ الشُّهُورِ عِنْدَ الله اثْنا عَشَرَ شَهْراً فِي كِتابِ الله يَوْمَ خَلَقَ السَّماواتِ وَالأَرْضَ فَغُرَّةُ الشُّهُورِ شَهْرُ الله عَزَّ ذِكْرُهُ وَهُوَ شَهْرُ رَمَضَانَ وَقَلْبُ شَهْرِ رَمَضَانَ لَيْلَةُ الْقَدْرِ وَنُزِّلَ الْقُرْآنُ فِي أَوَّلِ لَيْلَةٍ مِنْ شَهْرِ رَمَضَانَ فَاسْتَقْبِلِ الشَّهْرَ بِالْقُرْآنِ.


1. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from ‘ Abd Allah ibn al-Mughirah from ‘Amr al-Shamiy who has said the following: “Abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said that the number of months before Allah is twelve in Allah’s Book, from the day He created the heavens and earth. In front of the months is the month of Allah, whose mention is most majestic, and that is the month of Ramadan. The heart of the month of Ramadan is the night of al-Qadr (destiny). The Holy Quran came during the first night of the month of Ramadan; thus, the month is welcomed with the Holy Quran.”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مجهول - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (6/205)



2ـ أَحْمَدُ بْنُ إِدْرِيسَ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَبْدِ الْجَبَّارِ عَنْ صَفْوَانَ عَنْ إِسْحَاقَ بْنِ عَمَّارٍ عَنِ الْمِسْمَعِيِّ أَنَّهُ سَمِعَ أَبَا عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) يُوصِي وُلْدَهُ إِذَا دَخَلَ شَهْرُ رَمَضَانَ فَاجْهَدُوا أَنْفُسَكُمْ فَإِنَّ فِيهِ تُقَسَّمُ الأَرْزَاقُ وَتُكْتَبُ الآجَالُ وَفِيهِ يُكْتَبُ وَفْدُ الله الَّذِينَ يَفِدُونَ إِلَيْهِ وَفِيهِ لَيْلَةٌ الْعَمَلُ فِيهَا خَيْرٌ مِنَ الْعَمَلِ فِي أَلْفِ شَهْرٍ.


2. Ahmad ibn Idris has narrated from Muhammad ibn ‘Abd al-Jabbar from Safwan from Ishaq ibn ‘Ammar from al-Misma‘iy who has heard the following: “I heard abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, giving advice to his children in the beginning of the month of Ramadan. The Imam said, ‘Make yourselves to work hard; in it (month of Ramadan), sustenance is distributed and the duration of lives is written down. During this month, it is decided who should join the delegation before Allah. In it, there is a night when one good deed is better than a good deed for one thousand months.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: موثق على الظاه ر - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (6/206)



3ـ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ إِسْمَاعِيلَ عَنِ الْفَضْلِ بْنِ شَاذَانَ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ عَنْ هِشَامِ بْنِ الْحَكَمِ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) قَالَ مَنْ لَمْ يُغْفَرْ لَهُ فِي شَهْرِ رَمَضَانَ لَمْ يُغْفَرْ لَهُ إِلَى قَابِلٍ إِلاَّ أَنْ يَشْهَدَ عَرَفَةَ.


3. Muhammad ibn Isma‘il has narrated from al-Fadl ibn Shadhan from ibn abu ‘Umayr from Hisham ibn al-Hakam who has said the following: “Abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said that if one is not forgiven in the month of Ramadan, one will not be forgiven until the coming month of Ramadan unless he attends ‘Arafah (the ninth of the month of Dhul Hajjah).”




4ـ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى وَغَيْرُهُ عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنِ الْحَسَنِ بْنِ مَحْبُوبٍ عَنْ أَبِي أَيُّوبَ عَنْ أَبِي الْوَرْدِ عَنْ أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) قَالَ خَطَبَ رَسُولُ الله (صلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) النَّاسَ فِي آخِرِ جُمُعَةٍ مِنْ شَعْبَانَ فَحَمِدَ الله وَأَثْنَى عَلَيْهِ ثُمَّ قَالَ أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ إِنَّهُ قَدْ أَظَلَّكُمْ شَهْرٌ فِيهِ لَيْلَةٌ خَيْرٌ مِنْ أَلْفِ شَهْرٍ وَهُوَ شَهْرُ رَمَضَانَ فَرَضَ الله صِيَامَهُ وَجَعَلَ قِيَامَ لَيْلَةٍ فِيهِ بِتَطَوُّعِ صَلاةٍ كَتَطَوُّعِ صَلاةِ سَبْعِينَ لَيْلَةً فِيمَا سِوَاهُ مِنَ الشُّهُورِ وَجَعَلَ لِمَنْ تَطَوَّعَ فِيهِ بِخَصْلَةٍ مِنْ خِصَالِ الْخَيْرِ وَالْبِرِّ كَأَجْرِ مَنْ أَدَّى فَرِيضَةً مِنْ فَرَائِضِ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ وَمَنْ أَدَّى فِيهِ فَرِيضَةً مِنْ فَرَائِضِ الله كَانَ كَمَنْ أَدَّى سَبْعِينَ فَرِيضَةً مِنْ فَرَائِضِ الله فِيمَا سِوَاهُ مِنَ الشُّهُورِ وَهُوَ شَهْرُ الصَّبْرِ وَإِنَّ الصَّبْرَ ثَوَابُهُ الْجَنَّةُ وَشَهْرُ الْمُوَاسَاةِ وَهُوَ شَهْرٌ يَزِيدُ الله فِي رِزْقِ الْمُؤْمِنِ فِيهِ وَمَنْ فَطَّرَ فِيهِ مُؤْمِناً صَائِماً كَانَ لَهُ بِذَلِكَ عِنْدَ الله عِتْقُ رَقَبَةٍ وَمَغْفِرَةٌ لِذُنُوبِهِ فِيمَا مَضَى قِيلَ يَا رَسُولَ الله لَيْسَ كُلُّنَا يَقْدِرُ عَلَى أَنْ يُفَطِّرَ صَائِماً فَقَالَ إِنَّ الله كَرِيمٌ يُعْطِي هَذَا الثَّوَابَ لِمَنْ لَمْ يَقْدِرْ إِلاَّ عَلَى مَذْقَةٍ مِنْ لَبَنٍ يُفَطِّرُ بِهَا صَائِماً أَوْ شَرْبَةٍ مِنْ مَاءٍ عَذْبٍ أَوْ تَمَرَاتٍ لا يَقْدِرُ عَلَى أَكْثَرَ مِنْ ذَلِكَ وَمَنْ خَفَّفَ فِيهِ عَنْ مَمْلُوكِهِ خَفَّفَ الله عَنْهُ حِسَابَهُ وَهُوَ شَهْرٌ أَوَّلُهُ رَحْمَةٌ وَأَوْسَطُهُ مَغْفِرَةٌ وَآخِرُهُ الإِجَابَةُ وَالْعِتْقُ مِنَ النَّارِ وَلا غِنَى بِكُمْ عَنْ أَرْبَعِ خِصَالٍ خَصْلَتَيْنِ تُرْضُونَ الله بِهِمَا وَخَصْلَتَيْنِ لا غِنَى بِكُمْ عَنْهُمَا فَأَمَّا اللَّتَانِ تُرْضُونَ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ بِهِمَا فَشَهَادَةُ أَنْ لا إِلَهَ إِلاَّ الله وَأَنَّ مُحَمَّداً رَسُولُ الله وَأَمَّا اللَّتَانِ لا غِنَى بِكُمْ عَنْهُمَا فَتَسْأَلُونَ الله فِيهِ حَوَائِجَكُمْ وَالْجَنَّةَ وَتَسْأَلُونَ الْعَافِيَةَ وَتَعُوذُونَ بِهِ مِنَ النَّارِ.


4. Muhammad ibn Yahya and people other than him have narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Isa from al-Hassan ibn Mahbub, from abu Ayyub from abu al-Ward, who has said the following: “Abu Ja’far, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘Once, the Messenger of Allah, O Allah, grant compensation to Muhammad and his family worthy of their services to Your cause, delivered a speech on the last Friday of the month of Sha‘ban. He thanked Allah, praised Him, and then said, “O people, a month is upon you when there is a night that is better than one thousand months. That month is the month of Ramadan. Allah has made fasting obligatory in the month of Ramadan. He has made one night in it wherein performing optional salat (prayer) is equal in reward to seventy nights of performing salat (prayer) in other months. For performing one good and virtuous deed voluntarily in it, He has assigned a reward equal to that for fulfilling an obligation toward Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Glorious. For fulfilling an obligation toward Allah in this month, He has assigned a reward equal to that for fulfilling seventy obligations toward Allah in other months. It is the month of patience, and the reward for patience is Paradise. It is the month of cooperation. In this month, Allah increases the sustenance of the believing people. If one serves food for a fasting person at the end of a fasting day, Allah counts it equal in reward to setting free a slave and forgiveness of his sins of the past.” It was said, “O Messenger of Allah, not every one of us is able to serve food to a fasting person at the end of a fasting day.” The Messenger of Allah, O Allah, grant compensation to Muhammad and his family worthy of their services to Your cause, said, “Allah is gracious, He grants such reward even for serving some milk mixed with water or some sweet water or a few pieces of dates, if he is unable to do more than this. For one’s easing off the tasks for His servants to perform, Allah eases off his accountabilities. The beginning of this month is mercy and kindness, its middle is forgiveness, and its end is acceptance and freedom from the fire. You must have four characteristics during this month. With two of these characteristics, you will please Allah, but without the other two, you cannot have anything. The two with which you will please Allah is your testimony. ‘No one deserves worship besides Allah, and Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah.’ The other two are asking Him to meet your needs and for Paradise, and asking Him to grant you good health and protection against hell fire.’””


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: حسن - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (6/206)



5ـ عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنِ الْحُسَيْنِ بْنِ سَعِيدٍ عَنْ فَضَالَةَ بْنِ أَيُّوبَ عَنْ سَيْفِ بْنِ عَمِيرَةَ عَنْ عَبْدِ الله بْنِ عَبْدِ الله عَنْ رَجُلٍ عَنْ أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ الله (صلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) لَمَّا حَضَرَ شَهْرُ رَمَضَانَ وَذَلِكَ فِي ثَلاثٍ بَقِينَ مِنْ شَعْبَانَ قَالَ لِبِلالٍ نَادِ فِي النَّاسِ فَجَمَعَ النَّاسَ ثُمَّ صَعِدَ الْمِنْبَرَ فَحَمِدَ الله وَأَثْنَى عَلَيْهِ ثُمَّ قَالَ أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ إِنَّ هَذَا الشَّهْرَ قَدْ خَصَّكُمُ الله بِهِ وَحَضَرَكُمْ وَهُوَ سَيِّدُ الشُّهُورِ لَيْلَةٌ فِيهِ خَيْرٌ مِنْ أَلْفِ شَهْرٍ تُغْلَقُ فِيهِ أَبْوَابُ النَّارِ وَتُفَتَّحُ فِيهِ أَبْوَابُ الْجِنَانِ فَمَنْ أَدْرَكَهُ وَلَمْ يُغْفَرْ لَهُ فَأَبْعَدَهُ الله وَمَنْ أَدْرَكَ وَالِدَيْهِ وَلَمْ يُغْفَرْ لَهُ فَأَبْعَدَهُ الله وَمَنْ ذُكِرْتُ عِنْدَهُ فَلَمْ يُصَلِّ عَلَيَّ فَلَمْ يَغْفِرِ الله لَهُ فَأَبْعَدَهُ الله.


5. A number of our people have narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad, from al-Husayn ibn Sa‘id from, Fadalah ibn Ayyub from Sayf ibn ‘Ami rah from ‘ Abd Allah ibn ‘ Abd Allah from a man who has said the following: ”Abu Ja’far, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said that the Messenger of Allah, O Allah, grant compensation to Muhammad and his family worthy of their services to Your cause, once, just three days before the month of Ramadan, said to Bilal, ‘Call people (to come to the Masjid).’ People then gathered, and he climbed on the pulpit, thanked Allah, praised Him, and then said, “O people, Allah has granted you a privilege with this month. He has made it especially for you, and it is about to be upon you. There is one night in it that is better than one thousand months. The doors of hell fire remain closed in this month, and the doors of Paradise are open. If one’s sins remain without being forgiven in this month, Allah keeps him away. One who lives with his parents, but is not forgiven, Allah keeps him away; and one before whom I am mentioned but who does not say salawat (O Allah, grant compensation to Muhammad and his family worthy of their services to your cause) and is not forgiven, Allah keeps him away.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مرسل - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (16/208)



6ـ أَحْمَدُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنِ الْحُسَيْنِ بْنِ سَعِيدٍ عَنِ الْحُسَيْنِ بْنِ عُلْوَانَ عَنْ عَمْرِو بْنِ شِمْرٍ عَنْ جَابِرٍ عَنْ أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) قَالَ كَانَ رَسُولُ الله (صلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) يُقْبِلُ بِوَجْهِهِ إِلَى النَّاسِ فَيَقُولُ يَا مَعْشَرَ النَّاسِ إِذَا طَلَعَ هِلالُ شَهْرِ رَمَضَانَ غُلَّتْ مَرَدَةُ الشَّيَاطِينِ وَفُتِحَتْ أَبْوَابُ السَّمَاءِ وَأَبْوَابُ الْجِنَانِ وَأَبْوَابُ الرَّحْمَةِ وَغُلِّقَتْ أَبْوَابُ النَّارِ وَاسْتُجِيبَ الدُّعَاءُ وَكَانَ لله فِيهِ عِنْدَ كُلِّ فِطْرٍ عُتَقَاءُ يُعْتِقُهُمُ الله مِنَ النَّارِ وَيُنَادِي مُنَادٍ كُلَّ لَيْلَةٍ هَلْ مِنْ سَائِلٍ هَلْ مِنْ مُسْتَغْفِرٍ اللهمَّ أَعْطِ كُلَّ مُنْفِقٍ خَلَفاً وَأَعْطِ كُلَّ مُمْسِكٍ تَلَفاً حَتَّى إِذَا طَلَعَ هِلالُ شَوَّالٍ نُودِيَ الْمُؤْمِنُونَ أَنِ اغْدُوا إِلَى جَوَائِزِكُمْ فَهُوَ يَوْمُ الْجَائِزَةِ ثُمَّ قَالَ أَبُو جَعْفَرٍ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) أَمَا وَالَّذِي نَفْسِي بِيَدِهِ مَا هِيَ بِجَائِزَةِ الدَّنَانِيرِ وَلا الدَّرَاهِمِ.


6. Ahmad ibn Muhammad has narrated from ai-Husayn ibn Sa‘id from af-Husayn ibn ‘Uiwan from ‘Amr ibn Shamir from Jabir who has said the folio wing: “Abu Ja’far, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘The Messenger of Allah, O Allah, grant compensation to Muhammad and his family worthy of their services to Your cause, would turn his face to people and say, “O people, when the crescent for the month of Ramadan appears, the devils of Satan are put in chains. The doors to the heavens, Paradise and mercy are opened. The doors to hellfire are closed and prayers are accepted. Allah on every first day after the month of Ramadan sets many people free from hellfire. Every night someone calls, ‘Is there anyone who asks for help or forgiveness? O Allah, grant good rewards to those, who give charity. Make those who do not give any charity to lose.’ It continues until the month of Shawwal begins, then the believers are called, ‘Come for your presents; it is the day of receiving rewards.’” Abu Ja‘far, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, then said, ‘I swear by the One in whose hands is my life, such presents are not dirhams and dinars.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (16/209)



7ـ عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ عَنْ جَمِيلِ بْنِ صَالِحٍ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ مَرْوَانَ قَالَ سَمِعْتُ أَبَا عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) يَقُولُ إِنَّ لله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ فِي كُلِّ لَيْلَةٍ مِنْ شَهْرِ رَمَضَانَ عُتَقَاءَ وَطُلَقَاءَ مِنَ النَّارِ إِلاَّ مَنْ أَفْطَرَ عَلَى مُسْكِرٍ فَإِذَا كَانَ فِي آخِرِ لَيْلَةٍ مِنْهُ أَعْتَقَ فِيهَا مِثْلَ مَا أَعْتَقَ فِي جَمِيعِهِ.


7. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from ibn abu ‘Umayr from Jamil ibn Salih from Muhammad ibn Marwan who has said the following: “I heard abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, say, ‘Every night in the month of Ramadan, Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious, liberates many people and releases them from hellfire, except those who drink intoxicating liquor. During the last night of this month, Allah frees and releases a number of people equal to all that He had freed during the whole month.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مجهول - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (6/210)