Al-Kāfi - Volume 3 > Causes of Death and that Believing People May Die by any Manner of Dying
Hadith #1

1ـ عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ ابْنِ فَضَّالٍ عَمَّنْ حَدَّثَهُ عَنْ سَعْدِ بْنِ طَرِيفٍ عَنْ أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ (عَلَيْهِ الْسَّلام) قَالَ كَانَ النَّاسُ يَعْتَبِطُونَ اعْتِبَاطاً فَلَمَّا كَانَ زَمَانُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ (عَلَيْهِ الْسَّلام) قَالَ يَا رَبِّ اجْعَلْ لِلْمَوْتِ عِلَّةً يُؤْجَرُ بِهَا الْمَيِّتُ وَيُسَلَّى بِهَا عَنِ الْمُصَابِ قَالَ فَأَنْزَلَ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ الْمُومَ وَهُوَ الْبِرْسَامُ ثُمَّ أَنْزَلَ بَعْدَهُ الدَّاءَ.

1. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from ibn Faddal from those who narrated to him from Sa‘d ibn Tarif who has said the following: “Abu Ja’far, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘People would just drop dead. Ibrahim (Abraham), ‘Alayhi al Salam, in his time pleaded before Allah to create a cause for death so the dying person receives rewards and the grieving people find solace. Allah, the Majestic, the Glorious, then sent al-Mum, which is a kind of fever causing hallucination and thereafter He sent medicine.’”



Hadith #2

2ـ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنِ ابْنِ فَضَّالٍ عَنْ عَاصِمِ بْنِ حُمَيْدٍ عَنْ سَعْدِ بْنِ طَرِيفٍ عَنْ أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ (عَلَيْهِ الْسَّلام) قَالَ كَانَ النَّاسُ يَعْتَبِطُونَ اعْتِبَاطاً فَقَالَ إِبْرَاهِيمُ (عَلَيْهِ الْسَّلام) يَا رَبِّ لَوْ جَعَلْتَ لِلْمَوْتِ عِلَّةً يُعْرَفُ بِهَا وَيُسَلَّى عَنِ الْمُصَابِ فَأَنْزَلَ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ الْمُومَ وَهُوَ الْبِرْسَامُ ثُمَّ أَنْزَلَ الدَّاءَ بَعْدَهُ.

2. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Isa from ibn Faddal from ‘Asim ibn Humayd from Sa‘d ibn Tarif who has said the following: “Abu Ja’far, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘People would just drop dead. Ibrahim (Abraham), ‘Alayhi al Salam, pleaded before Allah, ‘Would that You had created a cause for death to be recognized thereby and for grieving people to receive condolence.’ Allah, the Majestic, the Glorious, then sent al-Mum, which is a kind of fever causing hallucination and thereafter He sent medicine.”



Hadith #3

3ـ مُحَمَّدٌ عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ إِسْمَاعِيلَ عَنْ سَعْدَانَ عَنْ عَبْدِ الله بْنِ سِنَانٍ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ الْسَّلام) قَالَ سَمِعْتُهُ يَقُولُ الْحُمَّى رَائِدُ الْمَوْتِ وَهُوَ سِجْنُ الله فِي الأرْضِ وَهُوَ حَظُّ الْمُؤْمِنِ مِنَ النَّارِ.

3. Muhammad has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad from Muhammad ibn Isma’il from Sa‘dan ibn Abd Allah ibn Sinan who has said the following: ‘Alayhi al-Salam, saying: “I heard abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, say that fever is the harbinger of death; it is the prison of Allah on earth and the share of a believing person from the fire.”



Hadith #4

4ـ عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ ابْنِ فَضَّالٍ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ الْحُصَيْنِ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ الْفُضَيْلِ عَنْ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنِ يَزِيدَ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ الْسَّلام) قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ الله (صلّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) مَاتَ دَاوُدُ النَّبِيُّ (عَلَيْهِ الْسَّلام) يَوْمَ السَّبْتِ مَفْجُوءاً فَأَظَلَّتْهُ الطَّيْرُ بِأَجْنِحَتِهَا وَمَاتَ مُوسَى كَلِيمُ الله (عَلَيْهِ الْسَّلام) فِي التِّيهِ فَصَاحَ صَائِحٌ مِنَ السَّمَاءِ مَاتَ مُوسَى (عَلَيْهِ الْسَّلام) وَأَيُّ نَفْسٍ لاَ تَمُوتُ.

4. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from ibn Faddal, from Muhammad ibn al-Husayn from Muhammad ibn al-Fudayl, from Abd al-Rahman ibn Yazid who has said the following: “Abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said that the Messenger of Allah has said, ‘Prophet David died suddenly on a Saturday and birds provided shadow over his body. Moses died in the wilderness where he had lost his way. A voice cried from the sky, “Moses has died! Who is he that does not die?””’



Hadith #5

5ـ عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ سَهْلِ بْنِ زِيَادٍ عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ أَبِي نَصْرٍ وَالْحَسَنِ بْنِ مَحْبُوبٍ عَنْ أَبِي جَمِيلَةَ عَنْ جَابِرٍ عَنْ أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ (عَلَيْهِ الْسَّلام) قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ الله (صلّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) إِنَّ مَوْتَ الْفَجْأَةِ تَخْفِيفٌ عَنِ الْمُؤْمِنِ وَأَخْذَةُ أَسَفٍ عَنِ الْكَافِرِ.

5. A number of our people have narrated from Sahl ibn Ziyad from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn abu Nasr and al-Hassan ibn Mahbub from abu Jamilah from Jabir who has said the following: “Abu Ja’far, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said, ‘The Messenger of Allah has said, ‘A sudden death compensates (for the short comings) of a believing person but it is a regrettable grip for an unbeliever.’”



Hadith #6

6ـ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ أَوْ غَيْرِهِ عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ حَدِيدٍ عَنِ الرِّضَا (عَلَيْهِ الْسَّلام) قَالَ أَكْثَرُ مَنْ يَمُوتُ مِنْ مَوَالِينَا بِالْبَطَنِ الذَّرِيعِ.

6. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad or someone other than him from Ali ibn Hadid from who has said the following: “Al-Rida, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said that most of our followers die from widespread stomach (internal) illness.”



Hadith #7

7ـ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ مُوسَى بْنِ الْحَسَنِ عَنِ الْهَيْثَمِ بْنِ أَبِي مَسْرُوقٍ عَنْ شَيْخٍ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا يُكَنَّى بِأَبِي عَبْدِ الله عَنْ رَجُلٍ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ الْسَّلام) قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ الله (صلّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِه) الْحُمَّى رَائِدُ الْمَوْتِ وَسِجْنُ الله تَعَالَى فِي أَرْضِهِ وَفَوْرُهَا مِنْ جَهَنَّمَ وَهِيَ حَظُّ كُلِّ مُؤْمِنٍ مِنَ النَّارِ.

7. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Musa ibn al-FIassan from al-Haytham ibn al-Masruq from a shaykh of our people called abu ‘Abd Allah from a man who has said the following: “Abu ‘Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said that the Messenger of Allah has said, ‘Fever is a harbinger of death and a prison of Allah on earth. Its heat is from hell and that is the share of a believing person (instead) of hellfire.’”



Hadith #8

8ـ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ الْحُسَيْنِ عَنْ صَفْوَانَ عَنْ مُعَاوِيَةَ بْنِ عَمَّارٍ عَنْ نَاجِيَةَ قَالَ قَالَ أَبُو جَعْفَرٍ (عَلَيْهِ الْسَّلام) إِنَّ الْمُؤْمِنَ يُبْتَلَى بِكُلِّ بَلِيَّةٍ وَيَمُوتُ بِكُلِّ مِيتَةٍ إِلاَّ أَنَّهُ لاَ يَقْتُلُ نَفْسَهُ.

8. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Muhammad ibn al-Husayn from Safwan from Mu‘awiyah ibn ‘Ammar from Najiyah who has said the following: “Abu Ja’far, ‘Alayhi al-Salam has said, ’A believing person may die by any form of death and suffer from any form of suffering; however, he does not kill himself.”’



Hadith #9

9ـ حُمَيْدُ بْنُ زِيَادٍ عَنِ الْحَسَنِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ عَنْ وُهَيْبِ بْنِ حَفْصٍ عَنْ أَبِي بَصِيرٍ قَالَ سَأَلْتُ أَبَا عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ الْسَّلام) عَنْ مِيتَةِ الْمُؤْمِنِ فَقَالَ يَمُوتُ الْمُؤْمِنُ بِكُلِّ مِيتَةٍ يَمُوتُ غَرَقاً وَيَمُوتُ بِالْهَدْمِ وَيُبْتَلَى بِالسَّبُعِ وَيَمُوتُ بِالصَّاعِقَةِ وَلاَ تُصِيبُ ذَاكِرَ الله تَعَالَى.

9. Humayd ibn Ziyad has narrated from al-Hassan ibn Muhammad from Wuhayb ibn Hafs from abu Basir who has said the following: “Once I asked abu ’Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, about the death of a believing person. The Imam said, ‘A believing person may die by any form of death, such as by drowning, or collapse of a house, by beasts or thunderous lightening but not when speaking of Allah.’”



Hadith #10

10ـ عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ سَهْلِ بْنِ زِيَادٍ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ سِنَانٍ عَنْ عُثْمَانَ النَّوَّاءِ عَمَّنْ ذَكَرَهُ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيْهِ الْسَّلام) قَالَ إِنَّ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ يَبْتَلِي الْمُؤْمِنَ بِكُلِّ بَلِيَّةٍ وَيُمِيتُهُ بِكُلِّ مِيتَةٍ وَلاَ يَبْتَلِيهِ بِذَهَابِ عَقْلِهِ أَ مَا تَرَى أَيُّوبَ (عَلَيْهِ الْسَّلام) كَيْفَ سَلَّطَ إِبْلِيسَ عَلَى مَالِهِ وَوُلْدِهِ وَعَلَى أَهْلِهِ وَعَلَى كُلِّ شَيْ‏ءٍ مِنْهُ وَلَمْ يُسَلِّطْهُ عَلَى عَقْلِهِ تَرَكَ لَهُ مَا يُوَحِّدُ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ بِهِ.

10. A number of our people have narrated from Sahl ibn Ziyad from Muhammad ibn Sinan from ‘Uthman al-Nawwa’ from those whom he has mentioned (in his book) who has said the following: “Abu ’Abd Allah, ‘Alayhi al-Salam, has said that Allah, the Majestic, the Glorious, places a believing person under any kind of test and trial and causes him or her to die by any form of death but He does not cause him or her to suffer the loss of reason. Consider the case of prophet Ayyub, how Satan controlled his property, children and family and all things that were his, but not his reason. It remained with him so he could worship thereby and maintain his belief in Allah, the Majestic, the Glorious.”