23. Qualities of a Believer

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1ـ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنِ الْحَسَنِ بْنِ مَحْبُوبٍ عَنْ جَمِيلِ بْنِ صَالِحٍ عَنْ عَبْدِ الْمَلِكِ بْنِ غَالِبٍ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيهِ السَّلام) قَالَ يَنْبَغِي لِلْمُؤْمِنِ أَنْ يَكُونَ فِيهِ ثَمَانِي خِصَالٍ وَقُوراً عِنْدَ الْهَزَاهِزِ صَبُوراً عِنْدَ الْبَلاءِ شَكُوراً عِنْدَ الرَّخَاءِ قَانِعاً بِمَا رَزَقَهُ الله لا يَظْلِمُ الأعْدَاءَ وَلا يَتَحَامَلُ لِلأصْدِقَاءِ بَدَنُهُ مِنْهُ فِي تَعَبٍ وَالنَّاسُ مِنْهُ فِي رَاحَةٍ إِنَّ الْعِلْمَ خَلِيلُ الْمُؤْمِنِ وَالْحِلْمَ وَزِيرُهُ وَالْعَقْلَ أَمِيرُ جُنُودِهِ وَالرِّفْقَ أَخُوهُ وَالْبِرَّ وَالِدُهُ.


1. Muhammad ibn Yahya has narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn ‘Isa from al-Hassan ibn Mahbub from Jamil ibn Salih from ‘Abd al-Malik ibn Ghalib from abu ‘Abd Allah (a.s.) who has said the following: “A believer should have eight qualities. He is dignified in turbulent times. He is patient in afflicting conditions. He is thankful in prosperous life. He is content with what Allah has granted him. He does not do injustice to the enemies. He does not overburden friends. His own body is tired due to his efforts and people are comfortable with him. Knowledge is a friend of the believer, forbearance is his secretary, reason is the commander-in-chief of his army, kindness is his brother and virtuous deed is his father.”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مجهول - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (7/291)



2ـ عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنِ النَّوْفَلِيِّ عَنِ السَّكُونِيِّ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله عَنْ أَبِيهِ (عَلَيهِ السَّلام) قَالَ قَالَ أَمِيرُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ صَلَوَاتُ الله عَلَيْهِ الإيمَانُ لَهُ أَرْكَانٌ أَرْبَعَةٌ التَّوَكُّلُ عَلَى الله وَتَفْوِيضُ الأمْرِ إِلَى الله وَالرِّضَا بِقَضَاءِ الله وَالتَّسْلِيمُ لأمْرِ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ.


2. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from al-Nawfali form al-Sakuni from abu ‘Abd Allah from his father (a.s.) who has said the following: “Amir al-Mu’minin (Ali ibn abu Talib) (a.s.) has said, ‘Belief has four corner (stones): They are trust in Allah, having Allah as the person in charge of one’s affairs, to agree with the decision of Allah and to submit to the command of Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Holy.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف على المشهور - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (7/293)



3ـ عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ خَالِدٍ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَمَّنْ ذَكَرَهُ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنِ أَبِي لَيْلَى عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيهِ السَّلام) قَالَ إِنَّكُمْ لا تَكُونُونَ صَالِحِينَ حَتَّى تَعْرِفُوا وَلا تَعْرِفُونَ حَتَّى تُصَدِّقُوا وَلا تُصَدِّقُونَ حَتَّى تُسَلِّمُوا أَبْوَاباً أَرْبَعَةً لا يَصْلُحُ أَوَّلُهَا إِلا بِ‏آخِرِهَا ضَلَّ أَصْحَابُ الثَّلاثَةِ وَتَاهُوا تَيْهاً بَعِيداً إِنَّ الله تَبَارَكَ وَتَعَالَى لا يَقْبَلُ إِلا الْعَمَلَ الصَّالِحَ وَلا يَتَقَبَّلُ الله إِلا بِالْوَفَاءِ بِالشُّرُوطِ وَالْعُهُودِ وَمَنْ وَفَى الله بِشُرُوطِهِ وَاسْتَكْمَلَ مَا وَصَفَ فِي عَهْدِهِ نَالَ مَا عِنْدَهُ وَاسْتَكْمَلَ وَعْدَهُ إِنَّ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ أَخْبَرَ الْعِبَادَ بِطَرِيقِ الْهُدَى وَشَرَعَ لَهُمْ فِيهَا الْمَنَارَ وَأَخْبَرَهُمْ كَيْفَ يَسْلُكُونَ فَقَالَ وَإِنِّي لَغَفَّارٌ لِمَنْ تابَ وَآمَنَ وَعَمِلَ صالِحاً ثُمَّ اهْتَدى‏ وَقَالَ إِنَّما يَتَقَبَّلُ الله مِنَ الْمُتَّقِينَ فَمَنِ اتَّقَى الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ فِيمَا أَمَرَهُ لَقِيَ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ مُؤْمِناً بِمَا جَاءَ بِهِ مُحَمَّدٌ (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وآلِه) هَيْهَاتَ هَيْهَاتَ فَاتَ قَوْمٌ وَمَاتُوا قَبْلَ أَنْ يَهْتَدُوا وَظَنُّوا أَنَّهُمْ آمَنُوا وَأَشْرَكُوا مِنْ حَيْثُ لا يَعْلَمُونَ إِنَّهُ مَنْ أَتَى الْبُيُوتَ مِنْ أَبْوَابِهَا اهْتَدَى وَمَنْ أَخَذَ فِي غَيْرِهَا سَلَكَ طَرِيقَ الرَّدَى وَصَلَ الله طَاعَةَ وَلِيِّ أَمْرِهِ بِطَاعَةِ رَسُولِهِ (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وآلِه) وَطَاعَةَ رَسُولِهِ بِطَاعَتِهِ فَمَنْ تَرَكَ طَاعَةَ وُلاةِ الأمْرِ لَمْ يُطِعِ الله وَلا رَسُولَهُ وَهُوَ الإقْرَارُ بِمَا نَزَلَ مِنْ عِنْدِ الله خُذُوا زِينَتَكُمْ عِنْدَ كُلِّ مَسْجِدٍ وَالْتَمِسُوا الْبُيُوتَ الَّتِي أَذِنَ الله أَنْ تُرْفَعَ وَيُذْكَرَ فِيهَا اسْمُهُ فَإِنَّهُ قَدْ خَبَّرَكُمْ أَنَّهُمْ رِجَالٌ لا تُلْهِيهِمْ تِجَارَةٌ وَلا بَيْعٌ عَنْ ذِكْرِ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ وَإِقَامِ الصَّلاةِ وَإِيتَاءِ الزَّكَاةِ يَخَافُونَ يَوْماً تَتَقَلَّبُ فِيهِ الْقُلُوبُ وَالأبْصَارُ إِنَّ الله قَدِ اسْتَخْلَصَ الرُّسُلَ لأمْرِهِ ثُمَّ اسْتَخْلَصَهُمْ مُصَدِّقِينَ لِذَلِكَ فِي نُذُرِهِ فَقَالَ وَإِنْ مِنْ أُمَّةٍ إِلا خَلا فِيها نَذِيرٌ تَاهَ مَنْ جَهِلَ وَاهْتَدَى مَنْ أَبْصَرَ وَعَقَلَ إِنَّ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ يَقُولُ فَإِنَّها لا تَعْمَى الأبْصارُ وَلكِنْ تَعْمَى الْقُلُوبُ الَّتِي فِي الصُّدُورِ وَكَيْفَ يَهْتَدِي مَنْ لَمْ يُبْصِرْ وَكَيْفَ يُبْصِرُ مَنْ لَمْ يُنْذَرْ اتَّبِعُوا رَسُولَ الله (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وآلِه) وَأَقِرُّوا بِمَا نَزَلَ مِنْ عِنْدِ الله وَاتَّبِعُوا آثَارَ الْهُدَى فَإِنَّهُمْ عَلامَاتُ الأمَانَةِ وَالتُّقَى وَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّهُ لَوْ أَنْكَرَ رَجُلٌ عِيسَى ابْنَ مَرْيَمَ (عَلَيهِما السَّلام) وَأَقَرَّ بِمَنْ سِوَاهُ مِنَ الرُّسُلِ لَمْ يُؤْمِنْ اقْتَصُّوا الطَّرِيقَ بِالْتِمَاسِ الْمَنَارِ وَالْتَمِسُوا مِنْ وَرَاءِ الْحُجُبِ الآثَارَ تَسْتَكْمِلُوا أَمْرَ دِينِكُمْ وَتُؤْمِنُوا بِالله رَبِّكُمْ.


3. A number of our people have narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Khalid from his father from those whom he has mentioned from Muhammad ibn ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn abu Layla from his father from abu ‘Abd Allah (a.s.) who has said the following: “You will not become virtuous until you learn, you will not learn until you affirm and you will not affirm until you accept four Chapters, the first of which will be of no benefit without the last one. People of three Chapters have strayed far away. Allah, the Most Blessed, the Most High, does not accept anything but virtuous deeds and Allah does not accept (anything) without loyalty in keeping up with one’s stipulations and covenants. Whoever fulfils his stipulations toward Allah and completes whatever is in one’s covenant, he will find (the reward that is) with Him and He will fulfill His promise. Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Holy, has informed the people of the ways of guidance and has established for it the lighthouse. He has informed them how to behave, saying, ‘I am All-forgiving to the righteously striving believers who repent and follow the right guidance.’ (20:82) Allah has also said, ‘Allah accepts only the offerings of the pious ones.’ (5:27) “Whoever maintains piety before Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Holy, in the matter of His commands he will come in the presence of Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Holy, as a believer in whatever Muhammad (a.s.) has brought from Him. How remote, far away and lost are the people who have died before achieving guidance, and had thought that they were believers. They had considered things as partners of Allah without knowing what they had done. Whoever comes to a house through its door finds proper guidance, and whoever looks for a way other than the door has chosen a condemned path. Allah has joined obedience to His Messenger with obedience to those who possess Divine Authority and the obedience to His Messenger with obedience to His own commands. Therefore, whoever does not obey the people who possess Divine Authority, they have not obeyed Allah and His Messenger and it (obedience to people who possess Divine Authority) is the affirmation of what has come from Allah. Dress up (in piety) before every Mosque. Find the houses through the doors to them, the houses for which Allah has granted permission to be raised high, wherein people speak of Him. He has informed you that in these houses there are men who do not become distracted because of trade and business from speaking of Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Holy, from prayer and paying al-Zakat (charity). These men fear the Day wherein the hearts and eyes undergo turbulent conditions. Allah chose and purified the messengers for His command, then He purified and chose them (people who possess Divine Authority) who are confirmed in His warnings. Allah has said, ‘No nation who lived before was left without a Warner. . . .’ (35:25) “Lost are those who remained ignorant and guided are those who thought and understood. Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Holy, has said, ‘It is not their seeing ability that is blind but it is their hearts which are in their chests.’ (22:46) “How can one who does not think find guidance? How can one who has not received warnings think? Follow the Messenger of Allah, affirm whatever has come from Allah, follow the marks of guidance; they are the signs of trust and piety. You must know that if a man rejects Jesus Christ and acknowledges all the other messengers of Allah, he is not a believer. Find the way through finding the lighthouse and look for the marks from behind the curtains. Strive to perfect the affairs of your religion and believe in Allah your Lord.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: ضعيف - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (294/ 7)



4ـ عَنْهُ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنْ سُلَيْمَانَ الْجَعْفَرِيِّ عَنْ أَبِي الْحَسَنِ الرِّضَا عَنْ أَبِيهِ (عَلَيهِ السَّلام) قَالَ رَفَعَ إِلَى رَسُولِ الله (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وآلِه) قَوْمٌ فِي بَعْضِ غَزَوَاتِهِ فَقَالَ مَنِ الْقَوْمُ فَقَالُوا مُؤْمِنُونَ يَا رَسُولَ الله قَالَ وَمَا بَلَغَ مِنْ إِيمَانِكُمْ قَالُوا الصَّبْرُ عِنْدَ الْبَلاءِ وَالشُّكْرُ عِنْدَ الرَّخَاءِ وَالرِّضَا بِالْقَضَاءِ فَقَالَ رَسُولُ الله (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وآلِه) حُلَمَاءُ عُلَمَاءُ كَادُوا مِنَ الْفِقْهِ أَنْ يَكُونُوا أَنْبِيَاءَ إِنْ كُنْتُمْ كَمَا تَصِفُونَ فَلا تَبْنُوا مَا لا تَسْكُنُونَ وَلا تَجْمَعُوا مَا لا تَأْكُلُونَ وَاتَّقُوا الله الَّذِي إِلَيْهِ تُرْجَعُونَ.


4. It is narrated from him from his father from Sulayman al-Ja’fary from abu al- Hassan al-Rida from his father (a.s.) who has said the following: “A people came to the Messenger of Allah during one of the armed expeditions and he asked who are these people? They said, ‘Believers, O Messenger of Allah.’ He then asked, ‘What is the degree of your belief?’ They replied, ‘It is patience in hardships, thankfulness in prosperous life and agreement with the decision of Allah.’ The Messenger of Allah then said, ‘These are forbearing and knowledgeable people. Their understanding is almost to the degree of the prophets. If you really are what you say you are, do not build what you will not use for dwelling, do not accumulate what you will not eat and be pious before Allah to whom you will return.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: صحيح - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (297/ 7)