12. On the Shari’ a (System of Laws)

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1ـ عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ أَبِي نَصْرٍ وَعِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ خَالِدٍ عَنْ إِبْرَاهِيمَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ الثَّقَفِيِّ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ مَرْوَانَ جَمِيعاً عَنْ أَبَانِ بْنِ عُثْمَانَ عَمَّنْ ذَكَرَهُ عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيهِ السَّلام) قَالَ إِنَّ الله تَبَارَكَ وَتَعَالَى أَعْطَى مُحَمَّداً (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وآلِه) شَرَائِعَ نُوحٍ وَإِبْرَاهِيمَ وَمُوسَى وَعِيسَى (عَلَيهِ السَّلام) التَّوْحِيدَ وَالإخْلاصَ وَخَلْعَ الأنْدَادِ وَالْفِطْرَةَ الْحَنِيفِيَّةَ السَّمْحَةَ وَلا رَهْبَانِيَّةَ وَلا سِيَاحَةَ أَحَلَّ فِيهَا الطَّيِّبَاتِ وَحَرَّمَ فِيهَا الْخَبَائِثَ وَوَضَعَ عَنْهُمْ إِصْرَهُمْ وَالأغْلالَ الَّتِي كَانَتْ عَلَيْهِمْ ثُمَّ افْتَرَضَ عَلَيْهِ فِيهَا الصَّلاةَ وَالزَّكَاةَ وَالصِّيَامَ وَالْحَجَّ وَالأمْرَ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَالنَّهْيَ عَنِ الْمُنْكَرِ وَالْحَلالَ وَالْحَرَامَ وَالْمَوَارِيثَ وَالْحُدُودَ وَالْفَرَائِضَ وَالْجِهَادَ فِي سَبِيلِ الله وَزَادَهُ الْوُضُوءَ وَفَضَّلَهُ بِفَاتِحَةِ الْكِتَابِ وَبِخَوَاتِيمِ سُورَةِ الْبَقَرَةِ وَالْمُفَصَّلِ وَأَحَلَّ لَهُ الْمَغْنَمَ وَالْفَيْ‏ءَ وَنَصَرَهُ بِالرُّعْبِ وَجَعَلَ لَهُ الأرْضَ مَسْجِداً وَطَهُوراً وَأَرْسَلَهُ كَافَّةً إِلَى الأبْيَضِ وَالأسْوَدِ وَالْجِنِّ وَالإنْسِ وَأَعْطَاهُ الْجِزْيَةَ وَأَسْرَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ وَفِدَاهُمْ ثُمَّ كُلِّفَ مَا لَمْ يُكَلَّفْ أَحَدٌ مِنَ الأنْبِيَاءِ وَأُنْزِلَ عَلَيْهِ سَيْفٌ مِنَ السَّمَاءِ فِي غَيْرِ غِمْدٍ وَقِيلَ لَهُ فَقاتِلْ فِي سَبِيلِ الله لا تُكَلَّفُ إِلا نَفْسَكَ.


1. Ali ibn Ibrahim has narrated from his father from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn abu Nasr. And a number of our people from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Khalid from Ibrahim ibn Muhammad al-Thaqafi from Muhammad ibn Marwan all of them have narrated from Aban ibn ‘Uthman from those whom he has mentioned from abu ‘Abd Allah (a.s.) who has said the following: “Allah, the Most Blessed, the Most High, granted to Muhammad (a.s.) the system of laws of Noah, Abraham, Moses and Jesus, peace be upon them. The laws consisted of belief in monotheism, purity of such belief, the negation of all associates of Allah and the culture, that it is free and clean of idolatry, that it is easy to follow and that it does not allow total abandonment of the worldly life or total indulgence in it. He has made lawful in such a system of laws all that is good and clean and has made unlawful all that is filthy. Through such system He has removed all hardships and obstacles that were imposed on them (people). He then made it necessary for them, in such system of laws, to perform prayers, pay the charity ( Zakat ), complete the Fasting, and perform Hajj. And that they must fulfill their duty in the matters of virtue and vices (ask others to perform their duties and not to commit sins). And that they must follow the rules of lawful and unlawful matters, the rules of inheritance, penalties and compensations for losses and the obligations and the duty of Jihad (defending the faith) in the way of Allah. He has made Wuzu an additional obligation. He has granted him (the Holy Prophet) (a.s.) distinction through the following revelations: the first Chapter of the Holy Quran and the last verses of Chapter Two of the Holy Quran as well as the detailed Chapters from Chapter 47 to the end of the Holy Quran. He made lawful for Prophet Muhammad (a.s.) the spoils of war and the land given to him without resistance. He supported him by giving him an awesome personality, made for him the earth to use in performing prostration before the Lord and to use it to clean himself. He was sent to all human beings, black and white, and to all Jinns. He granted him authority to receive taxes. He helped him to capture the pagans and then set them free on being ransomed. Then he imposed on him such duties that were not imposed on the prophets before. He sent down to him from heaven an unsheathed sword. He was told, ‘Fight for the cause of Allah and do not hold anyone responsible besides your ownself. ’” (4:84)


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: مرسل - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (7/89)



2ـ عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ خَالِدٍ عَنْ عُثْمَانَ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ سَمَاعَةَ بْنِ مِهْرَانَ قَالَ قُلْتُ لأبِي عَبْدِ الله (عَلَيهِ السَّلام) قَوْلَ الله عَزَّ وَجَلَّ فَاصْبِرْ كَما صَبَرَ أُولُوا الْعَزْمِ مِنَ الرُّسُلِ فَقَالَ نُوحٌ وَإِبْرَاهِيمُ وَمُوسَى وَعِيسَى وَمُحَمَّدٌ (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وآلِه) قُلْتُ كَيْفَ صَارُوا أُولِي الْعَزْمِ قَالَ لأنَّ نُوحاً بُعِثَ بِكِتَابٍ وَشَرِيعَةٍ وَكُلُّ مَنْ جَاءَ بَعْدَ نُوحٍ أَخَذَ بِكِتَابِ نُوحٍ وَشَرِيعَتِهِ وَمِنْهَاجِهِ حَتَّى جَاءَ إِبْرَاهِيمُ (عَلَيهِ السَّلام) بِالصُّحُفِ وَبِعَزِيمَةِ تَرْكِ كِتَابِ نُوحٍ لا كُفْراً بِهِ فَكُلُّ نَبِيٍّ جَاءَ بَعْدَ إِبْرَاهِيمَ (عَلَيهِ السَّلام) أَخَذَ بِشَرِيعَةِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَمِنْهَاجِهِ وَبِالصُّحُفِ حَتَّى جَاءَ مُوسَى بِالتَّوْرَاةِ وَشَرِيعَتِهِ وَمِنْهَاجِهِ وَبِعَزِيمَةِ تَرْكِ الصُّحُفِ وَكُلُّ نَبِيٍّ جَاءَ بَعْدَ مُوسَى (عَلَيهِ السَّلام) أَخَذَ بِالتَّوْرَاةِ وَشَرِيعَتِهِ وَمِنْهَاجِهِ حَتَّى جَاءَ الْمَسِيحُ (عَلَيهِ السَّلام) بِالإنْجِيلِ وَبِعَزِيمَةِ تَرْكِ شَرِيعَةِ مُوسَى وَمِنْهَاجِهِ فَكُلُّ نَبِيٍّ جَاءَ بَعْدَ الْمَسِيحِ أَخَذَ بِشَرِيعَتِهِ وَمِنْهَاجِهِ حَتَّى جَاءَ مُحَمَّدٌ (صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وآلِه) فَجَاءَ بِالْقُرْآنِ وَبِشَرِيعَتِهِ وَمِنْهَاجِهِ فَحَلالُهُ حَلالٌ إِلَى يَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ وَحَرَامُهُ حَرَامٌ إِلَى يَوْمِ الْقِيَامَةِ فَهَؤُلاءِ أُولُو الْعَزْمِ مِنَ الرُّسُلِ (عَلَيهِم السَّلام).


2. A number of our people have narrated from Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Khalid from ‘Uthman ibn ’Isa from Sama’a ibn Mahran who has reported the following: “Once I asked abu ‘Abd Allah (a.s.) about the words of Allah, the Most Majestic, the Most Holy, ‘Exercise patience as the messengers who possessed determination had exercised patience. . . . ’(46:35) The Imam said, ‘They were Noah, Abraham, Moses, Jesus and Muhammad, recipient of divine supreme covenant.’ I then asked, ‘How did they become messengers who possessed great determination?’ The Imam replied, ‘It was because Noah had received a book from Allah and a system of laws and those who came after Noah, they followed his book and his system of laws until Abraham came with books and firm determination. He left the book of Noah aside but not out of rejection. Thereafter every prophet followed the system of laws of Abraham and his books (al-Suhuf) until Moses came with the Torah, his system of laws and with firm determination. He left the books (al-Suhuf) aside. Every prophet thereafter followed the Torah and the system of laws of Moses until Jesus came with the Gospel and firm determination. He left aside the system of laws of Moses. Every prophet thereafter followed the system of laws of Jesus until Prophet Muhammad (a.s.) came. He brought the Holy Quran and his system of laws (the Shari’a). All that is lawful in his system of laws will remain lawful until the Day of Judgment and all that is unlawful in his system of laws will remain unlawful until the Day of Judgment. This is how the messengers who possessed firm determination have been.’”


Grading:

Allamah Baqir al-Majlisi: موثق - Mir‘at al ‘Uqul Fi Sharh Akhbar Al al Rasul (98/ 7)