3. The Reason for Amount of Zakat Levied without the Need to Increase or Decrease

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1ـ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنِ الْحَسَنِ بْنِ عَلِيٍّ الْوَشَّاءِ عَنْ أَبِي الْحَسَنِ الرِّضَا (عَلَيْهِ الْسَّلام) قَالَ قِيلَ لأَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ الْسَّلام) لأَيِّ شَيْ‏ءٍ جَعَلَ الله الزَّكَاةَ خَمْسَةً وَعِشْرِينَ فِي كُلِّ أَلْفٍ وَلَمْ يَجْعَلْهَا ثَلاَثِينَ فَقَالَ إِنَّ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ جَعَلَهَا خَمْسَةً وَعِشْرِينَ أَخْرَجَ مِنْ أَمْوَالِ الأغْنِيَاءِ بِقَدْرِ مَا يَكْتَفِي بِهِ الْفُقَرَاءُ وَلَوْ أَخْرَجَ النَّاسُ زَكَاةَ أَمْوَالِهِمْ مَا احْتَاجَ أَحَدٌ.


1. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from al-Hassan ibn Ali al-Washsha’ from abu al-Hassan al-Rida’, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, who has said the following: “Once, a person asked abu ’Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, ‘The amount of zakat Allah has levied is twenty- five for every one thousand. Why it is not thirty?’ The Imam replied, ‘Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Glorious, has made it twenty- five to be paid from the wealth of affluent people. This much is enough to meet the needs of needy people. If people pay this much no one, in the society, remains needy.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: صحيح - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (6/19)



2ـ عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ سَلَمَةَ بْنِ الْخَطَّابِ عَنِ الْحَسَنِ بْنِ رَاشِدٍ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ إِسْمَاعِيلَ الْمِيثَمِيِّ عَنْ حَبِيبٍ الْخَثْعَمِيِّ قَالَ كَتَبَ أَبُو جَعْفَرٍ الْمَنْصُورُ إِلَى مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ خَالِدٍ وَكَانَ عَامِلَهُ عَلَى الْمَدِينَةِ أَنْ يَسْأَلَ أَهْلَ الْمَدِينَةِ عَنِ الْخَمْسَةِ فِي الزَّكَاةِ مِنَ الْمِائَتَيْنِ كَيْفَ صَارَتْ وَزْنَ سَبْعَةٍ وَلَمْ يَكُنْ هَذَا عَلَى عَهْدِ رَسُولِ الله (صلّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) وَأَمَرَهُ أَنْ يَسْأَلَ فِيمَنْ يَسْأَلُ عَبْدَ الله بْنَ الْحَسَنِ وَجَعْفَرَ بْنَ مُحَمَّدٍ (عَلَيْهِم الْسَّلام) قَالَ فَسَأَلَ أَهْلَ الْمَدِينَةِ فَقَالُوا أَدْرَكْنَا مَنْ كَانَ قَبْلَنَا عَلَى هَذَا فَبَعَثَ إِلَى عَبْدِ الله بْنِ الْحَسَنِ وَجَعْفَرِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ (عَلَيْهِم الْسَّلام) فَسَأَلَ عَبْدَ الله بْنَ الْحَسَنِ فَقَالَ كَمَا قَالَ الْمُسْتَفْتَوْنَ مِنْ أَهْلِ الْمَدِينَةِ قَالَ فَقَالَ مَا تَقُولُ يَا أَبَا عَبْدِ الله فَقَالَ إِنَّ رَسُولَ الله (صلّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) جَعَلَ فِي كُلِّ أَرْبَعِينَ أُوقِيَّةً أُوقِيَّةً فَإِذَا حَسَبْتَ ذَلِكَ كَانَ عَلَى وَزْنِ سَبْعَةٍ وَقَدْ كَانَتْ وَزْنَ سِتَّةٍ وَكَانَتِ الدَّرَاهِمُ خَمْسَةَ دَوَانِيقَ قَالَ حَبِيبٌ فَحَسَبْنَاهُ فَوَجَدْنَاهُ كَمَا قَالَ فَأَقْبَلَ عَلَيْهِ عَبْدُ الله بْنُ الْحَسَنِ فَقَالَ مِنْ أَيْنَ أَخَذْتَ هَذَا قَالَ قَرَأْتُ فِي كِتَابِ أُمِّكَ فَاطِمَةَ قَالَ ثُمَّ انْصَرَفَ فَبَعَثَ إِلَيْهِ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ خَالِدٍ ابْعَثْ إِلَيَّ بِكِتَابِ فَاطِمَةَ (عَلَيْهِا الْسَّلام) فَأَرْسَلَ إِلَيْهِ أَبُو عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ الْسَّلام) إِنِّي إِنَّمَا أَخْبَرْتُكَ أَنِّي قَرَأْتُهُ وَلَمْ أُخْبِرْكَ أَنَّهُ عِنْدِي قَالَ حَبِيبٌ فَجَعَلَ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ خَالِدٍ يَقُولُ لِي مَا رَأَيْتُ مِثْلَ هَذَا قَطُّ.


2. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from Salmah ibn al-Khattab, from al-Hassan ibn Rashid from Ali ibn Isma’il al-Mithamiy from Habib al- Khath’amiy who has said the following: “Abu Ja‘far al-Mansur once wrote to Muhammad ibn Khalid, his governor of al-Madinah, to ask people of al-Madinah about the amount of zakat that was five for every two hundred and how it has become seven for every two hundred which was not as such in the time of the Messenger of Allah. He commanded him to include ‘Abd Allah ibn al-Hassan and Ja‘far ibn Muhammad, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, among the people asked. He (the narrator) has said, ‘He asked people of al-Madinah about it and they replied, “It is because people before us did so.’” He sent someone to ask ‘Abd Allah ibn al-Hassan about it. His answer was just like the answers of other people of al-Madinah. He then asked, ‘What do you say about it, O abu ‘Abd Allah?’ He (the Imam) replied, ‘The Messenger of Allah had levied one Awqiyyah on every forty. If you calculate, it becomes equal to seven. The weight was six and dirham was five Dawaniq each.’ He (the narrator) has said, ‘We calculate it and it was just as he (the Imam) had said.’ ‘Abd Allah ibn al-Hassan then came to the Imam and asked, ‘On the basis of what source have you come up with this calculation?’ He (the Imam) replied, ‘I read it in the book of your mother, Fatimah, ‘Alayha al-Salam .’ He (the narrator) has said, ‘He then returned. Muhammad ibn Khalid then sent his people to the Imam asking for the book of Fatimah, ‘Alayha al-Salam .’ Abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, then sent the answer, ‘I only informed you about my reading it in the book of Fatimah, ‘Alayha al-Salam. I did not say that I have the book of Fatimah, ‘Alayha al-Salam, with me.’ Habib has said, ‘Muhammad ibn Khalid would say, “I have never seen anything like this.’””


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (16/19)



3ـ أَحْمَدُ بْنُ إِدْرِيسَ وَغَيْرُهُ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ أَحْمَدَ عَنْ إِبْرَاهِيمَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ حَفْصٍ عَنْ صَبَّاحٍ الْحَذَّاءِ عَنْ قُثَمَ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ الْسَّلام) قَالَ قُلْتُ لَهُ جُعِلْتُ فِدَاكَ أَخْبِرْنِي عَنِ الزَّكَاةِ كَيْفَ صَارَتْ مِنْ كُلِّ أَلْفٍ خَمْسَةً وَعِشْرِينَ لَمْ تَكُنْ أَقَلَّ أَوْ أَكْثَرَ مَا وَجْهُهَا فَقَالَ إِنَّ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ خَلَقَ الْخَلْقَ كُلَّهُمْ فَعَلِمَ صَغِيرَهُمْ وَكَبِيرَهُمْ وَغَنِيَّهُمْ وَفَقِيرَهُمْ فَجَعَلَ مِنْ كُلِّ أَلْفِ إِنْسَانٍ خَمْسَةً وَعِشْرِينَ مِسْكِيناً وَلَوْ عَلِمَ أَنَّ ذَلِكَ لاَ يَسَعُهُمْ لَزَادَهُمْ لأَنَّهُ خَالِقُهُمْ وَهُوَ أَعْلَمُ بِهِمْ.


3. Ahmad ibn Idris and others have narrated from Muhammad ibn Ahmad from Ibrahim ibn Muhammad from Muhammad ibn Hafs from Sabah al-Hadhdha’ from Quthama who has said the following: “I once said to abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, ‘I pray to Allah to keep my soul in service for your cause, why the amount of zakat on every one thousand is twenty-five and not less or more and what is the reason?’ He (the Imam) replied, ‘Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Glorious, created all people, small, large, wealthy and poor. He made twenty-five destitute ones in every one thousand. If this much did not suffice, He would have levied more; He is their Creator and He knows more about them than they do.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مجهول - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (6/20)



4ـ عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عِيسَى بْنِ عُبَيْدٍ عَنْ يُونُسَ عَنْ أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ الأحْوَلِ قَالَ سَأَلَنِي رَجُلٌ مِنَ الزَّنَادِقَةِ فَقَالَ كَيْفَ صَارَتِ الزَّكَاةُ مِنْ كُلِّ أَلْفٍ خَمْسَةً وَعِشْرِينَ دِرْهَماً فَقُلْتُ لَهُ إِنَّمَا ذَلِكَ مِثْلُ الصَّلاَةِ ثَلاَثٌ وَثِنْتَانِ وَأَرْبَعٌ قَالَ فَقَبِلَ مِنِّي ثُمَّ لَقِيتُ بَعْدَ ذَلِكَ أَبَا عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ الْسَّلام) فَسَأَلْتُهُ عَنْ ذَلِكَ فَقَالَ إِنَّ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ حَسَبَ الأمْوَالَ وَالْمَسَاكِينَ فَوَجَدَ مَا يَكْفِيهِمْ مِنْ كُلِّ أَلْفٍ خَمْسَةً وَعِشْرِينَ وَلَوْ لَمْ يَكْفِهِمْ لَزَادَهُمْ قَالَ فَرَجَعْتُ إِلَيْهِ فَأَخْبَرْتُهُ فَقَالَ جَاءَتْ هَذِهِ الْمَسْأَلَةُ عَلَى الإِبِلِ مِنَ الْحِجَازِ ثُمَّ قَالَ لَوْ أَنِّي أَعْطَيْتُ أَحَداً طَاعَةً لأَعْطَيْتُ صَاحِبَ هَذَا الْكَلاَمِ.


4. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from Muhammad ibn ‘Isa ibn ‘Ubayd from Yunus from abu Ja‘far al-Ahwal who has said the following: “Once an atheist asked me, ‘Why is the amount of zakat twenty- five on every one thousand?’ I replied, ‘It is because Salah (prayer) is of two, three and four Rak‘at.’ He (the narrator) has said, ‘He agreed with me. I then visited abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, and asked him about it.’ He (the Imam) replied, ‘Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Glorious, calculated wealthy and destitute people. He found that twenty-five on every one thousand is enough. If this much did not suffice, He would have increased it.’ I went to the atheist and informed him about it. He said, ‘This answer has come from Hijaz on the back of camel.’ He then said, ‘Were I to obey anyone I would obey the author of this statement.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: صحيح - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (6/20)