46. Zakat of Tax Payers

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1ـ عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنْ حَمَّادِ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ حَرِيزٍ عَنْ زُرَارَةَ قَالَ قُلْتُ لأَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ الْسَّلام) مَا حَدُّ الْجِزْيَةِ عَلَى أَهْلِ الْكِتَابِ وَهَلْ عَلَيْهِمْ فِي ذَلِكَ شَيْ‏ءٌ مُوَظَّفٌ لاَ يَنْبَغِي أَنْ يَجُوزُوا إِلَى غَيْرِهِ فَقَالَ ذَاكَ إِلَى الإِمَامِ أَنْ يَأْخُذَ مِنْ كُلِّ إِنْسَانٍ مِنْهُمْ مَا شَاءَ عَلَى قَدْرِ مَالِهِ بِمَا يُطِيقُ إِنَّمَا هُمْ قَوْمٌ فَدَوْا أَنْفُسَهُمْ مِنْ أَنْ يُسْتَعْبَدُوا أَوْ يُقْتَلُوا فَالْجِزْيَةُ تُؤْخَذُ مِنْهُمْ عَلَى قَدْرِ مَا يُطِيقُونَ لَهُ أَنْ يَأْخُذَهُمْ بِهِ حَتَّى يُسْلِمُوا فَإِنَّ الله تَبَارَكَ وَتَعَالَى قَالَ حَتَّى يُعْطُوا الْجِزْيَةَ عَنْ يَدٍ وَهُمْ صاغِرُونَ وَكَيْفَ يَكُونُ صَاغِراً وَهُوَ لاَ يَكْتَرِثُ لِمَا يُؤْخَذُ مِنْهُ حَتَّى يَجِدَ ذُلاًّ لِمَا أُخِذَ مِنْهُ فَيَأْلَمَ لِذَلِكَ فَيُسْلِمَ قَالَ وَقَالَ ابْنُ مُسْلِمٍ قُلْتُ لأَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ الْسَّلام) أَ رَأَيْتَ مَا يَأْخُذُ هَؤُلاَءِ مِنْ هَذَا الْخُمُسِ مِنْ أَرْضِ الْجِزْيَةِ وَيَأْخُذُ مِنَ الدَّهَاقِينِ جِزْيَةَ رُءُوسِهِمْ أَ مَا عَلَيْهِمْ فِي ذَلِكَ شَيْ‏ءٌ مُوَظَّفٌ فَقَالَ كَانَ عَلَيْهِمْ مَا أَجَازُوا عَلَى أَنْفُسِهِمْ وَلَيْسَ لِلإِمَامِ أَكْثَرُ مِنَ الْجِزْيَةِ إِنْ شَاءَ الإِمَامُ وَضَعَ ذَلِكَ عَلَى رُءُوسِهِمْ وَلَيْسَ عَلَى أَمْوَالِهِمْ شَيْ‏ءٌ وَإِنْ شَاءَ فَعَلَى أَمْوَالِهِمْ وَلَيْسَ عَلَى رُءُوسِهِمْ شَيْ‏ءٌ فَقُلْتُ فَهَذَا الْخُمُسُ فَقَالَ إِنَّمَا هَذَا شَيْ‏ءٌ كَانَ صَالَحَهُمْ عَلَيْهِ رَسُولُ الله (صلّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه).


1. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from Hammad ibn ‘Isa from Hariz from Zurarah who has said the following: “I once asked abu ’Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about al-Jizyah (taxes paid by a non-Muslim taxpayer) of the people of the book. Is there anything definite, which does not change? He (the Imam) said, ‘It is up to the Imam. He may receive from every one of them what he decides which they can afford in proportion to their assets. They have been spared their lives and from being exiled by their agreement to pay taxes; so al-Jizyah is received from them in proportion of their assets to the limit that they can afford to pay until they become Muslims. Allah, most Blessed, most High, has said, ‘. . . until they pay al-Jizyah with their hands with humbleness. How can they be humble if what they pay is negligible to them? Such payment must make them feel humiliated so that they accept Islam? Ibn Muslim has said that I asked abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about what they (rulers) receive as one-fifth from land of al-Jizyah, from the farmers per head. Is there anything in definite amounts?’ He (the Imam) said, ‘It was just that much which they had agreed to pay. Imam has no other choice but to receive al-Jizyah. He (the Imam) can assign it per head and not their assets or vice versa? I then asked, ‘What is the rule about this al-Khums (one-fifth)?’ He (the Imam) said, ‘This is how the Messenger of Allah had settled with them.”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مجهول - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (6/122)



2ـ حَرِيزٌ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ مُسْلِمٍ قَالَ سَأَلْتُهُ عَنْ أَهْلِ الذِّمَّةِ مَا ذَا عَلَيْهِمْ مِمَّا يَحْقُنُونَ بِهِ دِمَاءَهُمْ وَأَمْوَالَهُمْ قَالَ الْخَرَاجُ فَإِنْ أُخِذَ مِنْ رُءُوسِهِمُ الْجِزْيَةُ فَلاَ سَبِيلَ عَلَى أَرْضِهِمْ وَإِنْ أُخِذَ مِنْ أَرْضِهِمْ فَلاَ سَبِيلَ عَلَى رُءُوسِهِمْ.


2. Hariz has narrated from Muhammad ibn Muslim who has said the following: “I once asked him (the Imam), ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about the case of non-Muslim taxpayers as to how much must they pay for the protection of their lives and properties. He (the Imam) said, ‘It is al- Kharaj. If they pay al-Jizyah per head, then there is not anything on their land and if it is taken from their land, then there is not anything on them to pay per head?”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مجهول - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (6/122)



3ـ عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ وَمُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ يَحْيَى جَمِيعاً عَنْ عَبْدِ الله بْنِ الْمُغِيرَةِ عَنْ طَلْحَةَ بْنِ زَيْدٍ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ الْسَّلام) قَالَ جَرَتِ السُّنَّةُ أَنْ لاَ تُؤْخَذَ الْجِزْيَةُ مِنَ الْمَعْتُوهِ وَلاَ مِنَ الْمَغْلُوبِ عَلَى عَقْلِهِ.


3. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from and Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from Muhammad ibn Yahya all from ‘Abd Allah ibn al-Mughirah from Talhah ibn Zayd who has said the following: “Abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘It is an established Sunnah that al-Jizyah is not received from those with physical or mental conditions?”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مرسل - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (16/122)



4ـ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ أَبِي يَحْيَى الْوَاسِطِيِّ عَنْ بَعْضِ أَصْحَابِنَا قَالَ سُئِلَ أَبُو عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ الْسَّلام) عَنِ الْمَجُوسِ أَ كَانَ لَهُمْ نَبِيٌّ فَقَالَ نَعَمْ أَ مَا بَلَغَكَ كِتَابُ رَسُولِ الله (صلّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) إِلَى أَهْلِ مَكَّةَ أَنْ أَسْلِمُوا وَإِلاَّ نَابَذْتُكُمْ بِحَرْبٍ فَكَتَبُوا إِلَى رَسُولِ الله (صلّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) أَنْ خُذْ مِنَّا الْجِزْيَةَ وَدَعْنَا عَلَى عِبَادَةِ الأوْثَانِ فَكَتَبَ إِلَيْهِمُ النَّبِيُّ (صلّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) أَنِّي لَسْتُ آخُذُ الْجِزْيَةَ إِلاَّ مِنْ أَهْلِ الْكِتَابِ فَكَتَبُوا إِلَيْهِ يُرِيدُونَ بِذَلِكَ تَكْذِيبَهُ زَعَمْتَ أَنَّكَ لاَ تَأْخُذُ الْجِزْيَةَ إِلاَّ مِنْ أَهْلِ الْكِتَابِ ثُمَّ أَخَذْتَ الْجِزْيَةَ مِنْ مَجُوسِ هَجَرَ فَكَتَبَ إِلَيْهِمُ النَّبِيُّ (صلّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) أَنَّ الْمَجُوسَ كَانَ لَهُمْ نَبِيٌّ فَقَتَلُوهُ وَكِتَابٌ أَحْرَقُوهُ أَتَاهُمْ نَبِيُّهُمْ بِكِتَابِهِمْ فِي اثْنَيْ عَشَرَ أَلْفَ جِلْدِ ثَوْرٍ.


4. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from abu Yahya al-Wasitiy from certain persons of our people who has said the following: “Once abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, was asked about the case of Zoroastrians if they had a prophet. He (the Imam) said, ‘Yes, they had a prophet. Have you not heard about the letter of the Messenger of Allah to the people of Makkah? He asked them to accept Islam, otherwise, war is declared against you. They wrote back to the Messenger of Allah asking him to receive al-Jizyah and leave them to worship their idols. The Holy prophet wrote to them, ‘I receive al-Jizyah only from the people of the book? They then wrote to him (the Messenger of Allah) to rebut him, ‘You think that you do not receive al-Jizyah except from the people of the book and then receive al-Jizyah from Majus (Zoroastrians) who have migrated? The Holy prophet wrote to them, ‘Majus had a prophet but they killed him. They had a book, which they burnt. Their prophet brought them a book on twelve thousand skins of bull?


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (16/122)



5ـ عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنْ حَمَّادِ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ حَرِيزٍ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ مُسْلِمٍ قَالَ سَأَلْتُ أَبَا عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ الْسَّلام) عَنْ صَدَقَاتِ أَهْلِ الْجِزْيَةِ وَمَا يُؤْخَذُ مِنْهُمْ مِنْ ثَمَنِ خُمُورِهِمْ وَلَحْمِ خَنَازِيرِهِمْ وَمَيِّتِهِمْ قَالَ عَلَيْهِمُ الْجِزْيَةُ فِي أَمْوَالِهِمْ يُؤْخَذُ مِنْهُمْ مِنْ ثَمَنِ لَحْمِ الْخِنْزِيرِ أَوْ خَمْرٍ وَكُلُّ مَا أُخِذُوا مِنْهُمْ مِنْ ذَلِكَ فَوِزْرُ ذَلِكَ عَلَيْهِمْ وَثَمَنُهُ لِلْمُسْلِمِينَ حَلاَلٌ يَأْخُذُونَهُ فِي جِزْيَتِهِمْ.


5. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from Hammad ibn ‘Isa from Hariz from Muhammad ibn Muslim who has said the following: “I once asked abu ’Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about the case of al-Jizyah of taxpayers and what is received from them from their wine or flesh of pigs and dead animals. He (the Imam) said, ‘They must pay al-Jizyah which is due on their assets from the flesh of pigs and the value of their wine. Whatever is received from them, its sin is upon them, and its value is lawful for the Muslims which they receive as al-Jizyah.’ ”




6ـ عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ سَهْلِ بْنِ زِيَادٍ عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ أَبِي نَصْرٍ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي يَعْفُورٍ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ الْسَّلام) قَالَ إِنَّ أَرْضَ الْجِزْيَةِ لاَ تُرْفَعُ عَنْهَا الْجِزْيَةُ وَإِنَّمَا الْجِزْيَةُ عَطَاءُ الْمُهَاجِرِينَ وَالصَّدَقَةُ لأَهْلِهَا الَّذِينَ سَمَّى الله فِي كِتَابِهِ وَلَيْسَ لَهُمْ مِنَ الْجِزْيَةِ شَيْ‏ءٌ ثُمَّ قَالَ مَا أَوْسَعَ الله الْعَدْلَ ثُمَّ قَالَ إِنَّ النَّاسَ يَسْتَغْنُونَ إِذَا عُدِلَ بَيْنَهُمْ وَتُنْزِلُ السَّمَاءُ رِزْقَهَا وَتُخْرِجُ الأرْضُ بَرَكَتَهَا بِإِذْنِ الله تَعَالَى.


6. A number of our people have narrated from Sahl ibn Ziyad from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from ibn abu Nasr from ibn abu Ya‘fur who has said the following: “Abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘al-Jizyah is not terminated (abolished) from lands subject to al-Jizyah. Al-Jizyah is a gift for the immigrants and charity (Zakat) is for its deserving beneficiaries whom Allah has named in His book. They do not have any share in al-Jizyah.’ He (the Imam) then said, ‘How vast is Allah’s justice!’ He (the Imam) then said, ‘People will become rich if justice is practiced among them, the skies send their sustenance and the earth will produce its blessings by the permission of Allah, most High.’”




7ـ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنِ الْحَسَنِ بْنِ مَحْبُوبٍ عَنْ أَبِي أَيُّوبَ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ مُسْلِمٍ عَنْ أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ (عَلَيْهِ الْسَّلام) فِي أَهْلِ الْجِزْيَةِ يُؤْخَذُ مِنْ أَمْوَالِهِمْ وَمَوَاشِيهِمْ شَيْ‏ءٌ سِوَى الْجِزْيَةِ قَالَ لاَ.


7. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from al-Hassan ibn Mahbub from Muhammad ibn Muslim who has said the following: “I once asked abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about the case of people who pay al-Jizyah, if there is al-Jizyah on their assets and animal farms. He (the Imam) said, ‘No, al-Jizyah is not due on them as such.’”