12. The Fasting of the Messenger of Allah, O Allah, grant compensation to Muhammad and his family worthy of their services to Your cause

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1ـ الْحُسَيْنُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ مُعَلَّى بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنِ الْوَشَّاءِ عَنْ حَمَّادِ بْنِ عُثْمَانَ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) قَالَ سَمِعْتُهُ يَقُولُ صَامَ رَسُولُ الله (صلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) حَتَّى قِيلَ مَا يُفْطِرُ ثُمَّ أَفْطَرَ حَتَّى قِيلَ مَا يَصُومُ ثُمَّ صَامَ صَوْمَ دَاوُدَ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) يَوْماً وَيَوْماً لا ثُمَّ قُبِضَ عَلَى صِيَامِ ثَلاثَةِ أَيَّامٍ فِي الشَّهْرِ قَالَ إِنَّهُنَّ يَعْدِلْنَ صَوْمَ الشَّهْرِ وَيَذْهَبْنَ بِوَحَرِ الصَّدْرِ وَالْوَحَرُ الْوَسْوَسَةُ قَالَ حَمَّادٌ فَقُلْتُ وَأَيُّ الأَيَّامِ هِيَ قَالَ أَوَّلُ خَمِيسٍ فِي الشَّهْرِ وَأَوَّلُ أَرْبِعَاءَ بَعْدَ الْعَشْرِ مِنْهُ وَآخِرُ خَمِيسٍ فِيهِ فَقُلْتُ كَيْفَ صَارَتْ هَذِهِ الأَيَّامُ الَّتِي تُصَامُ فَقَالَ إِنَّ مَنْ قَبْلَنَا مِنَ الأُمَمِ كَانَ إِذَا نَزَلَ عَلَى أَحَدِهِمُ الْعَذَابُ نَزَلَ فِي هَذِهِ الأَيَّامِ فَصَامَ رَسُولُ الله (صلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) هَذِهِ الأَيَّامَ الْمَخُوفَةَ.


1. Al-Husayn ibn Muhammad has narrated from Mu‘alla’ ibn Muhammad from af-Washsha’ from Hammad ibn ‘Uthman who has said the following: “I heard abu ‘ Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, say, ‘The Messenger of Allah continued fasting for such a long time that people thought he would not discontinue it. He then discontinued fasting for such a long time that people thought he would not fast. Then he began fasting as Dawud, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, did. One day he would fast and not fast the next day. He left this world with a practice of fasting three days every month. The Imam said, ‘Fasting three days every month is like fasting a whole month. This removes wahr from one’s chest. Wahr means temptation.’ Hammad has said, ‘I then asked, which days are they?’ He (the Imam) replied, ‘Every first Thursday, every first Wednesday after the tenth of the month and the last Thursday therein.’ I then asked, ‘How did these days become as such?’ He replied, ‘The days when torment descended on the people of the past were one of these days. Because of fear, the Messenger of Allah, O Allah, grant compensation to Muhammad and his family worthy of their services to Your cause, would fast during these days.’”


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Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف على المشهور 1 - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (6/252)



2ـ عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ عَنْ أَبِي أَيُّوبَ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ مُسْلِمٍ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) قَالَ كَانَ رَسُولُ الله (صلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) أَوَّلَ مَا بُعِثَ يَصُومُ حَتَّى يُقَالَ مَا يُفْطِرُ وَيُفْطِرُ حَتَّى يُقَالَ مَا يَصُومُ ثُمَّ تَرَكَ ذَلِكَ وَصَامَ يَوْماً وَأَفْطَرَ يَوْماً وَهُوَ صَوْمُ دَاوُدَ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) ثُمَّ تَرَكَ ذَلِكَ وَصَامَ الثَّلاثَةَ الأَيَّامِ الْغُرِّ ثُمَّ تَرَكَ ذَلِكَ وَفَرَّقَهَا فِي كُلِّ عَشَرَةِ أَيَّامٍ يَوْمَا خَمِيسَيْنِ بَيْنَهُمَا أَرْبِعَاءُ فَقُبِضَ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ السَّلامُ وَهُوَ يَعْمَلُ ذَلِكَ.


2. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from ibn abu ‘Umayr from abu Ayyub from Muhammad ibn Muslim who has said the following: “Abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said that the Messenger of Allah, O Allah, grant compensation to Muhammad and his family worthy of their services to Your cause, continued fasting for such a long time that people thought he would not discontinue it. He then discontinued fasting for such a long time that people thought he would not fast. Then he began fasting as Dawud, ‘Alayhi al- Salam, did. One day he would fast and then not fast the next day. He left this practice and would fast three bright days (13, 14 and 15) of every month. He then left this practice and divided them by one day in each ten days of the month, of which two were Thursdays with a Wednesday between the two Thursdays. He passed away with this practice.”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: حسن - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (16/252)



3ـ عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ سَهْلِ بْنِ زِيَادٍ عَنِ الْحَسَنِ بْنِ مَحْبُوبٍ عَنْ جَمِيلِ بْنِ صَالِحٍ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ مَرْوَانَ قَالَ سَمِعْتُ أَبَا عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) يَقُولُ كَانَ رَسُولُ الله (صلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) يَصُومُ حَتَّى يُقَالَ لا يُفْطِرُ ثُمَّ صَامَ يَوْماً وَأَفْطَرَ يَوْماً ثُمَّ صَامَ الإِثْنَيْنَ وَالْخَمِيسَ ثُمَّ آلَ مِنْ ذَلِكَ إِلَى صِيَامِ ثَلاثَةِ أَيَّامٍ فِي الشَّهْرِ الْخَمِيسِ فِي أَوَّلِ الشَّهْرِ وَأَرْبِعَاءَ فِي وَسَطِ الشَّهْرِ وَخَمِيسٍ فِي آخِرِ الشَّهْرِ وَكَانَ يَقُولُ ذَلِكَ صَوْمُ الدَّهْرِ وَقَدْ كَانَ أَبِي (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) يَقُولُ مَا مِنْ أَحَدٍ أَبْغَضَ إِلَيَّ مِنْ رَجُلٍ يُقَالُ لَهُ كَانَ رَسُولُ الله (صلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) يَفْعَلُ كَذَا وَكَذَا فَيَقُولُ لا يُعَذِّبُنِي الله عَلَى أَنْ أَجْتَهِدَ فِي الصَّلاةِ كَأَنَّهُ يَرَى أَنَّ رَسُولَ الله (صلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) تَرَكَ شَيْئاً مِنَ الْفَضْلِ عَجْزاً عَنْهُ.


3. A number of our people have narrated from Sahl ibn Ziyad from al-Hassan ibn Mahbub from Jamil ibn Salih from Muhammad ibn Marwan who has said the following: “I heard abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, say, ‘The Messenger of Allah, O Allah, grant compensation to Muhammad and his family worthy of their services to Your cause, continued fasting for such a long time that people thought he was not to discontinue his fasting. He then discontinued fasting for such a long time that people thought he did not intend to fast anymore. He then would fast one day and eat the next day. He then fasted every Monday and Thursday. Then he would fast three days every month, Thursday of the beginning of the month, Wednesday of the middle of the month and the last Thursday of the month. He would say, “It is like fasting forever.’” My father would say, ‘There is no other thing more hateful to me than one to whom it is said that the Messenger of Allah, O Allah, grant compensation to Muhammad and his family worthy of their services to Your cause, did this, but he says, “Allah will not punish me if I tried to perform Salat (prayer)” as if he thinks the Messenger of Allah, O Allah, grant compensation to Muhammad and his family worthy of their services to Your cause, neglected some of the virtuous acts because of his failure.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف على المشهور - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (16/253)



4ـ عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ عَنْ حَفْصِ بْنِ الْبَخْتَرِيِّ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) قَالَ كُنَّ نِسَاءُ النَّبِيِّ (صلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) إِذَا كَانَ عَلَيْهِنَّ صِيَامٌ أَخَّرْنَ ذَلِكَ إِلَى شَعْبَانَ كَرَاهَةَ أَنْ يَمْنَعْنَ رَسُولَ الله (صلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) فَإِذَا كَانَ شَعْبَانُ صُمْنَ وَكَانَ رَسُولُ الله (صلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) يَقُولُ شَعْبَانُ شَهْرِي.


4. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from ibn abu ‘Umayr from Hafs ibn al-Bakhtariy who has said the following: “Abu ‘ Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said that wives of the Holy Prophet, O Allah, grant compensation to Muhammad and his family worthy of their services to Your cause, when required to fast, would wait up to the month of Sha‘ban, due to anticipation that he may forbid them. In the month of Sha‘ban they would fast and the Messenger of Allah, O Allah, grant compensation to Muhammad and his family worthy of their services to Your cause, has said, ‘Sha‘ban is my month.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: حسن - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (16/253)



5ـ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ عُثْمَانَ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ سَمَاعَةَ قَالَ قُلْتُ لأَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) هَلْ صَامَ أَحَدٌ مِنْ آبَائِكَ شَعْبَانَ قَالَ خَيْرُ آبَائِي رَسُولُ الله (صلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) صَامَهُ.


5. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from ‘Uthman ibn ‘Isa from Sama‘ah, who has said the following: “I once asked abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, ‘Had any of your ancestors fasted during the month of Sha‘ban?’ He replied, ‘The best of my ancestors was the Messenger of Allah, O Allah, grant compensation to Muhammad and his family worthy of their services to Your cause, who fasted in it.’”


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Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: موثق 1 - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (6/254)



6ـ أَبُو عَلِيٍّ الأَشْعَرِيُّ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَبْدِ الْجَبَّارِ وَمُحَمَّدُ بْنُ إِسْمَاعِيلَ عَنِ الْفَضْلِ بْنِ شَاذَانَ جَمِيعاً عَنْ صَفْوَانَ عَنِ ابْنِ مُسْكَانَ عَنِ الْحَلَبِيِّ قَالَ سَأَلْتُ أَبَا عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) هَلْ صَامَ أَحَدٌ مِنْ آبَائِكَ شَعْبَانَ قَطُّ قَالَ صَامَهُ خَيْرُ آبَائِي رَسُولُ الله (صلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه). عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عِيسَى بْنِ عُبَيْدٍ عَنْ يُونُسَ عَنِ ابْنِ مُسْكَانَ عَنِ الْحَلَبِيِّ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) مِثْلَهُ فَأَمَّا الَّذِي جَاءَ فِي صَوْمِ شَعْبَانَ أَنَّهُ سُئِلَ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) عَنْهُ فَقَالَ مَا صَامَهُ رَسُولُ الله (صلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) وَلا أَحَدٌ مِنْ آبَائِي قَالَ ذَلِكَ لأَنَّ قَوْماً قَالُوا إِنَّ صِيَامَهُ فَرْضٌ مِثْلُ صِيَامِ شَهْرِ رَمَضَانَ وَوُجُوبَهُ مِثْلُ وُجُوبِ شَهْرِ رَمَضَانَ وَإِنَّ مَنْ أَفْطَرَ يَوْماً مِنْهُ فَعَلَيْهِ مِنَ الْكَفَّارَةِ مِثْلُ مَا عَلَى مَنْ أَفْطَرَ يَوْماً مِنْ شَهْرِ رَمَضَانَ وَإِنَّمَا قَوْلُ الْعَالِمِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) مَا صَامَهُ رَسُولُ الله (صلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) وَلا أَحَدٌ مِنْ آبَائِي (عَلَيْهِم السَّلاَم) أَيْ مَا صَامُوهُ فَرْضاً وَاجِباً تَكْذِيباً لِقَوْلِ مَنْ زَعَمَ أَنَّهُ فَرْضٌ وَإِنَّمَا كَانُوا يَصُومُونَهُ سُنَّةً فِيهَا فَضْلٌ وَلَيْسَ عَلَى مَنْ لَمْ يَصُمْهُ شَيْ‏ءٌ.


6. Abu Ali al-Ash’ariy has narrated from Muhammad ibn ‘Abd al-Jabbar and Muhammad ibn Isma‘il from al-Fadl ibn Shadhan all from Safwan from ibn Muskan from al-Halabiy who has said the following: “Once, I asked abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, ‘Had any of your ancestors ever fasted during the month of Sha‘ban?’ He (the Imam) replied, ‘The best of my ancestors, the Messenger of Allah, O Allah, grant compensation to Muhammad and his family worthy of their services to Your cause, fasted in it.’” Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from Muhammad ibn ‘Isa ibn ‘Ubayd from Yunus from ibn Muskan from al-Halabiy from abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, a similar Hadith. There are narrations about fasting in the month of al-Sha‘ban. He (the Imam), ‘Alayhi al-Salam, was asked about it and he (the Imam) said, ‘The Messenger of Allah, O Allah, grant compensation to Muhammad and his family worthy of their services to Your cause, did not fast (during the month of Sha‘ban) neither did any of my ancestors.’ He (the Imam) said, ‘It is because certain people said that fasting in the month of al-Sha‘ban is obligatory like fasting in the month of Ramadan. If one destroys one day of fasting of month of al-Sha‘ban, the expiation for it is like the expiation for destroying one day of fasting of the month of Ramadan. The words of the scholar, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, ‘The Messenger of Allah did not fast neither did any of my ancestors’ means they did not fast it as an obligatory fast. It was to refute what certain people thought it to be. Their fast was only as Sunnah in which there is virtue but it is not harmful to one who does not fast.


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: صحيح - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (16/254)



7ـ أَحْمَدُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ الْحَسَنِ عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ صَبِيحٍ عَنْ عَنْبَسَةَ الْعَابِدِ قَالَ قُبِضَ النَّبِيُّ (صلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) عَلَى صَوْمِ شَعْبَانَ وَرَمَضَانَ وَثَلاثَةِ أَيَّامٍ فِي كُلِّ شَهْرٍ أَوَّلِ خَمِيسٍ وَأَوْسَطِ أَرْبِعَاءَ وَآخِرِ خَمِيسٍ وَكَانَ أَبُو جَعْفَرٍ وَأَبُو عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) يَصُومَانِ ذَلِكَ.


7. Ahmad ibn Muhammad has narrated from Ali ibn al-Hassan from Ahmad ibn Sabih from ‘Anbasah al-‘Abid in a Mawquf manner who has said the following: “He (the Imam) ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘The Messenger of Allah left this world practicing the fast of month of al-Sha‘ban and three days of every month, the first Thursday, the middle Wednesday and the last Thursday of the month. Abu Ja‘far, and abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhim al-Salam, would also do so.


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: موثق 1 - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (6/254)