10. Kinds of Fasts

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1ـ عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ الْقَاسِمِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ الْجَوْهَرِيِّ عَنْ سُلَيْمَانَ بْنِ دَاوُدَ عَنْ سُفْيَانَ بْنِ عُيَيْنَةَ عَنِ الزُّهْرِيِّ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ الْحُسَيْنِ (عَلَيْهِما السَّلاَم) قَالَ قَالَ لِي يَوْماً يَا زُهْرِيُّ مِنْ أَيْنَ جِئْتَ فَقُلْتُ مِنَ الْمَسْجِدِ قَالَ فِيمَ كُنْتُمْ قُلْتُ تَذَاكَرْنَا أَمْرَ الصَّوْمِ فَاجْتَمَعَ رَأْيِي وَرَأْيُ أَصْحَابِي عَلَى أَنَّهُ لَيْسَ مِنَ الصَّوْمِ شَيْ‏ءٌ وَاجِبٌ إِلاَّ صَوْمُ شَهْرِ رَمَضَانَ فَقَالَ يَا زُهْرِيُّ لَيْسَ كَمَا قُلْتُمْ الصَّوْمُ عَلَى أَرْبَعِينَ وَجْهاً فَعَشَرَةُ أَوْجُهٍ مِنْهَا وَاجِبَةٌ كَوُجُوبِ شَهْرِ رَمَضَانَ وَعَشَرَةُ أَوْجُهٍ مِنْهَا صِيَامُهُنَّ حَرَامٌ وَأَرْبَعَةَ عَشَرَ مِنْهَا صَاحِبُهَا بِالْخِيَارِ إِنْ شَاءَ صَامَ وَإِنْ شَاءَ أَفْطَرَ وَصَوْمُ الإِذْنِ عَلَى ثَلاثَةِ أَوْجُهٍ وَصَوْمُ التَّأْدِيبِ وَصَوْمُ الإِبَاحَةِ وَصَوْمُ السَّفَرِ وَالْمَرَضِ قُلْتُ جُعِلْتُ فِدَاكَ فَسِّرْهُنَّ لِي قَالَ أَمَّا الْوَاجِبَةُ فَصِيَامُ شَهْرِ رَمَضَانَ وَصِيَامُ شَهْرَيْنِ مُتَتَابِعَيْنِ فِي كَفَّارَةِ الظِّهَارِ لِقَوْلِ الله تَعَالَى الَّذِينَ يُظاهِرُونَ مِنْ نِسائِهِمْ ثُمَّ يَعُودُونَ لِما قالُوا فَتَحْرِيرُ رَقَبَةٍ مِنْ قَبْلِ أَنْ يَتَمَاسَّا إِلَى قَوْلِهِ فَمَنْ لَمْ يَجِدْ فَصِيامُ شَهْرَيْنِ مُتَتابِعَيْنِ وَصِيَامُ شَهْرَيْنِ مُتَتَابِعَيْنِ فِيمَنْ أَفْطَرَ يَوْماً مِنْ شَهْرِ رَمَضَانَ وَصِيَامُ شَهْرَيْنِ مُتَتَابِعَيْنِ فِي قَتْلِ الْخَطَإِ لِمَنْ لَمْ يَجِدِ الْعِتْقَ وَاجِبٌ لِقَوْلِ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ وَمَنْ قَتَلَ مُؤْمِناً خَطَأً فَتَحْرِيرُ رَقَبَةٍ مُؤْمِنَةٍ وَدِيَةٌ مُسَلَّمَةٌ إِلى‏ أَهْلِهِ إِلَى قَوْلِهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ فَمَنْ لَمْ يَجِدْ فَصِيامُ شَهْرَيْنِ مُتَتابِعَيْنِ تَوْبَةً مِنَ الله وَكانَ الله عَلِيماً حَكِيماً وَصَوْمُ ثَلاثَةِ أَيَّامٍ فِي كَفَّارَةِ الْيَمِينِ وَاجِبٌ قَالَ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ فَصِيامُ ثَلاثَةِ أَيَّامٍ ذلِكَ كَفَّارَةُ أَيْمانِكُمْ إِذا حَلَفْتُمْ هَذَا لِمَنْ لا يَجِدُ الإِطْعَامَ كُلُّ ذَلِكَ مُتَتَابِعٌ وَلَيْسَ بِمُتَفَرِّقٍ وَصِيَامُ أَذَى حَلْقِ الرَّأْسِ وَاجِبٌ قَالَ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ فَمَنْ كانَ مِنْكُمْ مَرِيضاً أَوْ بِهِ أَذىً مِنْ رَأْسِهِ فَفِدْيَةٌ مِنْ صِيامٍ أَوْ صَدَقَةٍ أَوْ نُسُكٍ فَصَاحِبُهَا فِيهَا بِالْخِيَارِ فَإِنْ صَامَ صَامَ ثَلاثَةَ أَيَّامٍ وَصَوْمُ الْمُتْعَةِ وَاجِبٌ لِمَنْ لَمْ يَجِدِ الْهَدْيَ قَالَ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ فَمَنْ تَمَتَّعَ بِالْعُمْرَةِ إِلَى الْحَجِّ فَمَا اسْتَيْسَرَ مِنَ الْهَدْيِ فَمَنْ لَمْ يَجِدْ فَصِيامُ ثَلاثَةِ أَيَّامٍ فِي الْحَجِّ وَسَبْعَةٍ إِذا رَجَعْتُمْ تِلْكَ عَشَرَةٌ كامِلَةٌ وَصَوْمُ جَزَاءِ الصَّيْدِ وَاجِبٌ قَالَ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ وَمَنْ قَتَلَهُ مِنْكُمْ مُتَعَمِّداً فَجَزاءٌ مِثْلُ ما قَتَلَ مِنَ النَّعَمِ يَحْكُمُ بِهِ ذَوا عَدْلٍ مِنْكُمْ هَدْياً بالِغَ الْكَعْبَةِ أَوْ كَفَّارَةٌ طَعامُ مَساكِينَ أَوْ عَدْلُ ذلِكَ صِياماً أَ وَتَدْرِي كَيْفَ يَكُونُ عَدْلُ ذَلِكَ صِيَاماً يَا زُهْرِيُّ قَالَ قُلْتُ لا أَدْرِي قَالَ يُقَوَّمُ الصَّيْدُ قِيمَةً قِيمَةَ عَدْلٍ ثُمَّ تُفَضُّ تِلْكَ الْقِيمَةُ عَلَى الْبُرِّ ثُمَّ يُكَالُ ذَلِكَ الْبُرُّ أَصْوَاعاً فَيَصُومُ لِكُلِّ نِصْفِ صَاعٍ يَوْماً وَصَوْمُ النَّذْرِ وَاجِبٌ وَصَوْمُ الاعْتِكَافِ وَاجِبٌ وَأَمَّا الصَّوْمُ الْحَرَامُ فَصَوْمُ يَوْمِ الْفِطْرِ وَيَوْمِ الأَضْحَى وَثَلاثَةِ أَيَّامٍ مِنْ أَيَّامِ التَّشْرِيقِ وَصَوْمُ يَوْمِ الشَّكِّ أُمِرْنَا بِهِ وَنُهِينَا عَنْهُ أُمِرْنَا بِهِ أَنْ نَصُومَهُ مَعَ صِيَامِ شَعْبَانَ وَنُهِينَا عَنْهُ أَنْ يَنْفَرِدَ الرَّجُلُ بِصِيَامِهِ فِي الْيَوْمِ الَّذِي يَشُكُّ فِيهِ النَّاسُ فَقُلْتُ لَهُ جُعِلْتُ فِدَاكَ فَإِنْ لَمْ يَكُنْ صَامَ مِنْ شَعْبَانَ شَيْئاً كَيْفَ يَصْنَعُ قَالَ يَنْوِي لَيْلَةَ الشَّكِّ أَنَّهُ صَائِمٌ مِنْ شَعْبَانَ فَإِنْ كَانَ مِنْ شَهْرِ رَمَضَانَ أَجْزَأَ عَنْهُ وَإِنْ كَانَ مِنْ شَعْبَانَ لَمْ يَضُرَّهُ فَقُلْتُ وَكَيْفَ يُجْزِئُ صَوْمُ تَطَوُّعٍ عَنْ فَرِيضَةٍ فَقَالَ لَوْ أَنَّ رَجُلاً صَامَ يَوْماً مِنْ شَهْرِ رَمَضَانَ تَطَوُّعاً وَهُوَ لا يَعْلَمُ أَنَّهُ مِنْ شَهْرِ رَمَضَانَ ثُمَّ عَلِمَ بَعْدُ بِذَلِكَ لأَجْزَأَ عَنْهُ لأَنَّ الْفَرْضَ إِنَّمَا وَقَعَ عَلَى الْيَوْمِ بِعَيْنِهِ وَصَوْمُ الْوِصَالِ حَرَامٌ وَصَوْمُ الصَّمْتِ حَرَامٌ وَصَوْمُ نَذْرِ الْمَعْصِيَةِ حَرَامٌ وَصَوْمُ الدَّهْرِ حَرَامٌ. وَأَمَّا الصَّوْمُ الَّذِي صَاحِبُهُ فِيهِ بِالْخِيَارِ فَصَوْمُ يَوْمِ الْجُمُعَةِ وَالْخَمِيسِ وَصَوْمُ الْبِيضِ وَصَوْمُ سِتَّةِ أَيَّامٍ مِنْ شَوَّالٍ بَعْدَ شَهْرِ رَمَضَانَ وَصَوْمُ يَوْمِ عَرَفَةَ وَصَوْمُ يَوْمِ عَاشُورَاءَ فَكُلُّ ذَلِكَ صَاحِبُهُ فِيهِ بِالْخِيَارِ إِنْ شَاءَ صَامَ وَإِنْ شَاءَ أَفْطَرَ وَأَمَّا صَوْمُ الإِذْنِ فَالْمَرْأَةُ لا تَصُومُ تَطَوُّعاً إِلاَّ بِإِذْنِ زَوْجِهَا وَالْعَبْدُ لا يَصُومُ تَطَوُّعاً إِلاَّ بِإِذْنِ مَوْلاهُ وَالضَّيْفُ لا يَصُومُ تَطَوُّعاً إِلاَّ بِإِذْنِ صَاحِبِهِ قَالَ رَسُولُ الله (صلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) مَنْ نَزَلَ عَلَى قَوْمٍ فَلا يَصُومُ تَطَوُّعاً إِلاَّ بِإِذْنِهِمْ وَأَمَّا صَوْمُ التَّأْدِيبِ فَأَنْ يُؤْخَذَ الصَّبِيُّ إِذَا رَاهَقَ بِالصَّوْمِ تَأْدِيباً وَلَيْسَ بِفَرْضٍ وَكَذَلِكَ الْمُسَافِرُ إِذَا أَكَلَ مِنْ أَوَّلِ النَّهَارِ ثُمَّ قَدِمَ أَهْلَهُ أُمِرَ بِالإِمْسَاكِ بَقِيَّةَ يَوْمِهِ وَلَيْسَ بِفَرْضٍ وَأَمَّا صَوْمُ الإِبَاحَةِ لِمَنْ أَكَلَ أَوْ شَرِبَ نَاسِياً أَوْ قَاءَ مِنْ غَيْرِ تَعَمُّدٍ فَقَدْ أَبَاحَ الله لَهُ ذَلِكَ وَأَجْزَأَ عَنْهُ صَوْمُهُ وَأَمَّا صَوْمُ السَّفَرِ وَالْمَرَضِ فَإِنَّ الْعَامَّةَ قَدِ اخْتَلَفَتْ فِي ذَلِكَ فَقَالَ قَوْمٌ يَصُومُ وَقَالَ آخَرُونَ لا يَصُومُ وَقَالَ قَوْمٌ إِنْ شَاءَ صَامَ وَإِنْ شَاءَ أَفْطَرَ وَأَمَّا نَحْنُ فَنَقُولُ يُفْطِرُ فِي الْحَالَيْنِ جَمِيعاً فَإِنْ صَامَ فِي السَّفَرِ أَوْ فِي حَالِ الْمَرَضِ فَعَلَيْهِ الْقَضَاءُ فَإِنَّ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ يَقُولُ فَمَنْ كانَ مِنْكُمْ مَرِيضاً أَوْ عَلى‏ سَفَرٍ فَعِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَيَّامٍ أُخَرَ فَهَذَا تَفْسِيرُ الصِّيَامِ.


1. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from af-Qasim ibn Muhammad af-Jawhariy from Sulayman ibn Dawud from Sufyan ibn ‘Uyaynah from af-Zuhriy who has said the following: “Ali ibn al-Husayn, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, one day asked me, ‘O Zuhriy, where from are you coming?’ I replied, ’I am coming from the Masjid.’ He then asked, ‘What were you doing there?’ I replied, ‘We were discussing the issues of fasting. It is my opinion and the opinion of my people that of all fasting, only that in the month of Ramadan is obligatory.’ He (the Imam) said, ‘It is not as you, O Zuhriy, say it is. Fasting is of forty kinds. Ten kinds of fasting are obligatory, just as is fasting during the month of Ramadan. Another ten kinds are prohibited. In fourteen kinds of fasting, one has the choice to fast or not to fast. For three kinds of fasting, one needs permission. One kind is for discipline, one is permissible, and one is fasting on a journey and fasting of an ill person.’ I then said, ‘I pray to Allah to keep my soul in service for Your cause; please explain them to me.’ “The Imam then said, ‘Of the obligatory fasting there is (1) fasting during the month of Ramadan. (2) Two consecutive months of fasting are obligatory as expiation of zihar (swearing to consider one’s wife as one’s mother). This is because of the words of Allah, most High, “Those who pronounce zihar against their wives and then decide to take back their words must set free one slave before resuming marital relations . . . But those who cannot find this must fast for two consecutive months.” (58:2-3) (3) Fasting is obligatory for two consecutive months because of failing to fast one day in the month of Ramadan. (4) Two consecutive months of fasting are obligatory for killing a person by mistake for one who is unable to set free one slave and payment of wergild, blood money, to the people of the person killed. It is because of the words of Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Glorious, “One who kills a believing person by mistake must set free one believing slave and pay blood money to the people of the person killed . . . but those who cannot do the above must fast for two consecutive months and repent before Allah. Allah knows all things and He is all wise.” (4:92) (5) Fasting for three days is obligatory as expiation for swearing because of the words of Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Glorious, “Three days of fasting (is obligatory) as expiation for swearing when you do so.” (5:89) This is when one is unable to serve food for this reason. All such fasting must be completed in consecutive order and without intervals in between. Of such obligatory fasting is (6) that due to shaving one’s head during Hajj due to discomfort in the head. This is because of the words of Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Glorious, “One who is ill or feels discomfort in his head pays expiation in the form of fasting or serving food, or animal sacrifice. . .” (2:196) In this case, the person has the choice between serving food and fasting for three days. Of such obligatory fasting is (7) that due to Tamattu‘ (enjoying the interval between ‘Umrah and Hajj) and one’s inability to offer a sacrifice. This is because of the words of Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Glorious, “One who enjoys (the interval) between ‘Umrah and Hajj and cannot offer a sacrifice must fast three days during Hajj and seven more days after Hajj at home. This makes it ten complete days of fasting.” Of such obligatory fasting is (8) that due to hunting. Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Glorious, has said, “One who knowingly kills an animal must as penalty slaughter a similar animal. This is determined by two just persons deeming it to be similar with the animal hunted. Such an animal then must be offered as a sacrificial animal sent to Ka‘bah or he must serve food to destitute people or fast an equal number of days.’” (5:95) ‘Do you, O Zuhriy, know what is an equal number of days of fasting?’ the Imam asked. I (Zuhriy) replied, ‘No, I do not know.’ The Imam then said, ‘First, the price for the animal hunted is found. With such (money), wheat is then purchased and the total amount of wheat is divided into Sa‘ (about 3 kg) and for each one and half kilogram of wheat he has to fast for one day. Of such fasting is (9), that for an obligatory vow and (10) fasting for Ttikaf. ‘Of the unlawful fasting, there is (1) fasting on the first day of Shawwal, (‘id of al-Fitr), (2) on the tenth of Dhul Hajjah, (3-5) three days of al-Tashriq, 11, 12 and 13 of Dhul Hajjah. (6) Fasting (with an intention for fasting as a day of the month of Ramadan) is unlawful on a day that cannot be identified with certainty. In such a case, there is a command and a prohibition upon us. We are commanded to fast considering it as the last day of the month of Sha‘ban, and we are prohibited to fast considering it as the first day of the month of Ramadan when people have doubts about its being the first day of the month of Ramadan.’ I (Zuhriy) then asked, ‘I pray to Allah to keep my soul in service for your cause, what happens if it, in fact, is not of the month of Sha‘ban at all?’ He (the Imam) said, ‘If he fasts with an intention of fasting a day of the month of Sha‘ban, and in fact, it happens to be of the month of Ramadan, his fasting is counted for the month of Ramadan. If one thinks it to be a day of the month of Ramadan and, in fact, it is a day of the month of Sha‘ban, it does not harm him in any way.’ I (Zuhriy) then asked, ‘How can an optional fast replace an obligatory fast?’ He (the Imam) replied, ‘If one fasts during the month of Ramadan with an intention for optional fast, it is counted for the obligatory fast of the month of Ramadan as a replacement. Of such fasting is (7) fasting for two days without any break in between, (8) the fasting to remain speechless and silent, (9) fasting for an unlawful vow, and (10) fasting for all the time is unlawful. ‘The fasting in which one has the choice is (1-2) fasting on Friday and Thursday. Of such fasting, are (3-6) the days (of brightness) in the middle of the month, (7-13) fasting six days of the month of Shawwal after the month of Ramadan, (14) fasting on the ninth of Dhul Hajjah, and fasting on the tenth of the month of Muharram. In all such days, one has the choice to fast or not to fast. ‘The fasting for which one needs to have permission is (1) fasting of a woman optionally; she needs to have permission from her husband; (2) a slave for optional fasting needs the permission of his master; (3) and a guest for optional fasting needs the permission of his host. The Messenger of Allah has said, “One who is a guest of a people must not fast without permission from his host.” ‘Of fasting for discipline (1) one is the fasting of a growing child (about to become mature) for discipline, not as an obligation. (2) Two is the fasting of a person on a journey who has used food at the beginning of the day, who should abstain from eating for the rest of the day when he arrives home, but it is not an obligation. Of the permissible fasting, is (3) the case of one, who by mistake, eats, drinks or vomits unintentionally; Allah for him has made it lawful and his fasting is considered valid. “About the fasting of a traveler and one suffering from an illness, ’Ammah (non-Shi`a) have different ideas. Certain ones among them say one must fast. Others say that one must not fast. Yet another group says that he may or may not fast, that the choice is his. We, however, say that in both cases he must not fast (it is unlawful fasting). If one fasts while on a journey or suffering from an illness, he must fast again later to make up for his invalid fasting. Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Glorious, has said, “Those of you who are ill or on a journey must fast an equal number of days during other times.” (2:187) This is how fasting is explained.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (6/241)