Maʿānī al-ʾAkhbār > The meaning of the greater pilgrimage and the smaller pilgrimage
Hadith #1

أبي - رحمه الله - قال: حدثنا سعد بن عبد الله، عن يعقوب بن يزيد، عن صفوان بن يحيى، عن ذريح المحاربي، عن أبي عبد الله عليه السلام قال: الحج الأكبر يوم النحر.

1. My father, may Allah grant him mercy, said: We were told by Sa’d bin Abdullah, from Ya’qoub bin Yazid, from Safwan bin Yahya, from Dhuraih al-Muharibi, from Abu Abdillah, peace be upon him, that he said: The greater pilgrimage is the day of slaughter [1].



Hadith #2

حدثنا محمد بن الحسن بن أحمد بن الوليد - رضي الله عنه - قال: حدثنا محمد بن الحسن الصفار، عن أيوب بن نوح، عن صفوان بن يحيى، عن معاوية بن عمار، قال: سألت أبا عبد الله عليه السلام عن يوم الحج الأكبر فقال: هو يوم النحر، والأصغر العمرة.

2. We were told by Muhammed bin Hasan bin Ahmad bin Waleed, may Allah be pleased with him, that he said: We were told by Muhammed bin Hasan al-Saffar, from Ayub bin Nuh, from Safwan bin Yahya, from Mu’awiya bin Ammar, that he said: I asked Abu Abdillah, peace be upon him, about the day of the greater pilgrimage, so he said: It is the day of slaughter, and the smaller one is Umrah.



Hadith #3

أبي - رحمه الله - قال: حدثنا علي بن إبراهيم بن هاشم، عن أبيه، عن عبد الله ابن المغيرة، عن عبد الله بن سنان، عن أبي عبد الله عليه السلام قال: الحج الأكبر يوم الأضحى.

3. My father, may Allah grant him mercy, said: We were told by Ali bin Ibrahim bin Hashim, from his father, from Abdullah ibn Mughaira, from Abdullah bin Sinan, from Abu Abdillah, peace be upon him, that he said: The greater pilgrimage is the Day of Adha.



Hadith #4

أبي - رحمه الله - قال: حدثنا عبد الله بن جعفر الحميري، عن إبراهيم بن مهزيار عن أخيه علي، عن الحسين ، عن حماد بن عيسى، عن شعيب، عن أبي بصير، والنضر، عن ابن سنان، عن أبي عبد الله عليه السلام قال: الحج الأكبر يوم الأضحى.

4. My father, may Allah grant him mercy, said: We were told by Abdullah bin Ja’far al-Himyari, from Ibrahim bin Mahziyar, from his brother, Ali, from Hussain, from Hammad bin Isa, from Shu’ayb, from Abu Baseer, and Nadr, from Ibn Sinan, from Abu Abdillah, peace be upon him, that he said: The greater pilgrimage is the Day of Adha.



Hadith #5

حدثنا أبي - رحمه الله - قال: حدثنا سعد بن عبد الله، عن القاسم بن محمد الأصبهاني، عن سليمان بن داود المنقري، قال: حدثنا فضيل بن عياض، عن أبي عبد الله عليه السلام قال: سألته عن الحج الأكبر، فقال: أعندك فيه شئ؟ فقلت: نعم، كان ابن عباس يقول: الحج الأكبر يوم عرفة يعني أنه من أدرك يوم عرفة إلى طلوع الفجر من يوم النحر فقد أدرك الحج ومن فاته ذلك فاته الحج فجعل ليلة عرفة لما قبلها ولما بعدها، والدليل على ذلك أنه من أدرك ليلة النحر إلى طلوع الفجر فقد أدرك الحج و أجزء عنه من عرفة. فقال أبو عبد الله عليه السلام: قال أمير المؤمنين عليه السلام: الحج الأكبر يوم النحر واحتج بقول الله عز وجل: " فسيحوا في الأرض أربعة أشهر " فهي عشرون من ذي الحجة والمحرم والصفر وشهر ربيع الأول وعشر من شهر ربيع الاخر ولو كان الحج الأكبر يوم عرفة لكان السيح أربعة أشهر ويوما واحتج بقول الله عز وجل: " وأذان من الله ورسوله إلى الناس يوم الحج الأكبر " وكنت أنا الاذان في الناس. فقلت له: ما معنى هذه اللفظة " الحج الأكبر "؟ فقال: إنما سمي الأكبر لأنها كانت سنة حج فيها المسلمون والمشركون ولم يحج المشركون بعد تلك السنة.

5. We were told by my father, may Allah grant him mercy, that he said: We were told by Sa’d bin Abdullah, from Qasem bin Muhammed al-Esbahani, from Sulayman bin Dawud al-Manqari, that he said: We were told by Fudail bin ‘Ayyadh, from Abu Abdillah, peace be upon him, that he said: I asked him about the greater pilgrimage, so he said: Do you have anything about it? I said: Yes. Ibn Abbas used to say: The greater pilgrimage is on the Day of Arafah. He meant that the one who catches up with the Day of Arafah until the rise of the dawn from the day of slaughter, has indeed caught up with the pilgrimage, and that the one who misses that has missed the (completion of the) pilgrimage. Hence, he made the night of Arafah (as a standard) to what is before it and to what is after it. The evidence to that is that the one who catches up with the night of (what is before the day of) sacrifice until the rise of dawn, has indeed caught up with the pilgrimage, and it would suffice to him from (the Day of) Arafah. Abu Abdillah, peace be upon him, said: The Commander of the Believers, peace be upon him, said: The greater pilgrimage is the day of slaughter. He argued with the saying of Allah, Exalted and Glorious is He: «So, travel freely in the land for four months» (9:2) and they are twenty from Dhu’l-Hijjah, Muharram, Safar, the month of Rabi’ul-Awwal, and ten from the month of Rabi’ul-Akhir. If the greater pilgrimage was on the Day of Arafah, the (duration of) free travel would have been four months and one day. Moreover, he argued with the saying of Allah, Exalted and Glorious is He: «And (it is) an announcement from Allah and His Messenger to the people on the day of the greater pilgrimage» (9:2), and I was the announcement among the people. Then I said to him: What is the meaning of this phrase: «the greater pilgrimage»? He said: It was only named the greater pilgrimage because it was a year in which (both) the Muslims and the polytheists performed pilgrimage, and the polytheists did not perform pilgrimage after that year.