73. Ghusl (bath) for Children and Salah (Prayer) for Them

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1ـ عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ سَهْلِ بْنِ زِيَادٍ عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنِ الْحُسَيْنِ بْنِ مُوسَى عَنْ زُرَارَةَ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ الْسَّلام) قَالَ السِّقْطُ إِذَا تَمَّ لَهُ أَرْبَعَةُ أَشْهُرٍ غُسِّلَ.


1. A number of our people have narrated from Sahl ibn Ziyad from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from al-Husayn ibn Musa from Zurarah from who has said the following: “Abu ’Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘A miscarried child (fetus) after four months is given Ghusl (bath).’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (14/131)



2ـ عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ عَنْ حَمَّادِ بْنِ عُثْمَانَ عَنِ الْحَلَبِيِّ وَزُرَارَةَ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ الْسَّلام) أَنَّهُ سُئِلَ عَنِ الصَّلاَةِ عَلَى الصَّبِيِّ مَتَى يُصَلَّى عَلَيْهِ قَالَ إِذَا عَقَلَ الصَّلاَةَ قُلْتُ مَتَى تَجِبُ الصَّلاَةُ عَلَيْهِ فَقَالَ إِذَا كَانَ ابْنَ سِتِّ سِنِينَ وَالصِّيَامُ إِذَا أَطَاقَهُ.


2. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from ibn abu ‘Umayr from Hammad ibn ‘Isa from al-Halabiy and Zurarah who has said the following: “Abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, was asked about Salah (prayer) of a child. He (the Imam) said, ‘There is Salah (prayer) for him when he is able to understand it (Salah (prayer)).’ I (the narrator) then asked, ‘When it becomes obligatory for him? He (the Imam) said, ‘It is when he is six years old and there is fasting on him when he is able to fast.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: حسن موثق - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (14/131)



3ـ عَلِيٌّ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي عُمَيْرٍ عَنْ عُمَرَ بْنِ أُذَيْنَةَ عَنْ زُرَارَةَ قَالَ رَأَيْتُ ابْناً لأَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ الْسَّلام) فِي حَيَاةِ أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ (عَلَيْهِ الْسَّلام) يُقَالُ لَهُ عَبْدُ الله فَطِيمٌ قَدْ دَرَجَ فَقُلْتُ لَهُ يَا غُلاَمُ مَنْ ذَا الَّذِي إِلَى جَنْبِكَ لِمَوْلىً لَهُمْ فَقَالَ هَذَا مَوْلاَيَ فَقَالَ لَهُ الْمَوْلَى يُمَازِحُهُ لَسْتُ لَكَ بِمَوْلىً فَقَالَ ذَلِكَ شَرٌّ لَكَ فَطَعَنَ فِي جِنَازَةِ الْغُلاَمِ فَمَاتَ فَأُخْرِجَ فِي سَفَطٍ إِلَى الْبَقِيعِ فَخَرَجَ أَبُو جَعْفَرٍ (عَلَيْهِ الْسَّلام) وَعَلَيْهِ جُبَّةُ خَزٍّ صَفْرَاءُ وَعِمَامَةُ خَزٍّ صَفْرَاءُ وَمِطْرَفُ خَزٍّ أَصْفَرُ فَانْطَلَقَ يَمْشِي إِلَى الْبَقِيعِ وَهُوَ مُعْتَمِدٌ عَلَيَّ وَالنَّاسُ يُعَزُّونَهُ عَلَى ابْنِ ابْنِهِ فَلَمَّا انْتَهَى إِلَى الْبَقِيعِ تَقَدَّمَ أَبُو جَعْفَرٍ (عَلَيْهِ الْسَّلام) فَصَلَّى عَلَيْهِ وَكَبَّرَ عَلَيْهِ أَرْبَعاً ثُمَّ أَمَرَ بِهِ فَدُفِنَ ثُمَّ أَخَذَ بِيَدِي فَتَنَحَّى بِي ثُمَّ قَالَ إِنَّهُ لَمْ يَكُنْ يُصَلَّى عَلَى الأطْفَالِ إِنَّمَا كَانَ أَمِيرُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ (صلّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) يَأْمُرُ بِهِمْ فَيُدْفَنُونَ مِنْ وَرَاءُ وَلاَ يُصَلِّي عَلَيْهِمْ وَإِنَّمَا صَلَّيْتُ عَلَيْهِ مِنْ أَجْلِ أَهْلِ الْمَدِينَةِ كَرَاهِيَةَ أَنْ يَقُولُوا لاَ يُصَلُّونَ عَلَى أَطْفَالِهِمْ.


3. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from ibn abu ‘Umayr from ‘Umar ibn ’Udhaynah from Zurarah from who has said the following: “I saw a son of abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, during the life time of abu Ja‘far, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, called ‘Abd Allah Fatim moved in. I asked him about their Mawla’ next to him, ‘Who is he next to you?’ He replied, ‘He is my Mawla’ (servant or follower).’ The Mawla’, joking with him said, ‘I am not your Mawla’.’ He said, ‘That is worse for you.’ That boy was hurt and he died. (They carried) his body to al-Baqi’ cemetery in a basket. Abu Ja‘far, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, came out to join the funeral wearing a jubbah which was yellow, a yellow turban and a yellow shawl of khazz (a certain kind of fur). He (the Imam) walked to al-Baqi’ while leaning on me for support. People offered condolences for his grandchild. In al-Baqi’ abu Ja‘far, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, moved forward and performed Salah (prayer) for the deceased boy with four Takbir. He then commanded to bury him. He (the Imam) then holding my hand moved away and then said, ‘Salah (prayer) was not performed for deceased children. ’Amir al-Mu’minin, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, would command to bury them (children) without performing Salah (prayer). I performed Salah (prayer) only because of people of al-Madinah. I do not like their saying, ‘They do not perform Salah (prayer) for their children.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: حسن 1 - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (4/132)



4ـ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ خَالِدٍ وَالْحُسَيْنِ بْنِ سَعِيدٍ عَنِ النَّضْرِ بْنِ سُوَيْدٍ عَنْ يَحْيَى بْنِ عِمْرَانَ عَنِ ابْنِ مُسْكَانَ عَنْ زُرَارَةَ قَالَ مَاتَ ابْنٌ لأَبِي جَعْفَرٍ (عَلَيْهِ الْسَّلام) فَأُخْبِرَ بِمَوْتِهِ فَأَمَرَ بِهِ فَغُسِّلَ وَكُفِّنَ وَمَشَى مَعَهُ وَصَلَّى عَلَيْهِ وَطُرِحَتْ خُمْرَةٌ فَقَامَ عَلَيْهَا ثُمَّ قَامَ عَلَى قَبْرِهِ حَتَّى فَرَغَ مِنْهُ ثُمَّ انْصَرَفَ وَانْصَرَفْتُ مَعَهُ حَتَّى إِنِّي لأَمْشِي مَعَهُ فَقَالَ أَمَا إِنَّهُ لَمْ يَكُنْ يُصَلَّى عَلَى مِثْلِ هَذَا وَكَانَ ابْنَ ثَلاَثِ سِنِينَ كَانَ عَلِيٌّ (عَلَيْهِ الْسَّلام) يَأْمُرُ بِهِ فَيُدْفَنُ وَلاَ يُصَلَّى عَلَيْهِ وَلَكِنَّ النَّاسَ صَنَعُوا شَيْئاً فَنَحْنُ نَصْنَعُ مِثْلَهُ قَالَ قُلْتُ فَمَتَى تَجِبُ الصَّلاَةُ عَلَيْهِ فَقَالَ إِذَا عَقَلَ الصَّلاَةَ وَكَانَ ابْنَ سِتِّ سِنِينَ قَالَ قُلْتُ فَمَا تَقُولُ فِي الْوِلْدَانِ فَقَالَ سُئِلَ رَسُولُ الله (صلّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) عَنْهُمْ فَقَالَ الله أَعْلَمُ بِمَا كَانُوا عَامِلِينَ.


4. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Isa from Muhammad ibn Khalid and al-Husayn ibn Sa‘id from al-Nadr ibn Suwayd from Yahya ibn ‘Imran from ibn Muskan from Zurarah from who has said the following: “One of the sons of Abu Ja‘far, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, died. He (the Imam) was informed of his death and he commanded for Ghusl (bath) and shroud. He (the Imam) walked in his funeral and performed Salah (prayer). A prayer mat was spread and he (the Imam) stood on it, then he (the Imam) stood on his grave until he was free, then moved away and I (the narrator) also moved away. I walked along with him (the Imam). He (the Imam) said that Salah (prayer) was not performed in such cases, but people did things and we also do like them. I (the narrator) then asked, ‘When Salah (prayer) is obligatory?’ He (the Imam) said, ‘It is necessary when he understands Salah (prayer) and he is six years old. I (the narrator) asked, ‘What do you say about children?’ He (the Imam) said, ‘The Messenger of Allah was asked about them and he said that Allah knows best about what they have done.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: صحيح 1 - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (4/135)



5ـ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ إِسْمَاعِيلَ عَنْ عُثْمَانَ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ زُرْعَةَ عَنْ سَمَاعَةَ عَنْ أَبِي الْحَسَنِ الأوَّلِ (عَلَيْهِ الْسَّلام) قَالَ سَأَلْتُهُ عَنِ السِّقْطِ إِذَا اسْتَوَى خَلْقُهُ يَجِبُ عَلَيْهِ الْغُسْلُ وَاللَّحْدُ وَالْكَفَنُ فَقَالَ كُلُّ ذَلِكَ يَجِبُ عَلَيْهِ.


5. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from Ali ibn ’Isma‘il from ‘Uthman ibn ‘Isa from Zur’ah from Sama‘ah who has said the following: “I once asked abu al-Hassan, al-Awwal, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about a miscarried child whose body is complete if Ghusl (bath) is necessary as well as al-Lahad (a horizontal or vertical) ditch in the grave). He (the Imam) said, ‘All of such things are necessary.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: موثق - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (14/136)



6ـ عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ سَهْلِ بْنِ زِيَادٍ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ مِهْرَانَ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ الْفُضَيْلِ قَالَ كَتَبْتُ إِلَى أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ (عَلَيْهِ الْسَّلام) أَسْأَلُهُ عَنِ السِّقْطِ كَيْفَ يُصْنَعُ بِهِ فَكَتَبَ (عَلَيْهِ الْسَّلام) إِلَيَّ أَنَّ السِّقْطَ يُدْفَنُ بِدَمِهِ فِي مَوْضِعِهِ.


6. A number of our people have narrated from Sahl ibn Ziyad from Ali ibn Mehran from Muhammad ibn al-Fudayl who has said the following: “I once wrote to abu Ja‘far, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, asking about what is done for a miscarried child. He (the Imam) wrote to me, ‘A miscarried child is buried with his blood in his place (right away).”’


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (14/137)



7ـ عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنْ عَمْرِو بْنِ سَعِيدٍ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ عَبْدِ الله قَالَ سَمِعْتُ أَبَا الْحَسَنِ مُوسَى (عَلَيْهِ الْسَّلام) يَقُولُ إِنَّهُ لَمَّا قُبِضَ إِبْرَاهِيمُ بْنُ رَسُولِ الله (صلّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) جَرَتْ فِيهِ ثَلاَثُ سُنَنٍ أَمَّا وَاحِدَةٌ فَإِنَّهُ لَمَّا مَاتَ انْكَسَفَتِ الشَّمْسُ فَقَالَ النَّاسُ انْكَسَفَتِ الشَّمْسُ لِفَقْدِ ابْنِ رَسُولِ الله فَصَعِدَ رَسُولُ الله (صلّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) الْمِنْبَرَ فَحَمِدَ الله وَأَثْنَى عَلَيْهِ ثُمَّ قَالَ يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ إِنَّ الشَّمْسَ وَالْقَمَرَ آيَتَانِ مِنْ آيَاتِ الله يَجْرِيَانِ بِأَمْرِهِ مُطِيعَانِ لَهُ لاَ يَنْكَسِفَانِ لِمَوْتِ أَحَدٍ وَلاَ لِحَيَاتِهِ فَإِنِ انْكَسَفَتَا أَوْ وَاحِدَةٌ مِنْهُمَا فَصَلُّوا ثُمَّ نَزَلَ عَنِ الْمِنْبَرِ فَصَلَّى بِالنَّاسِ صَلاَةَ الْكُسُوفِ فَلَمَّا سَلَّمَ قَالَ يَا عَلِيُّ قُمْ فَجَهِّزِ ابْنِي فَقَامَ عَلِيٌّ (عَلَيْهِ الْسَّلام) فَغَسَّلَ إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَحَنَّطَهُ وَكَفَّنَهُ ثُمَّ خَرَجَ بِهِ وَمَضَى رَسُولُ الله (صلّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) حَتَّى انْتَهَى بِهِ إِلَى قَبْرِهِ فَقَالَ النَّاسُ إِنَّ رَسُولَ الله (صلّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) نَسِيَ أَنْ يُصَلِّيَ عَلَى إِبْرَاهِيمَ لِمَا دَخَلَهُ مِنَ الْجَزَعِ عَلَيْهِ فَانْتَصَبَ قَائِماً ثُمَّ قَالَ يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ أَتَانِي جَبْرَئِيلُ (عَلَيْهِم الْسَّلام) بِمَا قُلْتُمْ زَعَمْتُمْ أَنِّي نَسِيتُ أَنْ أُصَلِّيَ عَلَى ابْنِي لِمَا دَخَلَنِي مِنَ الْجَزَعِ أَلاَ وَإِنَّهُ لَيْسَ كَمَا ظَنَنْتُمْ وَلَكِنَّ اللَّطِيفَ الْخَبِيرَ فَرَضَ عَلَيْكُمْ خَمْسَ صَلَوَاتٍ وَجَعَلَ لِمَوْتَاكُمْ مِنْ كُلِّ صَلاَةٍ تَكْبِيرَةً وَأَمَرَنِي أَنْ لاَ أُصَلِّيَ إِلاَّ عَلَى مَنْ صَلَّى ثُمَّ قَالَ يَا عَلِيُّ انْزِلْ فَأَلْحِدِ ابْنِي فَنَزَلَ فَأَلْحَدَ إِبْرَاهِيمَ فِي لَحْدِهِ فَقَالَ النَّاسُ إِنَّهُ لاَ يَنْبَغِي لأَحَدٍ أَنْ يَنْزِلَ فِي قَبْرِ وَلَدِهِ إِذْ لَمْ يَفْعَلْ رَسُولُ الله (صلّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) فَقَالَ لَهُمْ رَسُولُ الله (صلّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ إِنَّهُ لَيْسَ عَلَيْكُمْ بِحَرَامٍ أَنْ تَنْزِلُوا فِي قُبُورِ أَوْلاَدِكُمْ وَلَكِنِّي لَسْتُ آمَنُ إِذَا حَلَّ أَحَدُكُمُ الْكَفَنَ عَنْ وَلَدِهِ أَنْ يَلْعَبَ بِهِ الشَّيْطَانُ فَيَدْخُلَهُ عِنْدَ ذَلِكَ مِنَ الْجَزَعِ مَا يُحْبِطُ أَجْرَهُ ثُمَّ انْصَرَفَ (صلّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه).


7. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from ‘Amr ibn Sa‘id from Ali ibn ’Abd Allah who has said the following: “I heard abu al-Hassan Musa, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, say, ‘When Ibrahim son of the Messenger of Allah passed away, three traditions were established. One tradition is that on that day a sun eclipse took place and people said that it is because of the death of the son of the Messenger of Allah. The Messenger of Allah went on the pulpit, praised Allah and glorified Him; then said, “O people the sun and the moon are two signs of the signs of Allah which move because of His command and in obedience to Him. Their eclipse is not because of the death or life of anyone. If one or both of them eclipse perform Salah (prayer) for eclipse.” He climbed down the pulpit and performed Salah (prayer) because of eclipse with the people. When he completed his Salah (prayer) by saying the last phrase, the greeting, he (the Messenger of Allah) said, “O Ali, you must prepare my son for burial.” Ali, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, gave Ghusl (bath) to Ibrahim, hunut and shroud. He brought the deceased out and the Messenger of Allah joined the funeral until they arrived near his grave. People said, “The Messenger of Allah has forgotten Salah (prayer) for Ibrahim due to shock because of his death.” He (the Messenger of Allah) stood up straight and said, “O people, Jibril just informed me of what you have thought about my forgetting Salah (prayer) for my son, Ibrahim, because of shock due to his death. You must know that it is not as you think it is. In fact the Most Kind and Most Aware one has made five Salah (prayer) obligatory on you and for your dead people. He has made five Takbir necessary, one Takbir from each Salah (prayer). He has commanded me to perform Salah (prayer) only for those who have performed Salah (prayer).” He (the Messenger of Allah) then said, “O Ali, climb down and place my son in al-Lahad.” He (Ali) climbed down and placed Ibrahim in Lahad. People said, “It is not proper for people to climb down in the grave of their sons because the Messenger of Allah has not done so.” The Messenger of Allah said to them, “O people, it is not unlawful for you to climb down in the grave of your sons, but I do not find it safe for you to do so because on opening the shroud of your sons Satan may play with you to cause a shock and you lose your reward.” He (the Messenger of Allah) thereafter, moved away and left the graveyard.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مجهول 1 - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (4/138)



8ـ عَلِيٌّ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ شِيرَةَ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ سُلَيْمَانَ عَنْ حُسَيْنٍ الْحَرْشُوشِ عَنْ هِشَامِ بْنِ سَالِمٍ قَالَ قُلْتُ لأَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ الْسَّلام) إِنَّ النَّاسَ يُكَلِّمُونَا وَيَرُدُّونَ عَلَيْنَا قَوْلَنَا إِنَّهُ لاَ يُصَلَّى عَلَى الطِّفْلِ لأَنَّهُ لَمْ يُصَلِّ فَيَقُولُونَ لاَ يُصَلَّى إِلاَّ عَلَى مَنْ صَلَّى فَنَقُولُ نَعَمْ فَيَقُولُونَ أَ رَأَيْتُمْ لَوْ أَنَّ رَجُلاً نَصْرَانِيّاً أَوْ يَهُودِيّاً أَسْلَمَ ثُمَّ مَاتَ مِنْ سَاعَتِهِ فَمَا الْجَوَابُ فِيهِ فَقَالَ قُولُوا لَهُمْ أَ رَأَيْتَ لَوْ أَنَّ هَذَا الَّذِي أَسْلَمَ السَّاعَةَ ثُمَّ افْتَرَى عَلَى إِنْسَانٍ مَا كَانَ يَجِبُ عَلَيْهِ فِي فِرْيَتِهِ فَإِنَّهُمْ سَيَقُولُونَ يَجِبُ عَلَيْهِ الْحَدُّ فَإِذَا قَالُوا هَذَا قِيلَ لَهُمْ فَلَوْ أَنَّ هَذَا الصَّبِيَّ الَّذِي لَمْ يُصَلِّ افْتَرَى عَلَى إِنْسَانٍ هَلْ كَانَ يَجِبُ عَلَيْهِ الْحَدُّ فَإِنَّهُمْ سَيَقُولُونَ لاَ فَيُقَالُ لَهُمْ صَدَقْتُمْ إِنَّمَا يَجِبُ أَنْ يُصَلَّى عَلَى مَنْ وَجَبَ عَلَيْهِ الصَّلاَةُ وَالْحُدُودُ وَلاَ يُصَلَّى عَلَى مَنْ لَمْ تَجِبْ عَلَيْهِ الصَّلاَةُ وَلاَ الْحُدُودُ.


8. Ali has narrated from Ali ibn Shirah from Muhammad ibn Sulayman from Husayn al-Harshush from Hisham ibn Salim who has said the following: “I once said to abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, that people speak against us and do not accept our words, ‘there is no Salah (prayer) for a deceased child’; he has not performed any Salah (prayer). They say, ‘You say that there is no Salah (prayer) for those who have not performed any Salah (prayer).’ We say, ‘Yes that is true.’ They say, ‘Consider if a Christian or a Jew becomes a Muslim, then he dies within the same hour, then what is the answer?’ He (the Imam) said, ‘Ask them to consider the case of this man, new Muslim, if he within the same hour falsely accuses a human being. What is his obligation because of his committing such sin? They will say that he is subject to punishment according to law. When they say this, then it is said to them, ‘If a child who has not performed any Salah (prayer) accuses a human being falsely, is he subjected to punishment according to law? They will say that he is not subject to any punishment. It then is said to them that you are right. Salah (prayer) is necessary for one who has performed Salah (prayer) and those who are subject to punishment according to law. Salah (prayer) is not necessary for one on whom Salah (prayer) is not obligatory or enduring punishment according to law.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف 1 - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (4/140)