40. Detestability of Over-Spending and Living in Austerity

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1ـ عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ الْقَاسِمِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ الْجَوْهَرِيِّ عَنْ جَمِيلِ بْنِ صَالِحٍ عَنْ عَبْدِ الْمَلِكِ بْنِ عَمْرٍو الأَحْوَلِ قَالَ تَلا أَبُو عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) هَذِهِ الآيَةَ وَالَّذِينَ إِذا أَنْفَقُوا لَمْ يُسْرِفُوا وَلَمْ يَقْتُرُوا وَكانَ بَيْنَ ذلِكَ قَواماً قَالَ فَأَخَذَ قَبْضَةً مِنْ حَصًى وَقَبَضَهَا بِيَدِهِ فَقَالَ هَذَا الإِقْتَارُ الَّذِي ذَكَرَهُ الله فِي كِتَابِهِ ثُمَّ قَبَضَ قَبْضَةً أُخْرَى فَأَرْخَى كَفَّهُ كُلَّهَا ثُمَّ قَالَ هَذَا الإِسْرَافُ ثُمَّ أَخَذَ قَبْضَةً أُخْرَى فَأَرْخَى بَعْضَهَا وَأَمْسَكَ بَعْضَهَا وَقَالَ هَذَا الْقَوَامُ.


1. A number of our people have narrated from Ahmad ibn abu ‘Abd Allah from his father from al-Qasim ibn Muhammad al-Jawhariy from Jamil ibn Salih from ‘Abd al-Malik ibn ‘Amr al-Ahwal who has said the following: “Abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, once, read this verse from the Holy Quran. . those who do not spend excessively or with severe austerity, but with moderation,’ (25: 67) he (the Imam) then picked up a handful of pebbles and kept them firmly in his hand, saying, ‘This is severe austerity that Allah has mentioned in His book.’ He then picked up another handful of pebbles and then opened his hand altogether saying, ‘This is excessive spending.’ He then picked up a handful of pebbles, opened his hand half-way, and held some of the pebbles in his hand, saying, ‘This is moderation.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (16/185)



2ـ وَعَنْهُ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَمْرٍو عَنْ عَبْدِ الله بْنِ أَبَانٍ قَالَ سَأَلْتُ أَبَا الْحَسَنِ الأَوَّلَ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) عَنِ النَّفَقَةِ عَلَى الْعِيَالِ فَقَالَ مَا بَيْنَ الْمَكْرُوهَيْنِ الإِسْرَافِ وَالإِقْتَارِ.


2. It is narrated from him (narrator of previous Hadith) from his father from Muhammad ibn ‘Ammar from ‘Abd Allah ibn Aban who has said the following: “Once I asked abu al-Hassan, the 1st, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about the expenses of one’s dependents. He (the Imam) replied, ‘It is between the two detestable limits: namely, excessive spending and severe austerity.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مجهول - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (6/186)



3ـ عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنِ الْحَسَنِ بْنِ مَحْبُوبٍ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ رِئَابٍ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي يَعْفُورٍ وَيُوسُفَ بْنِ عُمَارَةَ قَالا قَالَ أَبُو عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) إِنَّ مَعَ الإِسْرَافِ قِلَّةَ الْبَرَكَةِ.


3. A number of our people have narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from al-Hassan ibn Mahbub from Ali ibn Ri’ab from ibn abu Ya’qub and Yusuf ibn ‘Ammar who have said the following: “Abu ‘Abd Allah ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘There is very little blessing with excessive spending.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: صحيح - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (6/186)



4ـ عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ سَهْلِ بْنِ زِيَادٍ وَأَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ أَبِي نَصْرٍ عَنْ سَمَاعَةَ بْنِ مِهْرَانَ عَنْ أَبِي بَصِيرٍ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) قَالَ رُبَّ فَقِيرٍ هُوَ أَسْرَفُ مِنَ الْغَنِيِّ إِنَّ الْغَنِيَّ يُنْفِقُ مِمَّا أُوتِيَ وَالْفَقِيرَ يُنْفِقُ مِنْ غَيْرِ مَا أُوتِيَ.


4. A number of our people have narrated from Sahl ibn Ziyad and Ahmad ibn Muhammad from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn abu Nasr from Sanaa ‘ah ibn Mehran from abu Basir who has said the following: “Abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said that certain ones of the poor people may spend more excessively than a wealthy one. A wealthy person spends from what he has received, but a poor person spends from that which does not belong to him.’”


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Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: موثق - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (6/186)



5ـ عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ عَنْ هِشَامِ بْنِ الْمُثَنَّى قَالَ سَأَلَ رَجُلٌ أَبَا عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) عَنْ قَوْلِ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ وَآتُوا حَقَّهُ يَوْمَ حَصادِهِ وَلا تُسْرِفُوا إِنَّهُ لا يُحِبُّ الْمُسْرِفِينَ فَقَالَ كَانَ فُلانُ بْنُ فُلانٍ الأَنْصَارِيُّ سَمَّاهُ وَكَانَ لَهُ حَرْثٌ وَكَانَ إِذَا أَخَذَ يَتَصَدَّقُ بِهِ وَيَبْقَى هُوَ وَعِيَالُهُ بِغَيْرِ شَيْ‏ءٍ فَجَعَلَ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ ذَلِكَ سَرَفاً.


5. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from ibn abu ‘Umayr from Hisham ibn Muthanna who has said the following: “A man once asked abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about the words of Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Glorious, ‘Give His right on the day of its harvest and do not spend excessively; He does not love excessive spenders.’ (6:141) He (the Imam) said, ‘So and so, he mentioned his name, Ansariy (people of al-Madinah) had a farm. After harvest, he would give all of it in charity. He and his dependents would remain without anything. Thus, Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Glorious, called such spending excessive.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مجهول - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (6/186)



6ـ عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ عَنْ عُمَرَ بْنِ يَزِيدَ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) فِي قَوْلِ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ وَلا تَجْعَلْ يَدَكَ مَغْلُولَةً إِلى‏ عُنُقِكَ وَلا تَبْسُطْها كُلَّ الْبَسْطِ فَتَقْعُدَ مَلُوماً مَحْسُوراً قَالَ الإِحْسَارُ الْفَاقَةُ.


6. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from ibn abu ‘Umayr from ‘Umar ibn Yazid who has said the following: “This is about the words of Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Glorious, ‘You must not make your hands tied up to your neck nor open it excessively so you remain blame-worth and tied up.’ (17:29) Abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said that ‘Mahsur (tied up) means severe austerity.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: حسن - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (16/186)



7ـ عَلِيُّ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ النَّضْرِ بْنِ سُوَيْدٍ عَنْ مُوسَى بْنِ بَكْرٍ عَنْ عَجْلانَ قَالَ كُنْتُ عِنْدَ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) فَجَاءَ سَائِلٌ فَقَامَ إِلَى مِكْتَلٍ فِيهِ تَمْرٌ فَمَلأَ يَدَهُ فَنَاوَلَهُ ثُمَّ جَاءَ آخَرُ فَسَأَلَهُ فَقَامَ فَأَخَذَ بِيَدِهِ فَنَاوَلَهُ ثُمَّ جَاءَ آخَرُ فَسَأَلَهُ فَقَامَ فَأَخَذَ بِيَدِهِ فَنَاوَلَهُ ثُمَّ جَاءَ آخَرُ فَسَأَلَهُ فَقَامَ فَأَخَذَ بِيَدِهِ فَنَاوَلَهُ ثُمَّ جَاءَ آخَرُ فَقَالَ الله رَازِقُنَا وَإِيَّاكَ ثُمَّ قَالَ إِنَّ رَسُولَ الله (صلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) كَانَ لا يَسْأَلُهُ أَحَدٌ مِنَ الدُّنْيَا شَيْئاً إِلاَّ أَعْطَاهُ فَأَرْسَلَتْ إِلَيْهِ امْرَأَةٌ ابْناً لَهَا فَقَالَتِ انْطَلِقْ إِلَيْهِ فَاسْأَلْهُ فَإِنْ قَالَ لَكَ لَيْسَ عِنْدَنَا شَيْ‏ءٌ فَقُلْ أَعْطِنِي قَمِيصَكَ قَالَ فَأَخَذَ قَمِيصَهُ فَرَمَى بِهِ إِلَيْهِ وَفِي نُسْخَةٍ أُخْرَى فَأَعْطَاهُ فَأَدَّبَهُ الله تَبَارَكَ وَتَعَالَى عَلَى الْقَصْدِ فَقَالَ وَلا تَجْعَلْ يَدَكَ مَغْلُولَةً إِلى‏ عُنُقِكَ وَلا تَبْسُطْها كُلَّ الْبَسْطِ فَتَقْعُدَ مَلُوماً مَحْسُوراً.


7. Ali ibn Muhammad has narrated from Ahmad ibn abu ‘Abd Allah from his father from al-Nadr ibn Suwayd from Musa ibn Bakr from ‘Ajlan who has said the following: “Once, I was in the presence of abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, when a man came asking for help. He (the Imam) gave him a handful of dates from a basket. Then another one came also asking for help. He (the Imam) also gave him a handful of dates. Then another one came asking for help, and he gave him a handful as well. Yet another one came asking for help. He (the Imam) stood up and gave him a handful. Thereafter another one came asking for help. He (the Imam) said, ’Allah is our provider as well as yours.’ He then said, ‘Whoever would come to the Messenger of Allah, O Allah, grant compensation to Muhammad and his family worthy of their services to Your cause, asking for worldly help, he would give it to him. Once a women sent her son telling him, “Go and ask him for help and if he says, ‘I do not have anything to give,’ say, ‘give me your shirt.’” He (the Imam) said that he (the Messenger of Allah) took his shirt off and threw it to him. Another Hadith stated that the Messenger of Allah gave his shirt, but Allah, the most Blessed, the most High, instructed him with the discipline of moderation, saying, ‘Do not keep your hands tied up to your neck nor open them excessively to remain thereafter tied down and blame-worthy.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف على المشهور - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (6/186)



8ـ أَحْمَدُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَلِيٍّ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ سِنَانٍ عَنْ أَبِي الْحَسَنِ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) فِي قَوْلِ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ وَكانَ بَيْنَ ذلِكَ قَواماً قَالَ الْقَوَامُ هُوَ الْمَعْرُوفُ عَلَى الْمُوسِعِ قَدَرُهُ وَعَلَى الْمُقْتِرِ قَدَرُهُ مَتاعاً بِالْمَعْرُوفِ حَقًّا عَلَى الْمُحْسِنِينَ عَلَى قَدْرِ عِيَالِهِ وَمَئُونَتِهِمُ الَّتِي هِيَ صَلاحٌ لَهُ وَلَهُمْ وَلا يُكَلِّفُ الله نَفْساً إِلاَّ ما آتاها.


8. Ahmad ibn Muhammad has narrated from Muhammad ibn Ali from Muhammad ibn Sinan from abu af-Hassan, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, who has said the folio wing: “This is about the words of Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Glorious, ‘It (moderation) was in between . . .’ (25:67), the Imam said, ‘Al-Qawam (moderation) is a Benevolent Assistance,’ ‘. . . proportionate to the abilities of a wealthy and poor person is a right upon the people of good deeds.’


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف على المشهور - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (16/187)



9ـ عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ سَهْلِ بْنِ زِيَادٍ وَأَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنِ الْحَسَنِ بْنِ مَحْبُوبٍ عَنْ عَبْدِ الله بْنِ سِنَانٍ فِي قَوْلِهِ تَعَالَى وَالَّذِينَ إِذا أَنْفَقُوا لَمْ يُسْرِفُوا وَلَمْ يَقْتُرُوا وَكانَ بَيْنَ ذلِكَ قَواماً فَبَسَطَ كَفَّهُ وَفَرَّقَ أَصَابِعَهُ وَحَنَاهَا شَيْئاً وَعَنْ قَوْلِهِ تَعَالَى وَلا تَبْسُطْها كُلَّ الْبَسْطِ فَبَسَطَ رَاحَتَهُ وَقَالَ هَكَذَا وَقَالَ الْقَوَامُ مَا يَخْرُجُ مِنْ بَيْنِ الأَصَابِعِ وَيَبْقَى فِي الرَّاحَةِ مِنْهُ شَيْ‏ءٌ.


9. A number of our people have narrated from Sahl ibn Ziyad and Ahmad ibn Muhammad from al-Hassan ibn Mahbub from ‘Abd Allah ibn Sinan who has said the following: “This is about the words of Allah, most High, ‘Those who, when spending, do not do it excessively or with severe austerity, but with moderation.’ He opened his palm and tilted it a little to one side. About the words of Allah, most High, ‘Do not open your hand excessively . . .’ (25:67) he opened up his palm all the way saying, ‘Like this.’ He said, ‘Al-Qawam is when something is left in your palm and something is allowed to leave your palm.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: صحيح - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (16/187)



10ـ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ الْحُسَيْنِ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ إِسْمَاعِيلَ بْنِ بَزِيعٍ عَنْ صَالِحِ بْنِ عُقْبَةَ عَنْ سُلَيْمَانَ بْنِ صَالِحٍ قَالَ قُلْتُ لأَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) أَدْنَى مَا يَجِي‏ءُ مِنْ حَدِّ الإِسْرَافِ فَقَالَ ابْتِذَالُكَ ثَوْبَ صَوْنِكَ وَإِهْرَاقُكَ فَضْلَ إِنَائِكَ وَأَكْلُكَ التَّمْرَ وَرَمْيَكَ النَّوَى هَاهُنَا وَهَاهُنَا.


10. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Muhammad ibn al-Husayn from Muhammad ibn Isma‘il ibn Bazi’ from Salih ibn ‘Uqbah from Sulayman ibn Salih who has said the following: “Once, I asked abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, ‘What is the minimum limit of excessive spending?’ The Imam replied, ‘It is when you give away your clothes that you need for protection, burning the leftovers in your cooking utensils, and eating dates and scattering the stones inside them here and there.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مجهول - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (6/187)



11ـ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ الْحَكَمِ عَنْ عَمَّارٍ أَبِي عَاصِمٍ قَالَ قَالَ أَبُو عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَم) أَرْبَعَةٌ لا يُسْتَجَابُ لَهُمْ أَحَدُهُمْ كَانَ لَهُ مَالٌ فَأَفْسَدَهُ فَيَقُولُ يَا رَبِّ ارْزُقْنِي فَيَقُولُ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ أَ لَمْ آمُرْكَ بِالاقْتِصَادِ.


11. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from Ali ibn al-Hakam from ‘Ammar abu ‘Asem who has said the following: “Abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘Four people’s prayers are not accepted. One is he who destroys his wealth and appeals, “Lord, grant me sustenance.’” Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Glorious, then says, “Did I not command you to observe moderation?””’


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مجهول - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (6/188)