28. Zakat Paid To Those Who Do Not Believe in the Divine Authority of ’A’immah

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1ـ عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ عَنْ عُمَرَ بْنِ أُذَيْنَةَ عَنْ زُرَارَةَ وَبُكَيْرٍ وَالْفُضَيْلِ وَمُحَمَّدِ بْنِ مُسْلِمٍ وَبُرَيْدٍ الْعِجْلِيِّ عَنْ أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ وَأَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ الْسَّلام) أَنَّهُمَا قَالاَ فِي الرَّجُلِ يَكُونُ فِي بَعْضِ هَذِهِ الأهْوَاءِ الْحَرُورِيَّةِ وَالْمُرْجِئَةِ وَالْعُثْمَانِيَّةِ وَالْقَدَرِيَّةِ ثُمَّ يَتُوبُ وَيَعْرِفُ هَذَا الأمْرَ وَيُحْسِنُ رَأْيَهُ أَ يُعِيدُ كُلَّ صَلاَةٍ صَلاَّهَا أَوْ صَوْمٍ أَوْ زَكَاةٍ أَوْ حَجٍّ أَوْ لَيْسَ عَلَيْهِ إِعَادَةُ شَيْ‏ءٍ مِنْ ذَلِكَ قَالَ لَيْسَ عَلَيْهِ إِعَادَةُ شَيْ‏ءٍ مِنْ ذَلِكَ غَيْرِ الزَّكَاةِ لاَ بُدَّ أَنْ يُؤَدِّيَهَا لأَنَّهُ وَضَعَ الزَّكَاةَ فِي غَيْرِ مَوْضِعِهَا وَإِنَّمَا مَوْضِعُهَا أَهْلُ الْوَلاَيَةِ.


1. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from ibn abu ‘Umayr from ‘Umar ibn ’Udhaynah from Zurarah, Bukayr, al-Fudayl, Muhammad ibn Muslim and Burayd al-‘Ijliy who have said the following: “Abu Ja‘far, and abu ’Abd Allah, ‘Alayhim al-Salam, were asked about the case of one who follows such opinions as al-Harawriyah, al-Murji’ah, al-‘Uthmaniyah and al-Qadriyah. He then repents and recognizes this issue (the Divine Authority of ’A’immah) and corrects his opinion, is he required to perform the Qada’ (compensatory prayer for) all of his Salah (prayer), fasting, payment of Zakat and Hajj; or is he not required to do them again? He (the Imam) said, ‘He is not required to do any of these things again, except Zakat which is necessary to be paid because he has placed it improperly. The proper place for it is people of al-Wilayah (people who acknowledge Divine Authority of ’A’immah, ‘Alayhim al-Sa^m).’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: موثق - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (16/84)



2ـ عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنْ حَمَّادٍ عَنْ حَرِيزٍ عَنْ عُبَيْدِ بْنِ زُرَارَةَ قَالَ سَمِعْتُ أَبَا عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ الْسَّلام) يَقُولُ مَا مِنْ رَجُلٍ يَمْنَعُ دِرْهَماً مِنْ حَقٍّ إِلاَّ أَنْفَقَ اثْنَيْنِ فِي غَيْرِ حَقِّهِ وَمَا مِنْ رَجُلٍ مَنَعَ حَقّاً فِي مَالِهِ إِلاَّ طَوَّقَهُ الله بِهِ حَيَّةً مِنْ نَارٍ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ قَالَ قُلْتُ لَهُ رَجُلٌ عَارِفٌ أَدَّى زَكَاتَهُ إِلَى غَيْرِ أَهْلِهَا زَمَاناً هَلْ عَلَيْهِ أَنْ يُؤَدِّيَهَا ثَانِياً إِلَى أَهْلِهَا إِذَا عَلِمَهُمْ قَالَ نَعَمْ قَالَ قُلْتُ فَإِنْ لَمْ يَعْرِفْ لَهَا أَهْلاً فَلَمْ يُؤَدِّهَا أَوْ لَمْ يَعْلَمْ أَنَّهَا عَلَيْهِ فَعَلِمَ بَعْدَ ذَلِكَ قَالَ يُؤَدِّيهَا إِلَى أَهْلِهَا لِمَا مَضَى قَالَ قُلْتُ لَهُ فَإِنَّهُ لَمْ يَعْلَمْ أَهْلَهَا فَدَفَعَهَا إِلَى مَنْ لَيْسَ هُوَ لَهَا بِأَهْلٍ وَقَدْ كَانَ طَلَبَ وَاجْتَهَدَ ثُمَّ عَلِمَ بَعْدَ ذَلِكَ سُوءَ مَا صَنَعَ قَالَ لَيْسَ عَلَيْهِ أَنْ يُؤَدِّيَهَا مَرَّةً أُخْرَى. وَعَنْ زُرَارَةَ مِثْلَهُ غَيْرَ أَنَّهُ قَالَ إِنِ اجْتَهَدَ فَقَدْ بَرِئَ وَإِنْ قَصَّرَ فِي الاجْتِهَادِ فِي الطَّلَبِ فَلاَ.


2. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from Hammad from Hariz from ‘Ubayd ibn Zurarah who has said the following: “I once heard abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, say, ‘Whoever withholds one dirham of right, he ends up spending two dirhams for the cause of falsehood. If one denies payment of one dirham of right on his wealth, Allah makes a snake of fire to curl around him on the Day of Judgment.’ He (the narrator) has said that he asked about a man who is knowledgeable, but has paid his Zakat to undeserving people at a certain time has he to pay it again to the deserving people if he knows them? He (the Imam) said, ‘Yes, he is required to do so.’ I then asked, ‘What should he do if he does not find any deserving people? Thus he did not pay, or he did not know if he owes anything or not, but later finds out that he owes.’ He (the Imam) said, ‘He is required to pay to the deserving people for the past.’ I then asked, ‘What is he required to do if he does not find the deserving people and pays to undeserving people although he had done his best and then found out bad things that he had done.’ He (the Imam) said, ‘He is not required to pay it one more time.’” Zurarah has narrated a similar Hadith, except that if he does his best he becomes free of his responsibility, but if he has fallen short in doing his best to find out proper beneficiary, then he is not free of his responsibility.”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: حسن 1 - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (6/84)



3ـ حَمَّادُ بْنُ عِيسَى عَنْ حَرِيزٍ عَنْ زُرَارَةَ وَمُحَمَّدِ بْنِ مُسْلِمٍ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ الْسَّلام) قَالَ إِنَّ الصَّدَقَةَ وَالزَّكَاةَ لاَ يُحَابَى بِهَا قَرِيبٌ وَلَمْ يُمْنَعْهَا بَعِيدٌ.


3. Hammad ibn ‘Isa has narrated from Hariz from Zurarah and Muhammad ibn Muslim who has said the following: “Abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘Zakat cannot be given as a gift to relatives or be denied to non-relatives.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: حسن كالصحيح 1 - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (6/84)



4ـ عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ عَنْ جَمِيلِ بْنِ دَرَّاجٍ عَنِ الْوَلِيدِ بْنِ صَبِيحٍ قَالَ قَالَ لِي شِهَابُ بْنُ عَبْدِ رَبِّهِ أَقْرِئْ أَبَا عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ الْسَّلام) عَنِّي السَّلاَمَ وَأَعْلِمْهُ أَنَّهُ يُصِيبُنِي فَزَعٌ فِي مَنَامِي قَالَ فَقُلْتُ لَهُ إِنَّ شِهَاباً يُقْرِئُكَ السَّلاَمَ وَيَقُولُ لَكَ إِنَّهُ يُصِيبُنِي فَزَعٌ فِي مَنَامِي قَالَ قُلْ لَهُ فَلْيُزَكِّ مَالَهُ قَالَ فَأَبْلَغْتُ شِهَاباً ذَلِكَ فَقَالَ لِي فَتُبْلِغُهُ عَنِّي فَقُلْتُ نَعَمْ فَقَالَ قُلْ لَهُ إِنَّ الصِّبْيَانَ فَضْلاً عَنِ الرِّجَالِ لَيَعْلَمُونَ أَنِّي أُزَكِّي مَالِي قَالَ فَأَبْلَغْتُهُ فَقَالَ أَبُو عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ الْسَّلام) قُلْ لَهُ إِنَّكَ تُخْرِجُهَا وَلاَ تَضَعُهَا فِي مَوَاضِعِهَا.


4. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from ibn abu ‘Umayr from Jamil ibn Darraj formal-Walid ibn Sabih who has said the following: “Shihab ibn “Abd Rabbihi once asked me to convey his Salam (greeting of peace) to abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, and that he becomes terrified in his sleep. I then said to abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al- Salam, that Shihab has offered Salam (greeting of peace) and has said that he becomes terrified in his sleep. He (the Imam) said, ‘Tell him to pay Zakat of his assets.’ I then conveyed the message to Shihab and he asked me, ‘Will you deliver to him (the Imam) a message?’ I replied, ‘Yes, I can do so.’ He said, ‘Tell him (the Imam) that even children, not to mention adults, know that I pay Zakat obligatory on my assets.’ I (the narrator) then conveyed the message to him (the Imam) and abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, said, ‘Say to him that he pays Zakat due on his assets but he does not give it to a proper beneficiary.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: حسن - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (16/84)



5ـ عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ عَنِ ابْنِ أُذَيْنَةَ قَالَ كَتَبَ إِلَيَّ أَبُو عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ الْسَّلام) أَنَّ كُلَّ عَمَلٍ عَمِلَهُ النَّاصِبُ فِي حَالِ ضَلاَلِهِ أَوْ حَالِ نَصْبِهِ ثُمَّ مَنَّ الله عَلَيْهِ وَعَرَّفَهُ هَذَا الأمْرَ فَإِنَّهُ يُؤْجَرُ عَلَيْهِ وَيُكْتَبُ لَهُ إِلاَّ الزَّكَاةَ فَإِنَّهُ يُعِيدُهَا لأَنَّهُ وَضَعَهَا فِي غَيْرِ مَوْضِعِهَا وَإِنَّمَا مَوْضِعُهَا أَهْلُ الْوَلاَيَةِ وَأَمَّا الصَّلاَةُ وَالصَّوْمُ فَلَيْسَ عَلَيْهِ قَضَاؤُهُمَا.


5. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from ibn abu ‘Umayr from ibn ’Udhaynah who has said the following: “Abu ’Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has stated this Hadith. ’Every deed that a Nasib (one hostile to ’A’immah) does in his condition as such, then Allah grants him the favor of making him to acknowledge this issue (the Divine Authority of ’A’immah), He gives him the reward for all of his deeds except Zakat which he must pay again. It is because of his giving it to improper beneficiaries. The proper beneficiaries of Zakat are people who acknowledge al-Wilayah (the Divine Authority of ‘A’immah). However, he is not required to perform Qada’ (compensatory prayer for) his Salah (prayer) and fasting.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: حسن 1 - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (6/85)



6ـ عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ إِسْمَاعِيلَ بْنِ سَعْدٍ الأشْعَرِيِّ عَنِ الرِّضَا (عَلَيْهِ الْسَّلام) قَالَ سَأَلْتُهُ عَنِ الزَّكَاةِ هَلْ تُوضَعُ فِيمَنْ لاَ يَعْرِفُ قَالَ لاَ وَلاَ زَكَاةُ الْفِطْرَةِ.


6. A number of our people have narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from ’Isma‘il ibn Sa‘d al-Ash’ariy who has said the following: “I once asked al-Rida’, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, if Zakat can be given to those who do not acknowledge this issue (the Divine Authority of ’A’immah). He (the Imam) said, ‘No, not even al-Fitrah Zakat can be given to them.’”