29. Paying Zakat on Behalf of a Deceased

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1ـ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنِ الْحَسَنِ بْنِ مَحْبُوبٍ عَنْ عَبَّادِ بْنِ صُهَيْبٍ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ الْسَّلام) فِي رَجُلٍ فَرَّطَ فِي إِخْرَاجِ زَكَاتِهِ فِي حَيَاتِهِ فَلَمَّا حَضَرَتْهُ الْوَفَاةُ حَسَبَ جَمِيعَ مَا كَانَ فَرَّطَ فِيهِ مِمَّا لَزِمَهُ مِنَ الزَّكَاةِ ثُمَّ أَوْصَى بِهِ أَنْ يُخْرَجَ ذَلِكَ فَيُدْفَعَ إِلَى مَنْ يَجِبُ لَهُ قَالَ جَائِزٌ يُخْرَجُ ذَلِكَ مِنْ جَمِيعِ الْمَالِ إِنَّمَا هُوَ بِمَنْزِلَةِ دَيْنٍ لَوْ كَانَ عَلَيْهِ لَيْسَ لِلْوَرَثَةِ شَيْ‏ءٌ حَتَّى يُؤَدُّوا مَا أَوْصَى بِهِ مِنَ الزَّكَاةِ.


1. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Isa from al-Hassan ibn Mahbub from ‘Abbad ibn Suhayb who has said the following: “I once asked abu ’Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about a man who misses paying Zakat of his assets during his life time. When he is about to die, he calculates all that he owes as Zakat and then in his will states that such and such amount must be paid as Zakat. Can such Zakat be paid to proper beneficiaries? He (the Imam) said, ‘Yes, it is permissible and it is taken from all of the assets. It is like debts due on him. The heirs do not have any right in his legacy before payment of such Zakat about which he has made a will.”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: صحيح - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (16/85)



2ـ عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنْ حَمَّادِ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ حَرِيزٍ عَنْ زُرَارَةَ قَالَ قُلْتُ لأَبِي جَعْفَرٍ (عَلَيْهِ الْسَّلام) رَجُلٌ لَمْ يُزَكِّ مَالَهُ فَأَخْرَجَ زَكَاتَهُ عِنْدَ مَوْتِهِ فَأَدَّاهَا كَانَ ذَلِكَ يُجْزِئُ عَنْهُ قَالَ نَعَمْ قُلْتُ فَإِنْ أَوْصَى بِوَصِيَّةٍ مِنْ ثُلُثِهِ وَلَمْ يَكُنْ زَكَّى أَ يُجْزِئُ عَنْهُ مِنْ زَكَاتِهِ قَالَ نَعَمْ يُحْسَبُ لَهُ زَكَاةٌ وَلاَ تَكُونُ لَهُ نَافِلَةٌ وَعَلَيْهِ فَرِيضَةٌ.


2. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from Hammad ibn ‘Isa from Hariz from Zurarah who has said the following: “I once asked abu Ja’far, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about a man who does not pay Zakat until he is about to die. At such time if he pays Zakat in full is that acceptable? He (the Imam) said, ‘Yes, it is acceptable? I then asked, ‘If he makes a will that from one-third of his legacy, Zakat which due on him must be paid, will that kind of will be considered sufficient for his Zakat?’ He (the Imam) said, ‘Yes, it is counted as his Zakat and it is not an optional good deed when there are obligatory matters up on him.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: موثق 1 - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (6/86)



3ـ عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ وَمُحَمَّدُ بْنُ إِسْمَاعِيلَ عَنِ الْفَضْلِ بْنِ شَاذَانَ جَمِيعاً عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ عَنْ شُعَيْبٍ قَالَ قُلْتُ لأَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ الْسَّلام) إِنَّ عَلَى أَخِي زَكَاةً كَثِيرَةً فَأَقْضِيهَا أَوْ أُؤَدِّيهَا عَنْهُ فَقَالَ لِي وَكَيْفَ لَكَ بِذَلِكَ قُلْتُ أَحْتَاطُ قَالَ نَعَمْ إِذاً تُفَرِّجَ عَنْهُ.


3. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father and Muhammad ibn ’Isma‘il has narrated from al-Fadl ibn Shadhan all from ibn abu ‘Umayr from Shu’ayb who has said the following: “I once asked abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about the case of my brother who owes a large amount of Zakat, can I pay for him? He (the Imam) asked, ‘Why do you pay it?’ I replied, ‘I do so out of precaution.’ He (the Imam) said, ‘Obviously, you provide him great relief.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: موثق - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (16/86)



4ـ عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ عَنْ مُعَاوِيَةَ بْنِ عَمَّارٍ قَالَ قُلْتُ لَهُ رَجُلٌ يَمُوتُ وَعَلَيْهِ خَمْسُ مِائَةِ دِرْهَمٍ مِنَ الزَّكَاةِ وَعَلَيْهِ حَجَّةُ الإِسْلاَمِ وَتَرَكَ ثَلاَثَمِائَةِ دِرْهَمٍ فَأَوْصَى بِحَجَّةِ الإِسْلاَمِ وَأَنْ يُقْضَى عَنْهُ دَيْنُ الزَّكَاةِ قَالَ يُحَجُّ عَنْهُ مِنْ أَقْرَبِ مَا يَكُونُ وَيُخْرَجُ الْبَقِيَّةُ فِي الزَّكَاةِ.


4. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from ibn abu ‘Umayr from Mu‘awiyah ibn ‘Ammar who has said the following: “I once asked him (the Imam), ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about a man who at death owed five hundred dirham of Zakat and one Hajjatu al-Islam. His legacy is three hundred dirham. He has made a will about performing Hajjatu al-Islam for him as well as to pay his debt of Zakat. He (the Imam) said, ‘Hajj must be performed for him from the closest distance (Makkah) and the rest is paid for his Zakat.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: حسن 1 - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (6/86)



5ـ عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ يَقْطِينٍ قَالَ قُلْتُ لأَبِي الْحَسَنِ الأوَّلِ (عَلَيْهِ الْسَّلام) رَجُلٌ مَاتَ وَعَلَيْهِ زَكَاةٌ وَأَوْصَى أَنْ تُقْضَى عَنْهُ الزَّكَاةُ وَوُلْدُهُ مَحَاوِيجُ إِنْ دَفَعُوهَا أَضَرَّ ذَلِكَ بِهِمْ ضَرَراً شَدِيداً فَقَالَ يُخْرِجُونَهَا فَيَعُودُونَ بِهَا عَلَى أَنْفُسِهِمْ وَيُخْرِجُونَ مِنْهَا شَيْئاً فَيُدْفَعُ إِلَى غَيْرِهِمْ.


5. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from ibn abu ‘Umayr from Ali ibn Yaqtin who has said the following: “I once asked abu al-Hassan, al-Awwal, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about a man who has died and he owes Zakat. He has made a will about payment of Zakat and his children are needy. If such payment is made it will harm them a great deal. He (the Imam) said, ‘They take the amount of Zakat out of the legacy and pay it to themselves, except something out of it to pay to others.’”