7. The Time of Morning Salah (Prayer)

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1ـ عَلِيُّ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ سَهْلِ بْنِ زِيَادٍ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ مَهْزِيَارَ قَالَ كَتَبَ أَبُو الْحَسَنِ بْنُ الْحُصَيْنِ إِلَى أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ الثَّانِي (عَلَيْهِ الْسَّلام) مَعِي جُعِلْتُ فِدَاكَ قَدِ اخْتَلَفَتْ مُوَالُوكَ فِي صَلاَةِ الْفَجْرِ فَمِنْهُمْ مَنْ يُصَلِّي إِذَا طَلَعَ الْفَجْرُ الأوَّلُ الْمُسْتَطِيلُ فِي السَّمَاءِ وَمِنْهُمْ مَنْ يُصَلِّي إِذَا اعْتَرَضَ فِي أَسْفَلِ الأفُقِ وَاسْتَبَانَ وَلَسْتُ أَعْرِفُ أَفْضَلَ الْوَقْتَيْنِ فَأُصَلِّيَ فِيهِ فَإِنْ رَأَيْتَ أَنْ تُعَلِّمَنِي أَفْضَلَ الْوَقْتَيْنِ وَتَحُدَّهُ لِي وَكَيْفَ أَصْنَعُ مَعَ الْقَمَرِ وَالْفَجْرُ لاَ يَتَبَيَّنُ مَعَهُ حَتَّى يَحْمَرَّ وَيُصْبِحَ وَكَيْفَ أَصْنَعُ مَعَ الْغَيْمِ وَمَا حَدُّ ذَلِكَ فِي السَّفَرِ وَالْحَضَرِ فَعَلْتُ إِنْ شَاءَ الله فَكَتَبَ (عَلَيْهِ الْسَّلام) بِخَطِّهِ وَقَرَأْتُهُ الْفَجْرُ يَرْحَمُكَ الله هُوَ الْخَيْطُ الأبْيَضُ الْمُعْتَرِضُ لَيْسَ هُوَ الأبْيَضَ صُعَدَاءَ فَلاَ تُصَلِّ فِي سَفَرٍ وَلاَ حَضَرٍ حَتَّى تَتَبَيَّنَهُ فَإِنَّ الله تَبَارَكَ وَتَعَالَى لَمْ يَجْعَلْ خَلْقَهُ فِي شُبْهَةٍ مِنْ هَذَا فَقَالَ كُلُوا وَاشْرَبُوا حَتَّى يَتَبَيَّنَ لَكُمُ الْخَيْطُ الأبْيَضُ مِنَ الْخَيْطِ الأسْوَدِ مِنَ الْفَجْرِ فَالْخَيْطُ الأبْيَضُ هُوَ الْمُعْتَرِضُ الَّذِي يَحْرُمُ بِهِ الأكْلُ وَالشُّرْبُ فِي الصَّوْمِ وَكَذَلِكَ هُوَ الَّذِي تُوجَبُ بِهِ الصَّلاَةُ.


1. Ali ibn Muhammad has narrated from Sahl ibn Ziyad from Ali ibn Mahziyar from who has said the following: “Abu al-Hassan ibn al-Husayn once wrote to Abu Ja‘far, al-Thaniy, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, ‘With me, I pray to Allah to keep my soul in service for your cause, people of your followers disagree on timing of dawn Salah (prayer). Certain ones of them perform when it is the first dawn in which a rectangular line appears in the sky, and others among them perform the morning Salah (prayer) when it (brightness) is at the bottom of the horizon and it has just appeared. I do not know which one is better, so I perform my Salah (prayer) in that time. If you consider it proper, instruct me about the time, which is better. Define it for me and how I should deal with the moon and the dawn with which it is not distinguishable, until it becomes red and it is dawn; and how should I deal with clouds and what are the limits for it during a journey or when one is at home. I will follow your instructions. 5 He (the Imam) wrote back with his own handwriting and I read it: “Dawn, Allah has granted you kindness, is when the white line appears sideways; and it is not vertical, during which time you do not perform Salah (prayer) on a journey or when at home until it is obvious. Allah, most Blessed, most High, does not leave His creatures in confusion in this matter so He has said, ‘Eat and drink until a white line appears from a darkness line at dawn. 5 (2:187) The white line is that which is sideways and after the appearance of which eating and drinking become unlawful because of fasting, and so also Salah (prayer) becomes obligatory at such time.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف على المشهور 1 - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (5/43)



2ـ عَلِيُّ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ سَهْلِ بْنِ زِيَادٍ عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ أَبِي نَصْرٍ عَنْ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنِ سَالِمٍ عَنْ إِسْحَاقَ بْنِ عَمَّارٍ قَالَ قُلْتُ لأَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ الْسَّلام) أَخْبِرْنِي بِأَفْضَلِ الْمَوَاقِيتِ فِي صَلاَةِ الْفَجْرِ فَقَالَ مَعَ طُلُوعِ الْفَجْرِ إِنَّ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ يَقُولُ وَقُرْآنَ الْفَجْرِ إِنَّ قُرْآنَ الْفَجْرِ كانَ مَشْهُوداً يَعْنِي صَلاَةَ الْفَجْرِ تَشْهَدُهُ مَلاَئِكَةُ اللَّيْلِ وَمَلاَئِكَةُ النَّهَارِ فَإِذَا صَلَّى الْعَبْدُ الصُّبْحَ مَعَ طُلُوعِ الْفَجْرِ أُثْبِتَتْ لَهُ مَرَّتَيْنِ أَثْبَتَهَا مَلاَئِكَةُ اللَّيْلِ وَمَلاَئِكَةُ النَّهَارِ.


2. Ali ibn Muhammad has narrated from Sahl ibn Ziyad from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from ibn abu Nasr from ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn Salim from Ishaq ibn ‘Ammar who has said the following: “I once asked abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, to teach me about the most excellent time for the morning Salah (prayer). He (the Imam), ‘Alayhi al-Salam, said, ‘About the coming of dawn, Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious, says, “You must perform Salah (prayer)) and the recitation at dawn. The recitation at dawn certainly was witnessed.” (17:78) It is a reference to the morning Salah (prayer) which is witnessed (attended) by the angels of the night and the angels of the day. When a servant of Allah performs Salah (prayer) at dawn, it is written in his favor twice: once by the angels of the night and once by the angels of the day.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف على المشهور - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (15/44)



3ـ عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ عَطِيَّةَ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ الْسَّلام) قَالَ الصُّبْحُ هُوَ الَّذِي إِذَا رَأَيْتَهُ مُعْتَرِضاً كَأَنَّهُ بَيَاضُ سُورَى.


3. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from ibn abu ‘ Umayr from Ali ibn ‘ Atiyyah who has said the following: “Abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘Dawn is when you find a white line like the whiteness of Sur 5 (a certain section of Euphrates river in Iraq) 5 ”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: حسن - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (15/44)



4ـ عَلِيٌّ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ يُونُسَ عَنْ يَزِيدَ بْنِ خَلِيفَةَ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ الْسَّلام) قَالَ وَقْتُ الْفَجْرِ حِينَ يَبْدُو حَتَّى يُضِي‏ءَ.


4. Ali ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Isa has narrated from Yunus from Yazid ibn Khalifah who has said the following: “Abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘The time for morning Salah (prayer) is when it (the white line) appears until the coming out of rays (of the sun).’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف على المشهور 1 - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (5/44)



5ـ عَلِيٌّ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ عَنْ حَمَّادٍ عَنِ الْحَلَبِيِّ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ الْسَّلام) قَالَ وَقْتُ الْفَجْرِ حِينَ يَنْشَقُّ الْفَجْرُ إِلَى أَنْ يَتَجَلَّلَ الصُّبْحُ السَّمَاءَ وَلاَ يَنْبَغِي تَأْخِيرُ ذَلِكَ عَمْداً لَكِنَّهُ وَقْتٌ لِمَنْ شُغِلَ أَوْ نَسِيَ أَوْ نَامَ.


5. Ali has narrated from his father ibn abu ‘Umayr from Hammad al-Halabiy who has said the following: “Abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘The time for morning Salah (prayer) begins when dawn opens, until morning (with rays) brightens the sky. It is not proper to delay purposely; however, there is time for those who are preoccupied, forget or are sleeping.”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: حسن - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (15/45)



6ـ عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ الْقَاسَانِيِّ عَنْ سُلَيْمَانَ بْنِ حَفْصٍ الْمَرْوَزِيِّ عَنْ أَبِي الْحَسَنِ الْعَسْكَرِيِّ (عَلَيْهِ الْسَّلام) قَالَ إِذَا انْتَصَفَ اللَّيْلُ ظَهَرَ بَيَاضٌ فِي وَسَطِ السَّمَاءِ شِبْهُ عَمُودٍ مِنْ حَدِيدٍ تُضِي‏ءُ لَهُ الدُّنْيَا فَيَكُونُ سَاعَةً ثُمَّ يَذْهَبُ وَيُظْلِمُ فَإِذَا بَقِيَ ثُلُثُ اللَّيْلِ ظَهَرَ بَيَاضٌ مِنْ قِبَلِ الْمَشْرِقِ فَأَضَاءَتْ لَهُ الدُّنْيَا فَيَكُونُ سَاعَةً ثُمَّ يَذْهَبُ وَهُوَ وَقْتُ صَلاَةِ اللَّيْلِ ثُمَّ يُظْلِمُ قَبْلَ الْفَجْرِ ثُمَّ يَطْلُعُ الْفَجْرُ الصَّادِقُ مِنْ قِبَلِ الْمَشْرِقِ قَالَ وَمَنْ أَرَادَ أَنْ يُصَلِّيَ صَلاَةَ اللَّيْلِ فِي نِصْفِ اللَّيْلِ فَذَلِكَ لَهُ.


6. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from Ali ibn Muhammad al-Qasaniy from Sulayman ibn Hafs af-Marwaziy who has said the following: “Abu al-Hassan, al-‘Askariy, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘At midnight a white spot appears in the middle of the sky like a pillar of iron, because of which it gives light in the world. This is there for an hour, then it goes out and it becomes dark. When there is one-third of the night left, whiteness appears in the east, which gives light to the world and it after an hour goes out. That is the time for Salah (prayer) of night. It then becomes dark before dawn: then the true dawn appears from the east.’ He (the Imam) said, ‘Those who like to perform Salah (prayer) of night at midnight that is for them.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مجهول - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (15/45)