5. The Time of Noon and Afternoon Salah (Prayer)

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1ـ عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ يُونُسَ عَنْ يَزِيدَ بْنِ خَلِيفَةَ قَالَ قُلْتُ لأَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ الْسَّلام) إِنَّ عُمَرَ بْنَ حَنْظَلَةَ أَتَانَا عَنْكَ بِوَقْتٍ فَقَالَ أَبُو عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ الْسَّلام) إِذاً لاَ يَكْذِبُ عَلَيْنَا قُلْتُ ذَكَرَ أَنَّكَ قُلْتَ إِنَّ أَوَّلَ صَلاَةٍ افْتَرَضَهَا الله عَلَى نَبِيِّهِ (صلّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) الظُّهْرُ وَهُوَ قَوْلُ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ أَقِمِ الصَّلاةَ لِدُلُوكِ الشَّمْسِ فَإِذَا زَالَتِ الشَّمْسُ لَمْ يَمْنَعْكَ إِلاَّ سُبْحَتُكَ ثُمَّ لاَ تَزَالُ فِي وَقْتٍ إِلَى أَنْ يَصِيرَ الظِّلُّ قَامَةً وَهُوَ آخِرُ الْوَقْتِ فَإِذَا صَارَ الظِّلُّ قَامَةً دَخَلَ وَقْتُ الْعَصْرِ فَلَمْ يَزَلْ فِي وَقْتِ الْعَصْرِ حَتَّى يَصِيرَ الظِّلُّ قَامَتَيْنِ وَذَلِكَ الْمَسَاءُ فَقَالَ صَدَقَ.


1. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from Muhammad ibn ‘Isa from Yunus from Yazid ibn Khalifah who has said the following: “I once said to abu ’Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, that ’Umar ibn Hanzalah has reported to us from you about timing (for Salah (prayer)). Abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, then said, ‘If so, he does not fabricate things to call them to be from us.’ I (the narrator) then said that he quotes your statement. It says, ‘The first Salah (prayer) that Allah made obligatory on His Holy prophet was al-Dhuhr Salah (prayer). Allah, most Majestic, most Glorious, has said, “Perform Salah (prayer) from the time of declining of the sun toward the west at noontime” (17:78), so when the sun declines toward the west at noontime, there is no other obstacle except your Nafl (optional Salah (prayer)). This time continues until the shadow of an object becomes equal to its length and that is the end of this time. When the shadow of an object becomes equal to its length, it is the time for al-‘Asr Salah (prayer) which continues until the shadow of an object becomes double its length and that is evening.’ He (the Imam) said, ‘He has spoken the truth.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف على المشهور - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (15/30)



2ـ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ سَلَمَةَ بْنِ الْخَطَّابِ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ سَيْفِ بْنِ عَمِيرَةَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنْ عُمَرَ بْنِ حَنْظَلَةَ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ الْسَّلام) قَالَ إِذَا زَالَتِ الشَّمْسُ دَخَلَ وَقْتُ الظُّهْرِ إِلاَّ أَنَّ بَيْنَ يَدَيْهَا سُبْحَةً وَذَلِكَ إِلَيْكَ إِنْ شِئْتَ طَوَّلْتَ وَإِنْ شِئْتَ قَصَّرْتَ.


2. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Salmah ibn af-Khattab from Ali ibn Sayf ibn ‘Amirah from his father form ‘Umar ibn Hanzalah who has said the following: “Abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘When the sun declines toward the west at noontime, it is time for al-Dhuhr Salah (prayer) except that there is Nafl (optional Salah (prayer) before al-Dhuhr Salah (prayer). It is up to you to spend a longer time for it or a short one.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (15/32)



3ـ عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ عَنْ ذَرِيحٍ الْمُحَارِبِيِّ قَالَ قُلْتُ لأَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ الْسَّلام) مَتَى أُصَلِّي الظُّهْرَ فَقَالَ صَلِّ الزَّوَالَ ثَمَانِيَةً ثُمَّ صَلِّ الظُّهْرَ ثُمَّ صَلِّ سُبْحَتَكَ طَالَتْ أَوْ قَصُرَتْ ثُمَّ صَلِّ الْعَصْرَ.


3. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from ibn abu ‘Umayr from Dharih al-Muharibiy who has narrated the following: “I once asked abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, ‘When can I perform al-Dhuhr Salah (prayer)?’ He (the Imam) said, ‘Perform the eight Rak‘at (the optional Salah (prayer) when the sun declines (toward the west at noontime), then perform al-Dhuhr. Thereafter perform your optional Salah (prayer) for a longer or short time, then perform al-‘Asr Salah (prayer).”’


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: حسن - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (15/32)



4ـ الْحُسَيْنُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ الأشْعَرِيُّ عَنْ عَبْدِ الله بْنِ عَامِرٍ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ مَهْزِيَارَ عَنْ فَضَالَةَ بْنِ أَيُّوبَ عَنِ الْحُسَيْنِ بْنِ عُثْمَانَ عَنِ ابْنِ مُسْكَانَ عَنِ الْحَارِثِ بْنِ الْمُغِيرَةِ وَعُمَرَ بْنِ حَنْظَلَةَ وَمَنْصُورِ بْنِ حَازِمٍ قَالُوا كُنَّا نَقِيسُ الشَّمْسَ بِالْمَدِينَةِ بِالذِّرَاعِ فَقَالَ أَبُو عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ الْسَّلام) أَ لاَ أُنَبِّئُكُمْ بِأَبْيَنَ مِنْ هَذَا إِذَا زَالَتِ الشَّمْسُ فَقَدْ دَخَلَ وَقْتُ الظُّهْرِ إِلاَّ أَنَّ بَيْنَ يَدَيْهَا سُبْحَةً وَذَلِكَ إِلَيْكَ إِنْ شِئْتَ طَوَّلْتَ وَإِنْ شِئْتَ قَصَّرْتَ. وَرَوَى سَعْدٌ عَنْ مُوسَى بْنِ الْحَسَنِ عَنِ الْحَسَنِ بْنِ الْحُسَيْنِ اللُّؤْلُؤِيِّ عَنْ صَفْوَانَ بْنِ يَحْيَى عَنِ الْحَارِثِ بْنِ الْمُغِيرَةِ النَّضْرِيِّ وَعُمَرَ بْنِ حَنْظَلَةَ عَنْ مَنْصُورٍ مِثْلَهُ وَفِيهِ إِلَيْكَ فَإِنْ كُنْتَ خَفَّفْتَ سُبْحَتَكَ فَحِينَ تَفْرُغُ مِنْ سُبْحَتِكَ وَإِنْ طَوَّلْتَ فَحِينَ تَفْرُغُ مِنْ سُبْحَتِكَ.


4. Al-Husayn ibn Muhammad al-Ash’ariy has narrated from ‘Abd Allah ibn ‘Amir from Ali ibn Mahziyar from Fadalah ibn Ayyub from al-Husayn ibn ‘Uthman from ibn Muskan formal-Harith ibn al-Mughirah and ‘Umar ibn Hanzalah and Mansur ibn Hazim who have said the following: “We would measure the sun in al-Madinah by the yards. Abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, said, ‘Allow me to show you a way clearer than this. When the sun declines toward the west at noontime, it is the time for al-Dhuhr Salah (prayer), except for the optional Salah (prayer) before it, which is up to you to make it longer or shorter.’” Sa‘id has narrated from Musa al-Hassan from al-Hassan ibn al-Husayn al-Lu’lu’i from Safwan ibn Yahya from al-Harith ibn al-Mughirah al-Nadriy and ‘Umar ibn Hanzalah: In a similar Hadith it is said, ‘It is up to you to make the optional one light thereafter, or make it longer, thereafter is the time (for al-Dhuhr).”’


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: صحيح - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (15/33)



5ـ عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنِ الْحُسَيْنِ بْنِ سَعِيدٍ عَنِ الْقَاسِمِ بْنِ عُرْوَةَ عَنْ عُبَيْدِ بْنِ زُرَارَةَ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ الْسَّلام) قَالَ إِذَا زَالَتِ الشَّمْسُ فَقَدْ دَخَلَ وَقْتُ الصَّلاَتَيْنِ إِلاَّ أَنَّ هَذِهِ قَبْلَ هَذِهِ. وَرَوَى سَعْدٌ عَنِ الْحُسَيْنِ بْنِ سَعِيدٍ وَمُحَمَّدِ بْنِ خَالِدٍ الْبَرْقِيِّ وَالْعَبَّاسِ بْنِ مَعْرُوفٍ جَمِيعاً عَنِ الْقَاسِمِ وَأَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنِ الْبَرْقِيِّ عَنِ الْقَاسِمِ مِثْلَهُ وَفِيهِ دَخَلَ وَقْتُ الظُّهْرِ وَالْعَصْرِ جَمِيعاً وَزَادَ ثُمَّ أَنْتَ فِي وَقْتٍ مِنْهُمَا جَمِيعاً حَتَّى تَغِيبَ الشَّمْسُ.


5. A number of our people have narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from al-Husayn ibn Sa‘id from al-Qasim ibn ‘Urwah from ‘Ubayd ibn Zurarah from who has said the following: “Abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said that when the sun declines (toward the west at noontime), it is the time for two Salah (prayer) except that this is before that.” “Also Sa‘d has narrated from al-Husayn ibn Sa’eed and Muhammad ibn Khalid al-Barqiy and al- ‘Abbas ibn Ma’ruf all from al-Qasim and Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Isa from al-Barqiy from al-Qasim: “In a similar Hadith it is said, Time for al-Dhuhr and al- ‘Asr together has come’ and in addition, it is said that you are in the time for both of them (al-Dhuhr and al- ‘Asr Salah (prayer)) until it is sunset.”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مجهول - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (15/33)



6ـ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ الْحُسَيْنِ عَنْ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنِ أَبِي هَاشِمٍ الْبَجَلِيِّ عَنْ سَالِمٍ أَبِي خَدِيجَةَ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ الْسَّلام) قَالَ سَأَلَهُ إِنْسَانٌ وَأَنَا حَاضِرٌ فَقَالَ رُبَّمَا دَخَلْتُ الْمَسْجِدَ وَبَعْضُ أَصْحَابِنَا يُصَلُّونَ الْعَصْرَ وَبَعْضُهُمْ يُصَلُّونَ الظُّهْرَ فَقَالَ أَنَا أَمَرْتُهُمْ بِهَذَا لَوْ صَلَّوْا عَلَى وَقْتٍ وَاحِدٍ عُرِفُوا فَأُخِذَ بِرِقَابِهِمْ.


6. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Muhammad ibn al-Husayn from ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn abu Hashim al-Bajaliy from Salim abu Khadijah who has said the following: “Once, when I also was present, a human being asked abu ‘Abdullah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, ‘ I may enter a Masjid when certain persons of our people perform al- ‘Asr and others perform al-Dhuhr Salah (prayer).’ He (the Imam) said, ‘ I have commanded them to do so; were they to perform at one time they would have been recognized and caught by their necks.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مختلف فيه 1 - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (5/34)



7ـ عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنْ صَالِحِ بْنِ سَعِيدٍ عَنْ يُونُسَ عَنْ بَعْضِ رِجَالِهِ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ الْسَّلام) قَالَ سَأَلْتُهُ عَمَّا جَاءَ فِي الْحَدِيثِ أَنْ صَلِّ الظُّهْرَ إِذَا كَانَتِ الشَّمْسُ قَامَةً وَقَامَتَيْنِ وَذِرَاعاً وَذِرَاعَيْنِ وَقَدَماً وَقَدَمَيْنِ مِنْ هَذَا وَمِنْ هَذَا فَمَتَى هَذَا وَكَيْفَ هَذَا وَقَدْ يَكُونُ الظِّلُّ فِي بَعْضِ الأوْقَاتِ نِصْفَ قَدَمٍ قَالَ إِنَّمَا قَالَ ظِلُّ الْقَامَةِ وَلَمْ يَقُلْ قَامَةُ الظِّلِّ وَذَلِكَ أَنَّ ظِلَّ الْقَامَةِ يَخْتَلِفُ مَرَّةً يَكْثُرُ وَمَرَّةً يَقِلُّ وَالْقَامَةُ قَامَةٌ أَبَداً لاَ يَخْتَلِفُ ثُمَّ قَالَ ذِرَاعٌ وَذِرَاعَانِ وَقَدَمٌ وَقَدَمَانِ فَصَارَ ذِرَاعٌ وَذِرَاعَانِ تَفْسِيرَ الْقَامَةِ وَالْقَامَتَيْنِ فِي الزَّمَانِ الَّذِي يَكُونُ فِيهِ ظِلُّ الْقَامَةِ ذِرَاعاً وَظِلُّ الْقَامَتَيْنِ ذِرَاعَيْنِ فَيَكُونُ ظِلُّ الْقَامَةِ وَالْقَامَتَيْنِ وَالذِّرَاعِ وَالذِّرَاعَيْنِ مُتَّفِقَيْنِ فِي كُلِّ زَمَانٍ مَعْرُوفَيْنِ مُفَسَّراً أَحَدُهُمَا بِالآخَرِ مُسَدَّداً بِهِ فَإِذَا كَانَ الزَّمَانُ يَكُونُ فِيهِ ظِلُّ الْقَامَةِ ذِرَاعاً كَانَ الْوَقْتُ ذِرَاعاً مِنْ ظِلِّ الْقَامَةِ وَكَانَتِ الْقَامَةُ ذِرَاعاً مِنَ الظِّلِّ فَإِذَا كَانَ ظِلُّ الْقَامَةِ أَقَلَّ أَوْ أَكْثَرَ كَانَ الْوَقْتُ مَحْصُوراً بِالذِّرَاعِ وَالذِّرَاعَيْنِ فَهَذَا تَفْسِيرُ الْقَامَةِ وَالْقَامَتَيْنِ وَالذِّرَاعِ وَالذِّرَاعَيْنِ.


7. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from Salih ibn Sa‘id from Yunus from certain persons of his people who has said the following: “I once asked abu ‘Abdullah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about the meaning of Hadith that says, ’Perform al- Dhuhr Salah (prayer) when the sun is equal to one length or two, one yard or two or one step or two steps from this and from there. When is it and how is it? At certain times is half of one step.’ He (the Imam) said that in the Hadith is it said, ‘ An object’s shadow’ and not the shadow of an object’ is because the shadow of an object may appear in different sizes, sometimes longer and sometimes shorter, but an object is an object all the time and it does not change. Hadith has said that it is one yard or two yards, one step or two steps.” Thus one yard or two yards have become explanation of one length or two lengths during the time when an object’s shadow is of the size of one yard and two object’s shadows of the size of two yards. Therefore one object’s or two objects’ shadows and one yard or two yards are in agreement with each other in times as understood one, explaining the other and supported thereby. At a given time, for example at one O’clock, when an object’s shadow is of the size of one yard the time (for Salah (prayer)) is one yard of an object’s shadow and the object is a yard of the shadow. When an object’s shadow is less or more, the time is measured in yards or two yards. This is the explanation of one length and a yard or two yards.’” (The theme of Hadith is obvious; it only may need a little thinking to grasp it fully.)


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مجهول مرسل 1 - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (5/34)



8ـ عَلِيُّ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ سَهْلِ بْنِ زِيَادٍ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ الْحَسَنِ عَنْ عَبْدِ الله بْنِ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ عَنْ مِسْمَعِ بْنِ عَبْدِ الْمَلِكِ قَالَ إِذَا صَلَّيْتَ الظُّهْرَ فَقَدْ دَخَلَ وَقْتُ الْعَصْرِ إِلاَّ أَنَّ بَيْنَ يَدَيْهَا سُبْحَةً فَذَلِكَ إِلَيْكَ إِنْ شِئْتَ طَوَّلْتَ وَإِنْ شِئْتَ قَصَّرْتَ.


8. Ali ibn Muhammad has narrated from Sahl ibn Ziyad from Muhammad ibn al-Hassan from ‘Abd Allah ibn ‘Abd al-Rahman from Misma’ ibn ‘Abd Malik who has said the following: “He (the Imam), ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘When you complete al-Dhuhr Salah (prayer), it is time for al- ‘Asr Salah (prayer) except that before it there is Nafl (optional Salah (prayer) and it is up to you to make it lengthy or a short one.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف على المشهور 1 - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (5/36)